List of all:


* A polity is defined as an independent political unit. Kinds of polities range from villages (local communities) through simple and complex chiefdoms to states and empires. A polity can be either centralized or not (e.g., organized as a confederation). For those periods when a region is divided up among a multitude of small-scale polities (e.g., independent villages or even many small chiefdoms) or when it is controlled in quick succession by a number of different regimes, we use the concept of 'quasi-polity'.
447/840    53 %
528/840    63 %
506/840    60 %
373/840    44 %
463/840    55 %
323/840    38 %
183/840    22 %
255/840    30 %


Western Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Beaker Culture fr_beaker_eba FrBeakr D G SC WF HS 3200 BCE 2000 BCE    
  Atlantic Complex fr_atlantic_complex FrAtlBA D G SC WF RT HS 2200 BCE 1000 BCE    
  Hallstatt A-B1 fr_hallstatt_a_b1 FrHallA D G SC WF RT HS 1000 BCE 900 BCE    
  Hallstatt B2-3 fr_hallstatt_b2_3 FrHallB D G SC WF RT HS 900 BCE 700 BCE    
  Hallstatt C fr_hallstatt_c FrHallC D G SC WF RT HS 700 BCE 600 BCE    
  Hallstatt D fr_hallstatt_d FrHallD D G SC WF RT HS 600 BCE 475 BCE    
  La Tene A-B1 fr_la_tene_a_b1 FrTeneA D G SC WF RT HS 475 BCE 325 BCE    
  La Tene B2-C1 fr_la_tene_b2_c1 FrTeneB D G SC WF RT HS 325 BCE 175 BCE    
  La Tene C2-D fr_la_tene_c2_d FrTeneC D G SC WF RT HS 175 BCE 27 BCE    
  Anglo-Saxon England I gb_anglo_saxon_1 gb_anglo_saxon D G SC PT 410 CE 926 CE    
  Brythonic Kingdoms gb_brythonic_k D 410 CE 1283 CE    
  Kingdom of the Burgundians fr_burgundian_k 411 CE 534 CE    
  Early Merovingian fr_merovingian_emp_1 FrMervE D G SC WF RT HS PT 481 CE 543 CE    
  Dál Riata gb_dal_riata 498 CE 899 CE    
  Middle Merovingian fr_merovingian_emp_2 FrMervM D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 543 CE 687 CE    
  Duchy of Aquitaine I fr_aquitaine_duc_1 FrAquit 602 CE 768 CE    
  Proto-Carolingian fr_merovingian_emp_3 FrMervL D G SC WF RT HS PT 687 CE 751 CE    
  Carolingian Empire I fr_carolingian_emp_1 FrCarlE D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 752 CE 840 CE    
  Carolingian Empire II fr_carolingian_emp_2 FrCarlL D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 840 CE 987 CE    
  Danelaw gb_danelaw 878 CE 954 CE    
  Duchy of Aquitaine II fr_aquitania_duc_2 893 CE 1137 CE    
  Kingdom of Alba gb_alba_k 900 CE 1286 CE    
  Anglo-Saxon England II gb_anglo_saxon_2 gb_england_k D G SC CC 927 CE 1065 CE    
  Kingdom of Arles fr_arles_k 933 CE 1006 CE    
  Proto-French Kingdom fr_capetian_k_1 FrCaptE D G SC WF RT HS PT 987 CE 1150 CE    
  Norman England gb_england_norman G PT 1066 CE 1153 CE    
  French Kingdom - Late Capetian fr_capetian_k_2 FrCaptL D G SC WF RT HS PT 1150 CE 1328 CE    
  Plantagenet England gb_england_plantagenet D G SC CC PT 1154 CE 1485 CE    
  French Kingdom - Early Valois fr_valois_k_1 FrValoE D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1328 CE 1450 CE    
  French Kingdom - Late Valois fr_valois_k_2 FrValoL D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1450 CE 1589 CE    
  Tudor and Early Stuart England gb_england_tudor_and_early_stuart GBEnglK D G SC CC PT 1486 CE 1689 CE    
  French Kingdom - Early Bourbon fr_bourbon_k_1 FrBurbE D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1589 CE 1660 CE    
  French Kingdom - Late Bourbon fr_bourbon_k_2 FrBurbL D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1660 CE 1815 CE    
  British Empire I gb_british_emp_1 D G SC RT PT 1690 CE 1849 CE    
  Napoleonic France fr_france_napoleonic D G SC CC PT 1816 CE 1870 CE    
  British Empire IIIIIIIIII gb_british_emp_222222 D G SC 1850 CE 1968 CE    
  British Empire II gb_british_emp_2 GbEmpr2 D G SC WF RT CC PT 1850 CE 1968 CE    
  Modern France I fr_france_modern_1 1871 CE 1940 CE    
  Republic of Ireland ei_ireland_rep 1922 CE 2020 CE    

Southern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Latium - Copper Age it_latium_ca ItLatCA D G SC WF RT HS 3600 BCE 1800 BCE    
  Latium - Bronze Age it_latium_ba ItLatBA D G SC WF RT HS 1800 BCE 900 BCE    
  Latium - Iron Age it_latium_ia ItLatIA D G SC WF RT HS 1000 BCE 580 BCE    
  Roman Kingdom it_roman_k ItRomRg D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 716 BCE 509 BCE    
  Early Roman Republic it_roman_rep_1 ItRomER D G SC WF RT HS CC 509 BCE 264 BCE    
  Middle Roman Republic it_roman_rep_2 ItRomMR D G SC WF RT HS CC 264 BCE 133 BCE    
  Late Roman Republic it_roman_rep_3 ItRomLR D G SC WF RT HS CC 133 BCE 31 BCE    
  Roman Empire - Principate it_roman_principate ItRomPr D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 31 BCE 284 CE    
  Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity it_western_roman_emp ItRomWe D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 395 CE 476 CE    
  Kingdom of the Suebi pt_suebi_k 409 CE 584 CE    
  Visigothic Kingdom es_visigothic_k EsVisigoth 418 CE 711 CE    
  Italian Kingdom Late Antiquity it_italy_k ItRomLA PT 476 CE 489 CE    
  Ostrogothic Kingdom it_ostrogoth_k ItOstrg D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 489 CE 554 CE    
  Exarchate of Ravenna it_ravenna_exarchate ItRav** D G SC WF HS PT 568 CE 751 CE    
  Lombard Kingdom it_lombard_k ItLombr D G SC CC PT 568 CE 774 CE    
  Republic of St Peter I it_st_peter_rep_1 ItStPet D G SC WF RT HS PT 711 CE 904 CE    
  Kingdom of Asturias es_asturias_k 718 CE 924 CE    
  Emirate of Córdoba es_cordoba_emirate 756 CE 928 CE    
  Rome - Republic of St Peter II it_st_peter_rep_2 ItPapEM D G SC WF RT HS PT 904 CE 1198 CE    
  Leon es_leon_k EsLeon 910 CE 1158 CE    
  Kingdom of Galicia es_galicia_k 911 CE 1111 CE    
  Cordoba Caliphate es_cordoba_cal EsCordo 929 CE 1031 CE    
  Taifas of Iberia es_taifas 1010 CE 1241 CE    
  Aragon Kingdom es_aragon_k EsAragn 1035 CE 1163 CE    
  Castile Kingdom es_castile_k EsCastil 1065 CE 1230 CE    
  Norman Sicily it_sicily_k_1 1071 CE 1193 CE    
  Republic of Genoa I it_genoa_rep_1 1099 CE 1284 CE    
  Republic and Duchy of Florence it_florence_rep 1115 CE 1568 CE    
  Kingdom of Portugal pt_portugal_k 1139 CE 1494 CE    
  Crown of Aragon es_aragon_crown G 1164 CE 1515 CE    
  Kingdom of Sicily - Hohenstaufen and Angevin dynasties it_sicily_k_2 ItSicilK G 1194 CE 1281 CE    
  Papal States - High Medieval Period it_papal_state_1 ItPapHM D G SC WF RT HS 1198 CE 1309 CE    
  Republic of Venice III it_venetian_rep_3 ItVenR3 G SC WF RT HS PT 1204 CE 1563 CE    
  Leon & Castille es_leon_castille EsLeCas 1230 CE 1715 CE    
  Crown of Castile es_castile_crown 1231 CE 1515 CE    
  Kingdom of Naples it_naples_k 1282 CE 1442 CE    
  Republic of Genoa II it_genoa_rep_2 1285 CE 1528 CE    
  Italian Republic Restoration Period it_republic_restoration PT 1309 CE 1378 CE    
  Papal States - Renaissance Period it_papal_state_2 ItPapRn D G SC WF RT HS PT 1378 CE 1527 CE    
  Duchy of Milan I it_milan_duc_1 1395 CE 1498 CE    
  Portuguese Empire - Renaissance Period pt_portuguese_emp_1 RT PT 1495 CE 1579 CE    
  Duchy of Milan II it_milan_duc_2 1499 CE 1796 CE    
  Spanish Empire I es_spanish_emp_1 EsHabsb D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1516 CE 1715 CE    
  Papal States - Medieval Period I it_papal_state_3 ItPapM1 D G SC WF RT HS PT 1527 CE 1648 CE    
  Republic of Genoa III it_genoa_rep_3 1529 CE 1797 CE    
  Republic of Venice IV it_venetian_rep_4 ItVenR4 G SC WF RT PT 1564 CE 1797 CE    
  Grand Duchy of Tuscany it_tuscany_grand_duc 1569 CE 1860 CE    
  Portuguese Empire - Early Modern pt_portuguese_emp_2 RT PT 1640 CE 1806 CE    
  Papal States - Medieval Period II it_papal_state_4 ItPapM2 D G SC WF RT HS PT 1648 CE 1809 CE    
  Spanish Empire II es_spanish_emp_2 G SC CC PT 1716 CE 1814 CE    
  Spanish Empire III es_spanish_emp_3 1815 CE 1931 CE    
  Late Dutch Empire nl_dutch_emp_2 RT 1815 CE 1940 CE    
  Kingdom of the Two Sicilies it_two_sicilies_k 1816 CE 1861 CE    
  Kingdom of Italy it_italian_k 1861 CE 1946 CE    

Northern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Viking settlements dk_viking_settlements D 793 CE 1000 CE    
  Kingdom of Norway I no_norway_k_1 872 CE 1261 CE    
  Icelandic Commonwealth is_icelandic_commonwealth IsCommw D G SC WF RT HS CC 930 CE 1262 CE    
  Kingdom of Denmark - Medieval dk_danish_k G 936 CE 1396 CE    
  Kingdom of Sweden I sv_swedish_k_1 G 980 CE 1396 CE    
  Kingdom of Norway II no_norway_k_2 NorKing D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1262 CE 1396 CE    
  Kalmar Union sv_kalmar_union SeKalma 1397 CE 1523 CE    
  Kingdom of Sweden II sv_swedish_k_2 SeSwedi 1524 CE 1610 CE    
  Denmark-Norway dk_denmark_norway 1524 CE 1814 CE    
  Swedish Empire sv_swedish_emp 1611 CE 1814 CE    
  Danish Empire dk_danish_emp_modern 1815 CE 1940 CE    
  United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway sv_united_k_sweden_and_norway 1816 CE 1905 CE    
  Kingdom of Norway - Modern no_norway_k_modern 1905 CE 1940 CE    
  Kingdom of Sweden sv_sweden_k_modern 1906 CE 2020 CE    
  Republic of Finland su_finland_rep 1917 CE 2020 CE    
  Kingdom of Denmark - Modern dk_danish_k_modern 1946 CE 2020 CE    

Central Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Kingdom of the Huns hu_hun_k HuKHuns D G SC CC 376 CE 469 CE    
  Avar Khaganate hu_avar_khaganate HuAvarK 586 CE 822 CE    
  Samo's Empire cz_samo_emp 623 CE 658 CE    
  Great Moravia cz_moravia_k 820 CE 907 CE    
  East Francia de_east_francia D G PT 842 CE 919 CE    
  Principality of Hungary hu_hungary_principality 895 CE 999 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty de_empire_1 D G SC CC PT 919 CE 1125 CE    
  Polish Kingdom - Piast Dynasty pl_piast_dyn_1 PlPoliK D G PT 963 CE 1138 CE    
  Hungary Kingdom - Árpád Dynasty hu_arpad_dyn D G PT 1000 CE 1301 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen and Welf Dynasties de_empire_2 D G SC CC PT 1126 CE 1254 CE    
  Polish Kingdom - Piast Dynasty Fragmented Period pl_piast_dyn_2 D G PT 1139 CE 1370 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen Faction de_empire_2_sub D G CC PT 1198 CE 1215 CE    
  Kingdom of Bohemia - Přemyslid Dynasty cz_bohemian_k_1 D G PT 1198 CE 1309 CE    
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania lt_lithuania_grand_duc 1220 CE 1385 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Fragmented Period de_empire_3 D G CC PT 1255 CE 1453 CE    
  State of the Teutonic Order pl_teutonic_order PlTeuton D G PT 1300 CE 1400 CE    
  Hungary Kingdom - Anjou and Later Dynasties hu_later_dyn D G PT 1302 CE 1526 CE    
  Kingdom of Bohemia - Luxembourgian and Jagiellonian Dynasty cz_bohemian_k_2 D G SC CC PT 1310 CE 1526 CE    
  Old Swiss Confederacy ch_swiss_conf_1 G 1315 CE 1515 CE    
  Poland-Lithuania Kingdom pl_jagiellonian_dyn PlPoLit G PT 1386 CE 1569 CE    
  Electorate of Brandenburg de_hohenzollern_1 de_brandenburg_1 D G PT 1415 CE 1618 CE    
  Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I at_habsburg_1 D G SC CC PT 1454 CE 1648 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Minor Imperial States I de_empire_minor_1 1454 CE 1648 CE    
  Swiss Confederation - early modern period ch_swiss_conf_2 1516 CE 1798 CE    
  Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth pl_poland_lithuania_commonwealth PT 1570 CE 1791 CE    
  Brandenburg-Prussia de_hohenzollern_2 de_brandenburg_2 D G PT 1618 CE 1870 CE    
  Electorate of Bavaria de_bavaria_1 D G PT 1623 CE 1806 CE    
  Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II at_habsburg_2 D G SC CC PT 1649 CE 1918 CE    
  Holy Roman Empire - Minor Imperial States II de_empire_minor_2 1649 CE 1806 CE    
  Swiss Confederation - Napoleonic period ch_swiss_conf_3 1799 CE 1848 CE    
  Swiss Confederation - modern period ch_swiss_conf_4 1849 CE 2014 CE    
  Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at_austro_hungarian_emp D G SC 1867 CE 1918 CE    
  Germany - Hohenzollern Dynasty de_hohenzollern_3 G 1871 CE 1918 CE    
  Interwar Austria at_interwar_austria PT 1918 CE 1938 CE    
  Weimar Republic de_weimar_rep 1918 CE 1932 CE    
  Republic of Poland I pl_polish_rep_1 1919 CE 1939 CE    
  Czechoslovakia cz_czechoslovakia 1919 CE 1992 CE    
  Nazi Germany de_ns_germany de_third_reich PT 1933 CE 1945 CE    
  Second Austrian Republic at_austrian_rep_2 1945 CE 2020 CE    
  Polish People's Republic pl_polish_peoples_rep 1953 CE 1989 CE    
  Czech Republic cz_czech_rep 1993 CE 2020 CE    

Southeastern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Neolithic Crete gr_crete_nl GrCrNeo D G SC WF RT HS 7000 BCE 3000 BCE    
  Prepalatial Crete gr_crete_pre_palace GrCrPre D G SC WF RT HS 3000 BCE 1900 BCE    
  The Old Palace Crete gr_crete_old_palace GrCrOPa D G SC WF RT HS 1900 BCE 1700 BCE    
  New Palace Crete gr_crete_new_palace GrCrNPa D G SC WF RT HS 1700 BCE 1450 BCE    
  Monopalatial Crete gr_crete_mono_palace GrCrMPa D G SC WF RT HS 1450 BCE 1300 BCE    
  Postpalatial Crete gr_crete_post_palace_1 GrCrPPa D G SC WF RT HS 1300 BCE 1200 BCE    
  Final Postpalatial Crete gr_crete_post_palace_2 GrCrFPa D G SC WF RT HS 1200 BCE 1000 BCE    
  Geometric Crete gr_crete_geometric GrCrGeo D G SC WF RT HS 1000 BCE 710 BCE    
  Archaic Crete gr_crete_archaic GrCrArc D G SC WF RT HS 710 BCE 500 BCE    
  Classical Crete gr_crete_classical GrCrCls D G SC WF HS CC 500 BCE 323 BCE    
  Macedonian Empire gr_macedonian_emp GrMaced RT HS CC PT 330 BCE 312 BCE    
  Hellenistic Crete gr_crete_hellenistic GrCrHel D G SC WF RT HS CC 323 BCE 69 BCE    
  Kingdom of the Gepids rs_gepid_k 454 CE 567 CE    
  Bulgaria - Early bg_bulgaria_early BgErBlg 681 CE 864 CE    
  Duchy and Kingdom of Croatia hr_croatia_k 790 CE 1102 CE    
  The Emirate of Crete gr_crete_emirate GrCrEmr D G SC WF RT HS 824 CE 961 CE    
  Bulgaria - Middle bg_bulgaria_medieval BgMdBlg 865 CE 1018 CE    
  Volga Kingdom bg_volga_k BgVolga 965 CE 1236 CE    
  Grand Principality, Kingdom and Serbian Empire rs_serbia_k 1091 CE 1371 CE    
  Banate of Bosnia ba_bosnia_banate 1154 CE 1376 CE    
  Kingdom of Cyprus cy_cyprus_k 1192 CE 1489 CE    
  Principality of Achaea gr_achaea_principality 1204 CE 1432 CE    
  Despotate of Epirus gr_epirus_despot 1205 CE 1479 CE    
  Kingdom of Bosnia ba_bosnia_k 1377 CE 1463 CE    
  Yugoslavia sr_yugoslavia 1944 CE 1992 CE    

Eastern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Third Scythian Kingdom ua_skythian_k_3 UaSky3K CC 429 BCE 225 BCE    
  Kievan Rus ua_kievan_rus UaKiev1 CC PT 880 CE 1242 CE    
  Novgorod Land ru_novgorod_land RuNovPr 880 CE 1240 CE    
  Principality of Ryazan ru_ryazan_principality RuRyazan 1097 CE 1521 CE    
  Russian Principate ua_russian_principate UaRusPr 1133 CE 1240 CE    
  Novgorod Republic ru_novgorod_rep RuNovRp 1135 CE 1478 CE    
  Vladimir-Suzdal ru_vladimir_suzdal RuVldSz 1157 CE 1331 CE    
  Galicia-Volhynia Principality ua_galicia_volhynia_principality UaGalicia 1199 CE 1349 CE    
  Grand Principality of Moscow, Mongolian period ru_moskva_mongolian_period CC PT 1240 CE 1479 CE    
  Principality of Wallachia ro_wallachia_principality ro_wallachia_k 1330 CE 1859 CE    
  Principality of Moldavia I md_moldavia_principality_1 1346 CE 1503 CE    
  Grand Principality of Moscow, Rurikid Dynasty ru_moskva_rurik_dyn RuMoskva CC PT 1480 CE 1613 CE    
  Principality of Moldavia II md_moldavia_principality_2 1504 CE 1710 CE    
  Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty I ru_romanov_dyn_1 G SC PT 1614 CE 1775 CE    
  Principality of Moldavia III md_moldavia_principality_3 1711 CE 1859 CE    
  Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II ru_romanov_dyn_2 G SC CC PT 1776 CE 1917 CE    
  Soviet Union ru_soviet_union G SC CC PT 1918 CE 1991 CE    


Maghreb (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Carthage Empire tn_carthage_emp TnCarth 814 BCE 146 BCE    
  Numidia dz_numidia DzNumid 220 BCE 46 BCE    
  Vandal Kingdom dz_vandal_k DzVandal 429 CE 534 CE    
  Tahert dz_tahert DzTahrt 761 CE 909 CE    
  Idrisids ma_idrisid_dyn MaIdris 789 CE 917 CE    
  Aghlabid Dynasty tn_aghlabid_dyn 800 CE 908 CE    
  Zirids tn_zirid_dyn TnZirid 973 CE 1148 CE    
  Almoravids ma_almoravid_dyn MaAlmor RT 1035 CE 1150 CE    
  Almohad Empire ma_almohad_emp MaAlmoh 1123 CE 1248 CE    
  Banu Ghaniya ib_banu_ghaniya IbBnGhn 1126 CE 1227 CE    
  Hafsid Dynasty tn_hafsid_dyn TnHafsid 1227 CE 1452 CE    
  Tlemcen dz_tlemcen DzTlmcn 1235 CE 1554 CE    
  Marinid Dynasty ma_marinid_dyn MaMarinid 1269 CE 1465 CE    
  Wattasid ma_wattasid_dyn MaWaFez 1465 CE 1554 CE    
  Alaouite Dynasty I mo_alawi_dyn_1 D G SC CC 1631 CE 1727 CE    
  Alawi Dynasty mo_alawi_dyn_2 CC 1728 CE 1912 CE    
  Republic of Tunisia tn_tunisia_rep 1956 CE 2020 CE    

Northeast Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Badarian eg_badarian EgBadar D G SC WF RT HS 4400 BCE 3800 BCE    
  Naqada I eg_naqada_1 EgNaqa1 D G SC WF RT HS 3800 BCE 3550 BCE    
  Naqada II eg_naqada_2 EgNaqa2 D G SC WF RT HS 3550 BCE 3300 BCE    
  Egypt - Dynasty 0 eg_naqada_3 EgNaqa3 D G SC WF RT HS 3300 BCE 3100 BCE    
  Egypt - Dynasty I eg_dynasty_1 EgDyn1* D G SC WF RT HS 3100 BCE 2900 BCE    
  Egypt - Dynasty II eg_dynasty_2 EgDyn2* D G SC WF RT HS 2900 BCE 2687 BCE    
  Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom eg_old_k_1 EgOldK1 D G SC WF RT HS PT 2650 BCE 2350 BCE    
  Egypt - Late Old Kingdom eg_old_k_2 EgOldK2 D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 2350 BCE 2150 BCE    
  Egypt - Period of the Regions eg_regions EgRegns D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 2150 BCE 2016 BCE    
  Egypt - Middle Kingdom eg_middle_k EgMidKg D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 2016 BCE 1700 BCE    
  Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period eg_thebes_hyksos EgThebH D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1720 BCE 1567 BCE    
  Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period eg_new_k_1 EgNKThu D G SC WF RT HS PT 1550 BCE 1293 BCE    
  Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period eg_new_k_2 EgNKRam D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1293 BCE 1070 BCE    
  Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period eg_thebes_libyan EgThebL D G SC WF RT HS CC 1069 BCE 747 BCE    
  Egypt - Kushite Period eg_kushite SdKusht D G SC WF RT HS CC 747 BCE 656 BCE    
  Kush Kingdom sd_kush_k SdKush 747 BCE 656 BCE    
  Egypt - Saite Period eg_saite EgSaite D G SC WF RT HS CC 664 BCE 525 BCE    
  Meroe sd_meroe Meroe 600 BCE 300 BCE    
  Egypt - Inter-Occupation Period eg_inter_occupation EgIntOc D G SC WF RT HS 404 BCE 342 BCE    
  Ptolemaic Kingdom I eg_ptolemaic_k_1 EgPtol1 D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 305 BCE 217 BCE    
  Ptolemaic Kingdom II eg_ptolemaic_k_2 EgPtol2 D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 217 BCE 30 BCE    
  Makuria Kingdom I sd_makuria_k_1 SdMakur1 568 CE 618 CE    
  Alodia Kingdom sd_alodia SdAlodia 600 CE 1504 CE    
  Makuria Kingdom II sd_makuria_k_2 SdMakur2 619 CE 849 CE    
  Makuria Kingdom III sd_makuria_k_3 SdMakur3 850 CE 1099 CE    
  Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period eg_thulunid_ikhshidid EgTulIk D G SC WF RT HS 868 CE 969 CE    
  Fatimid Caliphate tn_fatimid_cal TnFatim D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 909 CE 1171 CE    
  Ayyubid Sultanate eg_ayyubid_sultanate EgAyyub D G SC WF RT HS CC 1171 CE 1250 CE    
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I eg_mamluk_sultanate_1 EgMamBh D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1260 CE 1348 CE    
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II eg_mamluk_sultanate_2 EgMamCP D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1348 CE 1412 CE    
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III eg_mamluk_sultanate_3 EgMamBu D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1412 CE 1517 CE    
  Republic of Egypt eg_egypt_rep 1959 CE 2020 CE    

Sahel (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Mauretania ma_mauretania MaKgMau 125 BCE 44 CE    
  Kanem Empire td_kanem TdKanem RT 850 CE 1380 CE    
  Zayyanid Berber Kingdom dz_zayyanid_dyn DzBrbZy 1235 CE 1509 CE    
  Songhai Empire ml_songhai_1 MlSong1 1376 CE 1493 CE    
  Bornu Empire td_bornu_emp TdBornu RT 1380 CE 1846 CE    

West Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID  Coded Data   Year Range      
  Middle and Late Nok ni_nok_1 G SC RT 1500 BCE 901 BCE    
  Middle and Late Nok ni_nok_2 G SC RT 900 BCE 0 CE    
  Proto-Yoruboid ni_proto_yoruboid D G SC RT 300 BCE 300 CE    
  Jenne-jeno I ml_jenne_jeno_1 MlJeJe1 D G SC WF RT HS 250 BCE 49 CE    
  Jenne-jeno II ml_jenne_jeno_2 MlJeJe2 D G SC WF RT HS 50 CE 399 CE    
  West Burkina Faso Yellow I bf_west_burkina_faso_yellow_5 G SC RT 100 CE 500 CE    
  Early Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_1 MrWagdE 250 CE 700 CE    
  Proto-Yoruba ni_proto_yoruba G SC RT 301 CE 649 CE    
  Jenne-jeno III ml_jenne_jeno_3 MlJeJe3 D G SC WF RT HS 400 CE 899 CE    
  West Burkina Faso Yellow II bf_west_burkina_faso_yellow_6 G SC 501 CE 700 CE    
  Kwararafa ni_kwararafa G SC RT PT 596 CE 1820 CE    
  Pre-Sape Sierra Leone si_pre_sape D G SC RT 600 CE 1400 CE    
  Late Formative Yoruba ni_formative_yoruba D G SC RT 650 CE 1049 CE    
  Middle Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_2 MrWagdM D G SC WF RT HS 700 CE 1077 CE    
  West Burkina Faso Red I bf_west_burkina_faso_red_1 G SC RT 701 CE 1100 CE    
  Kanem cd_kanem G SC 800 CE 1379 CE    
  Jenne-jeno IV ml_jenne_jeno_4 MlJeJe4 D G SC WF RT HS 900 CE 1300 CE    
  Hausa bakwai ni_hausa_k G SC RT 900 CE 1808 CE    
  Igodomingodo ni_igodomingodo G SC RT 900 CE 1450 CE    
  Classical Ife ni_yoruba_classic G SC RT 1000 CE 1400 CE    
  Ọ̀ràézè Ǹrì ni_nri_k G SC RT PT 1043 CE 1911 CE    
  Later Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_3 MrWagdL D G SC WF RT HS CC 1078 CE 1203 CE    
  West Burkina Faso Red II and III bf_west_burkina_faso_red_2 G SC RT 1100 CE 1400 CE    
  Allada ni_allada_k G SC RT PT 1100 CE 1724 CE    
  Mossi bf_mossi_k_1 G SC RT 1100 CE 1897 CE    
  Benin Empire ni_benin_emp G SC RT PT 1140 CE 1897 CE    
  Mali Empire ml_mali_emp MlMali* D G SC WF RT HS CC 1230 CE 1410 CE    
  Kingdom of Waalo se_waalo_k D G SC RT PT 1287 CE 1855 CE    
  Oyo ni_oyo_emp_1 G SC RT 1300 CE 1535 CE    
  Kingdom of Sine se_sine_k D G SC RT 1350 CE 1887 CE    
  Jolof Empire se_jolof_emp D G SC RT PT 1360 CE 1549 CE    
  Kanem-Borno ni_bornu_emp G SC PT 1380 CE 1893 CE    
  Sape si_sape G SC RT 1400 CE 1550 CE    
  West Burkina Faso Red IV bf_west_burkina_faso_red_4 G SC 1401 CE 1500 CE    
  Denyanke Kingdom se_great_fulo_emp D G SC RT PT 1490 CE 1776 CE    
  Kingdom of Saloum se_saloum_k D G SC RT PT 1490 CE 1863 CE    
  Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty ml_songhai_2 MlSong2 D G SC WF HS CC 1493 CE 1591 CE    
  Kaabu gm_kaabu_emp G SC RT 1500 CE 1867 CE    
  Akan - Pre-Ashanti gh_akan GhAshnE D G SC WF RT HS CC PT 1501 CE 1701 CE    
  Kingdom of Cayor se_cayor_k D G SC RT PT 1549 CE 1864 CE    
  Kingdom of Jolof se_jolof_k D G SC PT 1549 CE 1865 CE    
  Mane si_mane_emp G SC RT 1550 CE 1650 CE    
  Kingdom of Baol se_baol_k D G SC RT PT 1550 CE 1890 CE    
  Saadi Sultanate ma_saadi_sultanate MaSaadi D G SC WF RT HS PT 1554 CE 1659 CE    
  Igala ni_igala_k G SC RT PT 1600 CE 1900 CE    
  Foys ni_dahomey_k G SC RT PT 1600 CE 1892 CE    
  Ilú-ọba Ọ̀yọ́ ni_oyo_emp_2 G SC RT PT 1601 CE 1835 CE    
  Early Modern Sierra Leone si_early_modern_interior G SC RT 1650 CE 1896 CE    
  Segou Kingdom ml_segou_k MlSegou D G SC WF HS 1650 CE 1712 CE    
  Whydah ni_whydah_k G SC RT 1671 CE 1727 CE    
  Aro ni_aro G SC RT PT 1690 CE 1902 CE    
  Ashanti Empire gh_ashanti_emp GhAshnL