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Seshat: Global History Databank

✓ the most current and comprehensive body of knowledge about human history
✓ collects what is currently known about the social and political organization of human societies over time
✓ offers the means to study the past through well-established scientific techniques
✓ founded in 2011 and thriving ever since

Seshat

General Variables

26

variables

in categories: Identity and Location, Temporal Bounds, Language, Religion, Supra-cultural relations
8847

datapoints

Alternative Name (Identity and Location)

Polity Peak Years (Temporal Bounds)

Polity Capital (Identity and Location)

Polity Language (Language)

Polity Religion (Religion)

Degree of Centralization (Temporal Bounds)

Succeeding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

Relationship to Preceding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

and 18 more... for 528 Polities

Social Complexity Variables

77

variables

in categories: Social Scale, Hierarchical Complexity, Professions, Bureaucracy Characteristics, Law, Specialized Buildings: polity owned, Transport Infrastructure, Special-purpose Sites, Information
20458

datapoints

Polity Territory (Social Scale)

Polity Population (Social Scale)

Settlement Hierarchy (Hierarchical Complexity)

Irrigation System (Specialized Buildings: polity owned)

Merit Promotion (Bureaucracy Characteristics)

Formal Legal Code (Law)

Road (Transport Infrastructure)

Postal Station (Information / Postal System)

and 69 more... for 506 Polities

Warfare Variables

49

variables

in categories: Fortifications, Military use of Metals, Projectiles, Handheld weapons, Animals used in warfare, Armor, Naval technology
17527

datapoints

Bronze (Military use of Metals)

Javelin (Projectiles)

Battle Axe (Handheld Weapons)

Sword (Handheld Weapons)

Horse (Animals used in warfare)

Small Vessels (canoes, etc) (Naval technology)

Shield (Armor)

Wooden Palisade (Fortifications)

and 41 more... for 373 Polities

Human Sacrifice

The deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
357

datapoints

was Present: 2000 BCE 1181 BCE in Canaan

was Absent: 1637 CE 1805 CE in Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty

was Unknown: 225 CE 539 CE in Funan I

was Absent: 1757 CE 1858 CE in British East India Company

was Absent: - in Macedonian Empire

was Unknown: 9600 BCE 7101 BCE in Konya Plain - Early Neolithic

was Present: 2150 BCE 2017 BCE in Egypt - Period of the Regions

was Absent: 750 CE 899 CE in Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian I

and 349 more... coded for 323 Polities

CrisisDB

Power Transitions

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
OT Overturn
PA Predecessor Assassination
IE Intra-Elite
MR Military Revolt
PU Popular Uprising
SR Separatist Rebellion
EV External Invasion
EF External Inteference
3379

transitions

1553 CE in Tudor and Early Stuart England: Lady Jane Grey Mary I OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1835 CE 1836 CE in British East India Company: Sir Charles Metcalfe The Earl of Auckland OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

800 CE 846 CE in Late Pallava Empire: Dantivarman Nandivarman III PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

880 CE 890 CE in Late Pallava Empire: Aparajita None OV EV

1545 CE 1546 CE in Kanem-Borno: Ali II Zainami Dunama V Ngumaramma

1370 CE 1378 CE in Late Mongols: Biligtü Toghus-Temür OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1327 CE 1353 CE in Late Angkor: Jayavarmaparamesvara Hou-eul-na OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1825 CE 1828 CE in Torwa-Rozvi: Changamire Baswi Changamire Chirisamaru II

and 3371 more... coded for 255 Polities

Crisis Consequences

Crisis periods are defined as periods of turmoil within a polity duration. We measure this turmoil by:
  1. tracking known destabilizing events such as major revolts, civil violence, and institutional reform; and
  2. following established scholarship which identifies such crisis periods
169

cases

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
PD Population Decline
PC Population Collapse
EP Epidemic
DM Elite Downward Mobility
EX Elite Extermination
UP Uprising
RV Revolution
SR Successful Revolution
CW Civil War
C+ Lasted a Century +
FR Fragmentation
CL Capital Loss
EC External Conquest
RA Ruler Assassination
RD Ruler Depose
CC Constitution Change
LC Labor Change
UL Unfree Labor Change
SF Suffrage
PG Public Goods Change
RC Religion Change

1794 CE in Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Late: Iroquois Civil War: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1809 CE 1831 CE in Shuar - Colonial: Uprising and Rebellion against the Spaniards: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1910 CE 1920 CE in Early United Mexican States: Mexican Revolution: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1650 CE in Sakha - Late: Smallpox Epidemic: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1887 CE 1898 CE in Kingdom of Hawaii - Post-Kamehameha Period: Overthrow of Kingdom of Hawai'i: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1060 CE 1072 CE in Fatimid Caliphate: Fatimid Civil War: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

700 BCE 500 BCE in Oaxaca - Rosario: Increased violent conflict and social differentiation during Rosario phase: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

640 CE 660 CE in Wari Empire: Wari Crisis in the Seventh Century: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

and 161 more... coded for 153 Polities

🇺🇸 US Political Violence Database

✓ coded for Date, Type, Subtype(s), Location(s), Fatalities, etc
1903

cases

Jan. 1, 1859 riot (section) in Kansas (KS), border / Missouri (MO), border: 4 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

March 16, 1985 terrorism () in Pennsylvania (PA), Fayette: 4 were killed. Source(s):   TVPDB: The Violence Project database of mass shootings in the United States (Version 7)

Jan. 1, 1919 lynching (race) in Georgia (GA), Buena Vista: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Aug. 1, 1892 riot (labor) in Tennessee (TN), Anderson: 2 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 1, 1871 riot (race) in Kentucky (KY), Estill: 3 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 1, 2005 terrorism () in Arizona (AZ): 8 were killed. Source(s):   The New York Times

June 1, 1863 riot (political) in Illinois (IL), Chicago: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Nov. 12, 1966 terrorism () in Arizona (AZ), Mesa: 5 were killed. Source(s):   TVPDB: The Violence Project database of mass shootings in the United States (Version 7)

and 1895 more...

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