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Seshat: Global History Databank

✓ the most current and comprehensive body of knowledge about human history
✓ collects what is currently known about the social and political organization of human societies over time
✓ offers the means to study the past through well-established scientific techniques
✓ founded in 2011 and thriving ever since

Seshat

General Variables

26

variables

in categories: Identity and Location, Temporal Bounds, Language, Religion, Supra-cultural relations
8867

datapoints

Alternative Name (Identity and Location)

Polity Peak Years (Temporal Bounds)

Polity Capital (Identity and Location)

Polity Language (Language)

Polity Religion (Religion)

Degree of Centralization (Temporal Bounds)

Succeeding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

Relationship to Preceding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

and 18 more... for 529 Polities

Social Complexity Variables

77

variables

in categories: Social Scale, Hierarchical Complexity, Professions, Bureaucracy Characteristics, Law, Specialized Buildings: polity owned, Transport Infrastructure, Special-purpose Sites, Information
20628

datapoints

Polity Territory (Social Scale)

Polity Population (Social Scale)

Settlement Hierarchy (Hierarchical Complexity)

Irrigation System (Specialized Buildings: polity owned)

Merit Promotion (Bureaucracy Characteristics)

Formal Legal Code (Law)

Road (Transport Infrastructure)

Postal Station (Information / Postal System)

and 69 more... for 507 Polities

Warfare Variables

49

variables

in categories: Fortifications, Military use of Metals, Projectiles, Handheld weapons, Animals used in warfare, Armor, Naval technology
17529

datapoints

Bronze (Military use of Metals)

Javelin (Projectiles)

Battle Axe (Handheld Weapons)

Sword (Handheld Weapons)

Horse (Animals used in warfare)

Small Vessels (canoes, etc) (Naval technology)

Shield (Armor)

Wooden Palisade (Fortifications)

and 41 more... for 373 Polities

Human Sacrifice

The deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
357

datapoints

was Absent: 1527 CE 1647 CE in Papal States - Medieval Period I

was Absent: 1193 CE 1206 CE in Ghur Principality

was Unknown: 7800 BCE 7201 BCE in Pre-Ceramic Period

was Absent: 1603 CE 1868 CE in Tokugawa Shogunate

was Unknown: 3000 BCE 1901 BCE in Prepalatial Crete

was Absent: 110 BCE 149 CE in Kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raydan

was Present: 1292 CE 1518 CE in Majapahit Kingdom

was Unknown: 900 CE 999 CE in Jenne-jeno IV

and 349 more... coded for 323 Polities

CrisisDB

Power Transitions

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
OT Overturn
PA Predecessor Assassination
IE Intra-Elite
MR Military Revolt
PU Popular Uprising
SR Separatist Rebellion
EV External Invasion
EF External Inteference
3449

transitions

1799 CE 1806 CE in Electorate of Bavaria: Maximilian III Joseph Maximilian I. Joseph, King of Bavaria OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1408 CE 1420 CE in Buganda: Cwa I Nabaka Kimera OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1508 CE 1540 CE in Ethiopia Kingdom: Lebna Dengel Galawdewos OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1750 CE 1780 CE in Aro: Okenachi Eko Oke

1697 CE 1727 CE in Zungharian Empire: Tsewang Rabtan Galdan Tseren OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1830 CE 1854 CE in Kingdom of Jimma: Abba Jifar I Abba Rebu OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

- in Cwezi Dynasty: Isingoma Rukidi I Mpuuga Kyeramaino Ocaki I Rwangirra OV PA IE MR PU SR EV

- in Early Cholas: Veliyan Tattan Perunatkilli I

and 3441 more... coded for 259 Polities

Crisis Consequences

Crisis periods are defined as periods of turmoil within a polity duration. We measure this turmoil by:
  1. tracking known destabilizing events such as major revolts, civil violence, and institutional reform; and
  2. following established scholarship which identifies such crisis periods
169

cases

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
PD Population Decline
PC Population Collapse
EP Epidemic
DM Elite Downward Mobility
EX Elite Extermination
UP Uprising
RV Revolution
SR Successful Revolution
CW Civil War
C+ Lasted a Century +
FR Fragmentation
CL Capital Loss
EC External Conquest
RA Ruler Assassination
RD Ruler Depose
CC Constitution Change
LC Labor Change
UL Unfree Labor Change
SF Suffrage
PG Public Goods Change
RC Religion Change

1810 CE 1821 CE in Spanish Empire II: Mexican War of Independence: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1200 CE 1250 CE in Cahokia - Moorehead: Abandoment of Cahokia Mounds: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

30 BCE in Ptolemaic Kingdom II: Roman conquest of Egypt: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

494 BCE 287 BCE in Early Roman Republic: Crisis of the Orders: PD PC EP DM EX UP CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1171 CE 1206 CE in Early Mongols: Crisis in Mongolian Confederacy: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1065 CE in Anglo-Saxon England II: Norman Invasion and Conquest: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1054 CE 1072 CE in Byzantine Empire II: Eleventh-century crisis in Byzantine Empire: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

403 BCE 256 BCE in Eastern Zhou: Fragmentation of Eastern Zhou (Warring States): PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

and 161 more... coded for 153 Polities

🇺🇸 US Political Violence Database

✓ coded for Date, Type, Subtype(s), Location(s), Fatalities, etc
1903

cases

April 1, 1970 riot (political) in California (CA), Santa Barbara: 1 was killed. Source(s):   SBI: Santa Barbara Independent

March 1, 1891 riot (ethnic, extralegal) in Louisiana (LA), New Orleans: 11 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Aug. 1, 1919 riot (race) in Tennessee (TN), Knoxville: 7 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Sept. 1, 1934 riot (labor) in South Carolina (SC), Honca Path: 6 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Feb. 1, 1918 lynching (race) in Tennessee (TN), Estill Springs: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Sept. 1, 1949 terrorism () in New Jersey (NJ), Camden: 13 were killed. Source(s):   The New York Times

July 1, 1784 riot (economic) in Pennsylvania (PA), Ft. Dickinson, Wyoming Valley: 2 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 1, 1890 lynching (extralegal) in South Carolina (SC), Lexington: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

and 1895 more...

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