Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Late Qing

EQ 2020  cn_qing_dyn_2 / CnQingL

The Qing Dynasty (or Empire of the Great Qing, Great Qing, Manchu Dynasty, Manchus, Jin, Jurchens, Ch’ing Dynasty) was China’s last imperial dynasty. The founders of the Qing were descendants of Jurchen Jin rulers. The dynasty was founded by Nurhaci and then led by his son Huang Taiji, but did not become an imperial Chinese dynasty until after Huang Taiji’s death. [1] In 1644 CE, Qing forces captured the Ming capital at Beijing from rebels and held a funeral for the last Ming emperor to symbolize Qing inheritance of the Mandate of Heaven. [2]
The Qing faced conflict with rebels and loyalist Ming forces for the next two decades. [1] Ming generals who surrendered were given power over large territories in southern China in exchange for loyalty to the Qing. In 1673 CE, leaders from three major southern feudatories led by Wu Sangui rebelled against Emperor Kangxi when he tried to reduce their power. [3] The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, as this episode is known, lasted eight years.
We divide the Qing Dynasty into two, an Early period (1644-1796 CE) and a Late period (1796-1912 CE). The division is marked by a period of internal turmoil as well as foreign incursions into its territory and economic sphere. In the Early Qing period, China had been prosperous under Kangxi and Qing rule, but by the time of the Opium Wars in the Late Qing, Western technology and industry had surpassed that of China. [4] The fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 gave rise to the Republic of China.
From 1850 to 1864 CE, China was racked by the fourteen-year Taiping Rebellion. The rebellion directly caused 30 million deaths and destroyed many regions in the middle and lower Yangtze. [5] In 1853, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace established a capital in Nanjing, but the rebellion was defeated by armies led by local governors in 1864. [6] A number of serious uprisings followed the Taiping Rebellion, including the Nian Rebellion (1853-1868 CE). [6]
At the same time, the Qing emperors were facing economic problems due to the actions of foreign powers. In the 1830s, British merchants began illegally importing opium to China, where high demand for the drug led to a large trade imbalance. China’s economy was drained of silver [7] and the value of copper coins depreciated. [6] The First Opium War broke out in 1839 CE when a Chinese commissioner attempted to block opium trade in Guangzhou harbour. [6] The Second Opium War of 1858 CE was a series of military actions by the British and French against the Qing. [6] The resulting treaties allowed foreign powers to establish concessions in China, abolished taxes for French and British merchants, and forced the Qing to pay large amounts of silver in damages. [6]
The 19th century saw increasingly frequent intrusions by foreign powers. Foreign merchants exploited their tax-free status, to the detriment of local Chinese producers. China was forced to cede much of its territory in Vietnam, Burma and elsewhere. [6] By the end of the 19th century, a range of foreign powers including Great Britain, Japan, Germany, and France claimed colonial territories in China. [6] A peasant uprising known as the Boxer Rebellion targeted foreigners in 1900 CE.
In 1860, the Qing rulers were exiled outside the Great Wall when foreign invaders burned down the Summer Palace. [8] The court was restored by the regent Empress Dowager Cixi and Prince Gong in what is known as the Tongzhi restoration. [8] However, the dynasty was finally overthrown in the Revolution of 1911 and the Republic of China was founded.
Population and political organization
The Late Qing maintained a traditional imperial-style Chinese government headed by an emperor and central bureaucracy. Provincial government consisted of governors who controlled a hierarchical system of officials, prefects, county chiefs, county magistrates, and clerks. [9] The Qing were deeply opposed to modernization: the scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao had to flee after attempting to reform government practices in 1898 CE. [6] Rebellions in the 19th century led to the rise of local governors and military commanders, who acted as warlords to control their local regions. [6]
The period between the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries was one of extremely rapid population growth in Late Qing China, and by 1851 the population had reached 431.9 million people. [10] However, a number of censuses after that date could not be completed due to the rebellions.

[1]: (San 2014, 337-38) Tan Koon San. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press Sdn. Bhd.

[2]: (San 2014, 338) Tan Koon San. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press Sdn. Bhd.

[3]: (San 2014, 385) Tan Koon San. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press Sdn. Bhd.

[4]: (Mao 2005, 8) Haijin Mao. 2005. The Qing Empire and the Opium War: The Collapse of the Heavenly Dynasty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5]: (Rowe 2009, 198) William T. Rowe. 2009. China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[6]: (Theobald 2000) Theobald Ulrich. 2000. ’Qing Period Event History’. Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Qing/qing-event.html. Accessed 21 March 2017.

[7]: (Rowe 2009, 157) William T. Rowe. 2009. China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[8]: (Rowe 2009, 201) William T. Rowe. 2009. China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[9]: (Zhang 2011, 63) Wei-Bin Zhang. 2011. The Rise and Fall of China’s Last Dynasty: The Deepening of the Chinese Servility. Hauppage, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

[10]: (Banister 1987, 3-4) Judith Banister. 1987. China’s Changing Population. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
50 S  
Original Name:
Late Qing  
Capital:
Beijing  
Alternative Name:
Qing dynasty  
Qīng Cháo  
Ch'ing Ch'ao  
Empire of the Great Qing  
Great Qing  
Manchu dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,850 CE  
Duration:
[1,796 CE ➜ 1,912 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
China  
Succeeding Entity:
Republic of China  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,300,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Early Qing  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Sino-Tibetan  
Language:
Manchu language  
Chinese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
890,892 people 1796 CE
1,039,360 people 1882 CE
1,104,372 people 1910 CE
Polity Territory:
11,300,000 km2  
Polity Population:
295,000,000 people 1800 CE
[334,000,000 to 348,000,000] people 1900 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
[8 to 11]  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
present  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
[6,259 to 6,700] km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Late Qing (cn_qing_dyn_2) was in:
 (1796 CE 1912 CE)   Orkhon Valley     Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,850 CE

CE (period of greatest population) The peak date of Qing dynasty is generally defined as the period between regime of Kangxi to QinglongTemporal bounds


Duration:
[1,796 CE ➜ 1,912 CE]

1796 CE- 1820 CE: Jiaqing Emperor (清仁宗/嘉慶)1820 CE - 1850 CE: Daoguang Emperor (清宣宗/道光)1850 CE - 1861 CE: Xianfeng Emperor (清文宗/咸豐)1861 CE - 1875 CE: Tongzhi Emperor (清穆宗/同治)1875 CE - 1908 CE: Guangxu Emperor (清德宗/光緒)1908 CE - 1912 CE: Puyi (溥儀/宣統)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Supra-cultural relations




Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,300,000 km2

km^2





Language

Language:
Manchu language

[1]

[1]: (Crossley & Rawski, 1993)

Language:
Chinese

[1]

[1]: (Crossley & Rawski, 1993)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
890,892 people
1796 CE

people [1]

[1]: (Sit, F. S., & 薛鳳旋. 1996 北京: 由傳統國都到社會主義首都. 香港: 香港大學出版社)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,039,360 people
1882 CE

people [1]

[1]: (Sit, F. S., & 薛鳳旋. 1996 北京: 由傳統國都到社會主義首都. 香港: 香港大學出版社)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,104,372 people
1910 CE

people [1]

[1]: (Sit, F. S., & 薛鳳旋. 1996 北京: 由傳統國都到社會主義首都. 香港: 香港大學出版社)


Polity Territory:
11,300,000 km2

km^2


Polity Population:
295,000,000 people
1800 CE

People
Later Qing has population over 300 million according to The Cambridge History of China [1]
1812 CE: 361,695,492 people: The census was interrupted due to nature disasters, scattered rebellions, and White Lotus Rebellion occurred in 1794-1804 among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces.
1833 CE: 398,942,036 people: [2]
1852 CE: 334,403,035 people: (1) [3] (2) The census was interrupted due to the outbreak of Nian Rebellion taking place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, and Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) in South China.
1912 CE: 347,902,562 people: The census was conducted since 1910 and completed in 1912. [4]
Other figures: [5]
Po-Ju Tuan coded the following estimates--they have been moved to the description field in case this level of detail is useful in the future: 275,662,044: 1796 CE; 271,333,544: 1797 CE; 290,982,980: 1798 CE; 293,283,179: 1799 CE; 295,237,311: 1800 CE; 297,501,548: 1801 CE; 299,749,770: 1802 CE; 302,250,673: 1803 CE; 304,461,284: 1804 CE; 332,181,403: 1805 CE; 335,369,469: 1806 CE; 338,062,439: 1807 CE; 350,291,724: 1808 CE; 352,900,024: 1809 CE; 345,717,214: 1810 CE; 358,610,039: 1811 CE; {333,700,560; 361,695,492; 363,695,492}: 1812 CE; 336,451,672: 1813 CE; 316,574,895: 1814 CE; 326,574,895: 1815 CE; 328,814,957: 1816 CE; 331,330,433: 1817 CE; {301,260,545; 371,580,173}: 1819 CE; {353,377,694; 373,773,394; 383,100,000}: 1820 CE; 355,540,258: 1821 CE; 372,457,539: 1822 CE; {375,153,122; 380,619,569}: 1823 CE; {374,601,132; 382,439,631}: 1824 CE; {379,885,340; 387,026,888}: 1825 CE; {380,287,007; 386,081,958}: 1826 CE; {383,696,095; 388,608,215}: 1827 CE; {386,531,513; 390,755,718}: 1828 CE; 390,500,650: 1829 CE; 394,784,681: 1830 CE; 395,821,092: 1831 CE; 397,132,659: 1832 CE; 398,942,036: 1833 CE; 401,008,574: 1834 CE; {401,767,053; 403,052,086}: 1835 CE; 404,901,448: 1836 CE; {405 923 174; 406 984 114}: 1837 CE; 409,038,799: 1838 CE; 410,850,639: 1839 CE; 412,814,828: 1840 CE; 413,457,311: 1841 CE; {414,686,994; 416,118,189}: 1842 CE; 417,239,097: 1843 CE; 419,441,336: 1844 CE; 421,342,730: 1845 CE; 423,121,129: 1846 CE; {424,938,009; 425,106,201}: 1847 CE; {426,737,016; 426,928,854}: 1848 CE; {412,986,649; 428,420,667}: 1849 CE; {414,493,899; 429,931,034}: 1850 CE; {432,164,047; 431,894,047}: 1851 CE; 334,403,035: 1852 CE; 347,902,565: 1920 CE.

[1]: (Fairbank, 1978, 8)

[2]: (梁方仲, 1985, 10)

[3]: (姜公韜 & 傅樂成, 1988, 122)

[4]: (梁方仲, 1985)

[5]: (姜涛, 1990)

Polity Population:
[334,000,000 to 348,000,000] people
1900 CE

People
Later Qing has population over 300 million according to The Cambridge History of China [1]
1812 CE: 361,695,492 people: The census was interrupted due to nature disasters, scattered rebellions, and White Lotus Rebellion occurred in 1794-1804 among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces.
1833 CE: 398,942,036 people: [2]
1852 CE: 334,403,035 people: (1) [3] (2) The census was interrupted due to the outbreak of Nian Rebellion taking place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, and Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) in South China.
1912 CE: 347,902,562 people: The census was conducted since 1910 and completed in 1912. [4]
Other figures: [5]
Po-Ju Tuan coded the following estimates--they have been moved to the description field in case this level of detail is useful in the future: 275,662,044: 1796 CE; 271,333,544: 1797 CE; 290,982,980: 1798 CE; 293,283,179: 1799 CE; 295,237,311: 1800 CE; 297,501,548: 1801 CE; 299,749,770: 1802 CE; 302,250,673: 1803 CE; 304,461,284: 1804 CE; 332,181,403: 1805 CE; 335,369,469: 1806 CE; 338,062,439: 1807 CE; 350,291,724: 1808 CE; 352,900,024: 1809 CE; 345,717,214: 1810 CE; 358,610,039: 1811 CE; {333,700,560; 361,695,492; 363,695,492}: 1812 CE; 336,451,672: 1813 CE; 316,574,895: 1814 CE; 326,574,895: 1815 CE; 328,814,957: 1816 CE; 331,330,433: 1817 CE; {301,260,545; 371,580,173}: 1819 CE; {353,377,694; 373,773,394; 383,100,000}: 1820 CE; 355,540,258: 1821 CE; 372,457,539: 1822 CE; {375,153,122; 380,619,569}: 1823 CE; {374,601,132; 382,439,631}: 1824 CE; {379,885,340; 387,026,888}: 1825 CE; {380,287,007; 386,081,958}: 1826 CE; {383,696,095; 388,608,215}: 1827 CE; {386,531,513; 390,755,718}: 1828 CE; 390,500,650: 1829 CE; 394,784,681: 1830 CE; 395,821,092: 1831 CE; 397,132,659: 1832 CE; 398,942,036: 1833 CE; 401,008,574: 1834 CE; {401,767,053; 403,052,086}: 1835 CE; 404,901,448: 1836 CE; {405 923 174; 406 984 114}: 1837 CE; 409,038,799: 1838 CE; 410,850,639: 1839 CE; 412,814,828: 1840 CE; 413,457,311: 1841 CE; {414,686,994; 416,118,189}: 1842 CE; 417,239,097: 1843 CE; 419,441,336: 1844 CE; 421,342,730: 1845 CE; 423,121,129: 1846 CE; {424,938,009; 425,106,201}: 1847 CE; {426,737,016; 426,928,854}: 1848 CE; {412,986,649; 428,420,667}: 1849 CE; {414,493,899; 429,931,034}: 1850 CE; {432,164,047; 431,894,047}: 1851 CE; 334,403,035: 1852 CE; 347,902,565: 1920 CE.

[1]: (Fairbank, 1978, 8)

[2]: (梁方仲, 1985, 10)

[3]: (姜公韜 & 傅樂成, 1988, 122)

[4]: (梁方仲, 1985)

[5]: (姜涛, 1990)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7

levels.
1. Capital City2. Province3. Tao seat inferred4. Prefecture (Fu) seat inferred5. County (Xian) seat inferred6. Town/City (Xiancheng)7. Village
Province: 18 provinces [1]
Tao: Grouping of two or more prefectures for certain purpose, was interposed between the prefectures and provinces [2]
Prefecture (Fu): 180 prefectures [3]
“The Ch’ing judicial system rose upward through a territorial hierarchy of some six different levels. It began with the 1,500 xians or counties (also called districts) and similar regions and then proceeded to the higher levels of the 180 prefectures and the 18 provinces. Thence cases went to the Board of Punishments at the capital and then to a fifth level, the three high courts. The emperor was the top level. He might confirm or reject recommendations concerning capital cases sent up from below.” [3]

[1]: (J. Zhang, 2011, 237)

[2]: (Zhang, 2011)

[3]: (Fairbank 1978 23)


Religious Level:
3

levels. Inferred from previous polities.
1. Emperor
2. Ministry of Rites
3. Ritual specialists


Military Level:
[8 to 11]

levels.
1. Commander-in-chief (Emperor)
2. Provincial governor/Governor-general3. Provincial military commander/Provincial commander-in-chief/General-in-chief4. Fu jiang, Deputy General5. Can jiang6. Youji7. Dusi8. Shoubei9. Qianzong10. Bazong, Low-level officer11. Soldier
_1868 CE: Yung-ying (Brave Battalions)_ [1]
4. Army Commanders (t’ung-ling)5. Battalion Commander (ying-kuan)6. Company Officer (Shao-kuan)7. Platoon Officers (Shih-chang)8. Soldiers
_1904 CE: New Army_"The thirty-six divisions of the New Army, each with 12,500 men including officers and soldiers, would total 450,000 men and compose the Regular Army. Besides this, Reserves for the First Call (Hsu-pei chiin) and Reserves for the Second Call (Hou-pei chiin) were to be organized. The term of service in the Regular Army (Ch’ang-pei chiin) was three years, after which men would return home and receive occasional drill and a small stipend for another three years. These men would be the Reserves for the First Call. As Reserves for the Second Call they would then serve another four years, receiving less drill and less salary. On completion of this term, men would return to civilian status released from further military duty." [2]

[1]: (Ichiko 1980, 202) Chuzo Ichiko. 1980. "Political and Institutional Reform, 1901-11". In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 2: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, pt. 2, edited by John K. Fairbank and Kwang-Ching Liu, 375-415. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Ichiko 1980, 384-5) Chuzo Ichiko. 1980. "Political and Institutional Reform, 1901-11". In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 2: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, pt. 2, edited by John K. Fairbank and Kwang-Ching Liu, 375-415. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Administrative Level:
7

levels.
1. Emperor2. Central Government3. Provincial Government-general (Zongdu, viceroy)
3. Provincial Governor (Xunfu)4. Tao governor inferred5. Prefect inferred6. County governor7. District Magistrate
7. Official in charge of Prefecture/ Ting
The yamen of the district magistrate (usually the county magistrate, but sometimes prefecture or ting) was the lowest point in the official hierarchy. [1]
District Magistrate occupied position 7A in the Qing territorial administrative hierarchy. [2] Mostern confirmed that county should be one level above district, since ’xiang’ are subordinate to ’xian,’ which is routinely translated to ’county.’ [3] There was a prefect level between county magistrates and provincial governors, while district magistrates were too low to be included in a prefecture so they were overseen directly by the provincial governor. Promotion from county magistrate to prefect was possible. [4]

[1]: ( Zhang, 2011, 63)

[2]: (57, Table 2.3) Guy, K. 2017. Qing Governors and Their Provinces: The Evolution of Territorial Administration in China, 1644-1796. University of Washington Press.

[3]: (Mostern, Ruth. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin, Dan Hoyer, and Jill Levine. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (80-81) Guy, K. 2014. ‘Routine Promotions: Li Hu and the Dusty Byways of Empire. In, The Dynastic Centre and the Provinces: Agents and Interactions. BRILL.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

e.g. Bannermen and Green Standard soldiers [1]

[1]: (McCord 1993, 22)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Professional Military Officer:
present

e.g. Green Standard officers [1]

[1]: (McCord 1993, 21-22)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

e.g. government offices, civil service examination halls, imperial archives, feudal office buildings, political buildings [1] [2]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 34)

[2]: (Wang 2016, 16-17)


Merit Promotion:
present

e.g. Civil service examinations required for selecting imperial state officials [1]

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 45-46)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

e.g. Civil Service, Military bureaucracy [1] Grand Secretariat, Six Boards (Revenue, Civil Office, War, Criminal Justice, Public Works, and Rites) each with large clerical staffs, presidents and vice presidents. [2]

[1]: (Dai 2017, 329-333)

[2]: (Smith 2010, 34)


Examination System:
present

e.g. Civil service examinations required for selecting imperial state officials [1]

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 45-46)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

e.g. "legal advisers" (xingming or qiangu muyou) [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 110-112)


e.g. provincial judges [1]

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 38)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Division between civil and criminal code in Chinese law did not occur until 1910. [1]

[1]: (Fu 1993, 114) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Magistrates heard cases [1] but it seems this would be done in government buildings rather than a specialized courthouse.

[1]: (Zhang, 2011, 63)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

e.g. local markets, market towns [1]

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 56, 127)


Irrigation System:
present

[1] [2] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [3]

[1]: (Yi 2011, 45-52)

[2]: (Zhang 2011, 286-292)

[3]: (Smith 2015, 103)


Food Storage Site:
present

"official granaries" [1] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [2]

[1]: (Shi 2017, 63)

[2]: (Smith 2015, 103)


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"In Bejinh, dwellers had, for generations, been using wells to draw groundwater for their daily life. The alleys in Beijing are called ’hutong’ which means ’well’ in Mongolian. [...] When the City was reconstructed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, many ’hutongs’ were left without a well. According to contemporary records from the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the quality of water in the wells had been low due to salinisation and this led to two results: water was supplied at three levels of quality (for washing, cooking, and drinking tea); and, seling water became a profession in Beijing (Duan, 1989)." [1]

[1]: (Du & Koenig 2012, 187)


Transport Infrastructure

By the end of the Qing Dynasty, road systems in China were organized and classified into hierarchies. [1] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [2]

[1]: (Wang 2016, 108)

[2]: (Smith 2015, 103)


Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay, Dalian, Port Arthur
The most impressive/costly building(s)


e.g. The Grand Canal [1] Overall, the canal systems declined drastically near the end of the Qing with increased silting in the Yellow River. The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [2]

[1]: (Wang 2016, 196)

[2]: (Smith 2015, 103)


Bridge:
present

e.g. Yongqing Bridge and Santiao Bridge [1] The Board of Works was responsible for maintaining all official buildings, granaries, official communication routes, dykes, dams, and irrigation systems. [2]

[1]: (Wang 2016, 212, 218)

[2]: (Smith 2015, 103)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Qing rulers limited their trading licenses and usually refused them permission to open new mines, except in poor areas. [1] [2]

[1]: (Myers & Wang 2002, 66-9)

[2]: (Myers, H. Ramon; Wang, Yeh-Chien 2002)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

e.g. historical archives and documents collected by the Hanlin Academy, Qing imperial archives [1]

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 340


Script:
present

e.g. Manchu script, Chinese script, Calligraphy [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 171, 289)



Nonwritten Record:
present

Paintings: "the Qing court commissioned a great number of battle paintings that commemorated important military victories" [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 289)


Mnemonic Device:
present

E.g. abacus.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

e.g. scientific journals sponsored by Western missionaries [1] [2]

[1]: (Woolley 2016, 135)

[2]: (Wright 1998, 654)


Sacred Text:
present

e.g. Sacred Edict, The Transformations of Wengchang [1]

[1]: (Woolley 2016, 73, 139, 171)


Religious Literature:
present

e.g. Heavenly Kingdom literature [1]

[1]: (Woolley 2016, 139)


Practical Literature:
present

The Qingshi gao also included significant monographs on ritual, music, geography, food and commodities, law and punishments, civil service, the army, and foreign relations, as well as biographies on important confucian scholars, literary persons, and loyal subjects. [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 216)


Philosophy:
present

e.g. Confucian Five Classics [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 221)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

e.g. tax collection and registration system lichia [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 112)


History:
present

e.g. official history produced by the Bureau of National History. According to Smith, "History was more than just a narrative of the past, then; it was also a guide to proper conduct for the present and the future." [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 215)


Fiction:
present

Popular fiction growing in the late Qing. [1] Poetry was viewed as an exalted literary form, deemed appropriate for elite women, whereas vernacular fiction was generally socially disesteemed [2]
Money

[1]: (Rowe 2010, 108-112)

[2]: (Smith 2015, 307)


Calendar:
present

e.g. ritual calendar [1]

[1]: (Smith 2015, 378)


Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

non-coined silver, gold, platinum.


Paper Currency:
present

Qing issued paper currency in both Shunzhi and Xianfeng regime. “Although Chinese had begun using paper money during the Song Dynasty, the Ming had halted the practice in the mid-fifteenth century. Thereafter, except for two brief returns to paper currency by the Qing, in the Xunzhi (1644-61) and the Xianfeng (1851-61) reigns, no Chinese government again issued paper currency until the early twentieth century. The private sector moved to fill the void, and during the 100 or so years before the Opium War, several different instruments of currency, such as bank drafts were used to facilitate currency exchange. True paper money began circulating after various banks and money-changing shops issued paper receipts for deposits for silver and copper; these receipts, backed by a 100 percent reserve, soon began circulating as money” [1]

[1]: (Eastman 1988, 111) Eastman, Lloyd. 1988. Family, Fields and Ancestors: Constancy and Change in China’s Social and Economic History 1550-1949. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Indigenous Coin:
present

Bronze and copper coinage, by 1887 a mint established in Guangdong to mint silver coins. [1] Bimetallic system, includes the use of silver taels with copper and bronze coins. When the supply of silver changed as a result of international trade, it caused great financially instability within the system. [2]

[1]: (Zhengping 2014, 21)

[2]: (Mostern, Ruth. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)


Foreign Coin:
present

Development of foreign trade in the Qing dynasty led to a tremendous inflow of foreign silver coinage in the late Qing, including Spanish silver coins, Mexican silver coins, and Japanese silver coins. [1]

[1]: (Zhengping 2014, 21)


Article:
present

Grain as tax payment. "The third device was the relative freedom with which local magistrates set the exchange rates between nominal assessments in grain or silver and the number of copper cash per picul of grain or tael of silver which they would accept in full payment of the tax due." [1]

[1]: (Feuerwerker 1980, 61) Albert Feuerwerker. 1980. "Economic Trends in the Late Ch’ing Empire, 1870-1911." In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 2, Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, pt. 2, edited by John K. Fairbank and Kwang-Ching Liu, 1-69. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

extensive network of postal relay stations [1] military responsible for protecting postal stations and routes. [2]

[1]: (Halsey 2015, 216-218, 228)

[2]: (Mao 2016, 470


General Postal Service:
present

[1] 1896 the General Post office set up in the Qing Dynasty constituting the first national postal service in China. [2]

[1]: (http://baike.baidu.com/view/775845.htm)

[2]: (Daoyang Guo et al. 2011, 63)


Courier:
present

Qing dynasty revived the courier postal system and used the courier system to transmit a form of confidential communication called a "palace memorial." [1]

[1]: (Halsey 2015, 213-214)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

In the 1840s, wooden palisades were erected at the entrance to every lane within Hangzhou. [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 346)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

e.g. The Great Wall [1]

[1]: (Silberman 2012, 620)


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

e.g. The Great Wall [1]

[1]: (Silberman 2012, 620)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

e.g. Jilin, Amur River, Ürümqi, Tibet


Modern Fortification:
present

e.g. coastal fortresses, paotai [1]
Other technologies

[1]: (Po 2018, 135)


Beijing had an extensive fortification system, consisting of the Forbidden City, the Imperial city, the Inner city, and the Outer city. Fortifications included gate towers, gates, archways, watchtowers, barbicans, barbican towers, barbican gates, barbican archways, sluice gates, sluice gate towers, enemy sighting towers, corner guard towers, and a moat system. It had the most extensive defence system in Imperial China.


Fortified Camp:
present

e.g. The Qing set up all of Xinjiang as a military camp during their expansion [1]

[1]: (Perdue 2009, 338)


Earth Rampart:
present

large tracts of The Great Wall are essentially earthen ramparts [1] Dinghai did not have any accessible quarries, so its defenses would have to built out of earthen ramparts. Zhoushan also had earth walls as fortifications during the Opium Wars. [2]

[1]: (Silberman 2012, 620)

[2]: (Mao 2016, 296)


Ditch:
present

Cities that did not have access to quarries or timber for palisades and stone walls, relied on earth defence. [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 296-300)


Complex Fortification:
present

e.g. coastal forts, paotai [1]

[1]: (Po 2018, 135)



Military use of Metals

e.g. sabres, short swords [1]
Projectiles

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)


cast iron most common for manufacturing cannon, although it was impossible to purify the molten iron leaving inconsistent products prone to explosion. [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 30)


Copper:
present

e.g. copper alloy used to manufacture cannon, increasingly rare in the late Qing as Western military technology was sought out [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 30)


Bronze:
present

e.g. cannon. 11 of the 60 cannon at Zhapu in 1840 were bronze [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 376)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Catapults were "gradually replaced by the larger and more powerful cannons of the gunpowder age, completely disappearing by the middle of the Ming dynasty in about the 15th or 16th century A.D." [1]

[1]: (Liang 2005)




Self Bow:
present

bow and arrow a mainstay for the bannermen soldiers [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)


Javelin:
present

the lance was a mainstay for bannermen [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)


Handheld Firearm:
present

e.g. musket [1] Despite playing catchup, "China’s firearms and artillery were similarly state-of-the-art for Asia" in their replication of Western models. [2]
Handheld weapons

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)

[2]: (Andrade 2017, 274)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

e.g. cannon [1]

[1]: (Mao 2016, 30)


Crossbow:
unknown

Crossbows remained in use through the Early and Late Qing periods, e.g. chu-ko-nu which was a Chinese repeating crossbow equipped with a magazine to hold bolts. Typically made of wood, sinew wrapping, bamboo and thick rawhide string. [1]

[1]: (Grayson, French and O’Brien 2007, p.24)


Composite Bow:
present

The long reflexed composite bow was introduced by the Manchu of the Qing Dynasty and was capable of propelling heavy arrows with great force. They were not well suited for horseback, but their durability and power ensured that they became the standard bow of China, Manchu-dominated Mongolia and Tibet. Typically made with a bamboo core, horn belly, sinew backing, and wooden tips and handle. [1]

[1]: (Grayson, French and O’Brien 2007, p.11)



Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

obsolete technology


"All soldiers were provided with uniforms and a short sword." [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)


e.g. lance [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)


Polearm:
present

Qing "cold weapons" included halberds, tomahawks, hooks, maces, and lances. [1]

[1]: (Zhong 2014, 570-572)


Dagger:
present

Manchu soldiers carried daggers on their belts [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 129)


Battle Axe:
present

straight blade axe [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 178)


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Elephant:
present

Used in warfare besides as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Donkey:
present

Zuo Zongtang used donkeys and camels for military transport, and compared the military cost of horses, camels, and donkeys in order to cut down the military expense.


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Zuo Zongtang used donkeys and camels for military transport, and compared the military cost of horses, camels, and donkeys in order to cut down the military expense.


Armor

Shield:
present

e.g. "cane shields" [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)



Plate Armor:
unknown

iron breast plates, used primarily for ceremonial or noble armor in the 19th century [1]
Naval technology

[1]: (Peers 2002, 232)


Limb Protection:
present

brass studded skirt [1]

[1]: (Garrett 2020, 28)


Leather Cloth:
present

For example, leather cuirass, quilted cotton armor.; "infantry protective clothing was made of cloth." [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)



Helmet:
present

"Armor for cavalry consisted of a metal helmet and hauberk." [1]

[1]: (Elliott 2001, 177)



Breastplate:
present

iron plates, used primarily for ceremonial or noble armor in the 19th century [1]

[1]: (Peers 2002, 232)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

The Qing "imperial vessel" considered a symbol of the Qing military presence in the East Asian Sea, yet the guns, cannons, and soldiers on board these vessels more or less served as precautions against potential danger. With increasing foreign presence, the Manchu continued to build coastal defense and naval power in attempt to match the Western powers. [1]
Fortifications

[1]: (Po 2018, 76, 90-91)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

e.g. small wooden war vessels of the Gunagdong Fleet [1]

[1]: (Wright 2001, 25)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

Yongzheng era, process of registering merchant vessels began [1]

[1]: (Po 2018, 168-169)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.