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Seshat: Global History Databank

✓ the most current and comprehensive body of knowledge about human history
✓ collects what is currently known about the social and political organization of human societies over time
✓ offers the means to study the past through well-established scientific techniques
✓ founded in 2011 and thriving ever since

Seshat

General Variables

26

variables

in categories: Identity and Location, Temporal Bounds, Language, Religion, Supra-cultural relations
8849

datapoints

Alternative Name (Identity and Location)

Polity Peak Years (Temporal Bounds)

Polity Capital (Identity and Location)

Polity Language (Language)

Polity Religion (Religion)

Degree of Centralization (Temporal Bounds)

Succeeding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

Relationship to Preceding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

and 18 more... for 529 Polities

Social Complexity Variables

77

variables

in categories: Social Scale, Hierarchical Complexity, Professions, Bureaucracy Characteristics, Law, Specialized Buildings: polity owned, Transport Infrastructure, Special-purpose Sites, Information
20458

datapoints

Polity Territory (Social Scale)

Polity Population (Social Scale)

Settlement Hierarchy (Hierarchical Complexity)

Irrigation System (Specialized Buildings: polity owned)

Merit Promotion (Bureaucracy Characteristics)

Formal Legal Code (Law)

Road (Transport Infrastructure)

Postal Station (Information / Postal System)

and 69 more... for 506 Polities

Warfare Variables

49

variables

in categories: Fortifications, Military use of Metals, Projectiles, Handheld weapons, Animals used in warfare, Armor, Naval technology
17527

datapoints

Bronze (Military use of Metals)

Javelin (Projectiles)

Battle Axe (Handheld Weapons)

Sword (Handheld Weapons)

Horse (Animals used in warfare)

Small Vessels (canoes, etc) (Naval technology)

Shield (Armor)

Wooden Palisade (Fortifications)

and 41 more... for 373 Polities

Human Sacrifice

The deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
357

datapoints

was Absent: 1328 CE 1449 CE in French Kingdom - Early Valois

was Transitional (Absent -> Present): 31 BCE 199 CE in Roman Empire - Principate

was Present: 1650 BCE 1251 BCE in Erligang

was Present: 2112 BCE 2029 BCE in Ur - Dynasty III

was Absent: 600 BCE 325 BCE in Mahajanapada era

was Unknown: 750 BCE 600 BCE in Koktepe II

was Absent: 752 CE 839 CE in Carolingian Empire I

was Unknown: 9600 BCE 7101 BCE in Konya Plain - Early Neolithic

and 349 more... coded for 323 Polities

CrisisDB

Power Transitions

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
OT Overturn
PA Predecessor Assassination
IE Intra-Elite
MR Military Revolt
PU Popular Uprising
SR Separatist Rebellion
EV External Invasion
EF External Inteference
3422

transitions

2637 BCE 2613 BCE in Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom: Huni / Horus Qahedjet Snefru OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1207 CE 1210 CE in Kievan Rus: Rurik II Vsevolod IV the Red OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1214 CE 1223 CE in Kievan Rus: Mstislav III Vladimir IV OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

986 CE 1011 CE in Heian: Ichijō Sanjō OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1805 CE 1809 CE in Antebellum US: Thomas Jefferson James Madison OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1623 CE 1659 CE in Nayaks of Madurai: Tirumala Nayak Muthu Alakadri Nayak OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1434 CE 1468 CE in Ethiopia Kingdom: Zara Yaqob Baeda Maryam OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

923 CE 936 CE in Carolingian Empire II: Charles III, the Simple Robert I OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

and 3414 more... coded for 256 Polities

Crisis Consequences

Crisis periods are defined as periods of turmoil within a polity duration. We measure this turmoil by:
  1. tracking known destabilizing events such as major revolts, civil violence, and institutional reform; and
  2. following established scholarship which identifies such crisis periods
169

cases

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
PD Population Decline
PC Population Collapse
EP Epidemic
DM Elite Downward Mobility
EX Elite Extermination
UP Uprising
RV Revolution
SR Successful Revolution
CW Civil War
C+ Lasted a Century +
FR Fragmentation
CL Capital Loss
EC External Conquest
RA Ruler Assassination
RD Ruler Depose
CC Constitution Change
LC Labor Change
UL Unfree Labor Change
SF Suffrage
PG Public Goods Change
RC Religion Change

1914 CE 1922 CE in Ottoman Empire Late Period: First World War and fall of the Ottoman Empire: PD PC EP DM EX UP CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

983 CE 1062 CE in Buyid Confederation: Decline of Buyid Dynasty: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1200 CE 1250 CE in Cahokia - Moorehead: Abandoment of Cahokia Mounds: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

877 CE 888 CE in Carolingian Empire II: Fragmentation of Carlingian Rule: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

546 BCE 453 BCE in Jin: Civil War: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1140 BCE 1030 BCE in Phoenician Empire: Phoenecian Cities Conflicts: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

865 CE 866 CE in Byzantine Empire I: Rise of Macedonioan Emperors: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1562 CE 1598 CE in French Kingdom - Late Valois: French Wars of Religion: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

and 161 more... coded for 153 Polities

🇺🇸 US Political Violence Database

✓ coded for Date, Type, Subtype(s), Location(s), Fatalities, etc
1903

cases

June 1, 1849 riot (ethnic) in Pennsylvania (PA), Philadelphia, Philadelphia: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

July 1, 1857 lynching (extralegal) in Iowa (IA), Tipton, Cedar: 2 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Aug. 1, 1918 riot (race) in New Jersey (NJ), Camp Merritt: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Dec. 1, 1883 lynching (race) in Mississippi (MS), Yazoo City: 4 were killed. Source(s):   The New York Times

Aug. 1, 1919 riot (race) in Tennessee (TN), Knoxville: 7 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 30, 2012 terrorism () in Washington (WA), Seattle: 5 were killed. Source(s):   Reuters

Oct. 1, 1929 riot (prison) in Colorado (CO), Colorado State Penitentiary: 12 were killed. Source(s):   The New York Times

May 1, 1918 lynching (race) in Alabama (AL), Rel Level: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

and 1895 more...

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