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Seshat: Global History Databank

✓ the most current and comprehensive body of knowledge about human history
✓ collects what is currently known about the social and political organization of human societies over time
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Seshat

General Variables

26

variables

in categories: Identity and Location, Temporal Bounds, Language, Religion, Supra-cultural relations
8855

datapoints

Alternative Name (Identity and Location)

Polity Peak Years (Temporal Bounds)

Polity Capital (Identity and Location)

Polity Language (Language)

Polity Religion (Religion)

Degree of Centralization (Temporal Bounds)

Succeeding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

Relationship to Preceding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

and 18 more... for 523 Polities

Social Complexity Variables

77

variables

in categories: Social Scale, Hierarchical Complexity, Professions, Bureaucracy Characteristics, Law, Specialized Buildings: polity owned, Transport Infrastructure, Special-purpose Sites, Information
20458

datapoints

Polity Territory (Social Scale)

Polity Population (Social Scale)

Settlement Hierarchy (Hierarchical Complexity)

Irrigation System (Specialized Buildings: polity owned)

Merit Promotion (Bureaucracy Characteristics)

Formal Legal Code (Law)

Road (Transport Infrastructure)

Postal Station (Information / Postal System)

and 69 more... for 506 Polities

Warfare Variables

49

variables

in categories: Fortifications, Military use of Metals, Projectiles, Handheld weapons, Animals used in warfare, Armor, Naval technology
17527

datapoints

Bronze (Military use of Metals)

Javelin (Projectiles)

Battle Axe (Handheld Weapons)

Sword (Handheld Weapons)

Horse (Animals used in warfare)

Small Vessels (canoes, etc) (Naval technology)

Shield (Armor)

Wooden Palisade (Fortifications)

and 41 more... for 373 Polities

Human Sacrifice

The deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
357

datapoints

was Present: 1000 CE 1077 CE in Middle Wagadu Empire

was Absent: 632 CE 823 CE in Byzantine Empire I

was Unknown: 540 CE 639 CE in Funan II

was Present: 1778 CE 1803 CE in Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period

was Present: 1200 BCE 1001 BCE in Final Postpalatial Crete

was Present: 1122 BCE 795 BCE in Western Zhou

was Unknown: 5700 BCE 5101 BCE in Susiana B

was Unknown: 50 CE 399 CE in Jenne-jeno II

and 349 more... coded for 323 Polities

CrisisDB

Power Transitions

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
OT Overturn
PA Predecessor Assassination
IE Intra-Elite
MR Military Revolt
PU Popular Uprising
SR Separatist Rebellion
EV External Invasion
EF External Inteference
3069

transitions

1501 CE 1524 CE in Safavid Empire: Ismail I Tahmasp I OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1264 CE 1274 CE in Southern Song: Duzong of Southern Song (Zhao Qi) Gong of Southern Song (Zhao Xian) OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

224 CE 242 CE in Sasanid Empire I: Ardashir I Shapur I OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1198 CE 1208 CE in Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen Faction: Philip of Swabia None OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1298 CE 1308 CE in Holy Roman Empire - Fragmented Period: Albert I of Habsburg Henry VII of Luxembourg OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1163 CE 1206 CE in Ghur Principality: ʿAlāʾ-al–Dīn Ḥosayn Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn and Moʿezz-al-Dīn OV PA IE MR PU SR EV

225 CE 242 CE in Kushan Empire: Vasudeva Kanishka II OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

379 CE 383 CE in Sasanid Empire I: Ardashir II Shapur III OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

and 3061 more... coded for 240 Polities

Crisis Consequences

Crisis periods are defined as periods of turmoil within a polity duration. We measure this turmoil by:
  1. tracking known destabilizing events such as major revolts, civil violence, and institutional reform; and
  2. following established scholarship which identifies such crisis periods
169

cases

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
PD Population Decline
PC Population Collapse
EP Epidemic
DM Elite Downward Mobility
EX Elite Extermination
UP Uprising
RV Revolution
SR Successful Revolution
CW Civil War
C+ Lasted a Century +
FR Fragmentation
CL Capital Loss
EC External Conquest
RA Ruler Assassination
RD Ruler Depose
CC Constitution Change
LC Labor Change
UL Unfree Labor Change
SF Suffrage
PG Public Goods Change
RC Religion Change

184 CE 220 CE in Eastern Han Empire: Yellow Turban and Five Pecks of Rice rebellions: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

157 BCE 63 BCE in Seleucids: Seleucid Dynastic Wars: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1819 CE 1820 CE in Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period: Contact Period: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1519 CE 1521 CE in Aztec Empire: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

30 BCE in Ptolemaic Kingdom II: Roman conquest of Egypt: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1280 CE 1322 CE in Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I: Mongol invasions and rebellions in Mamluk Egypt: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

772 CE 778 CE in Medang Kingdom: Hindu-Buddhist Struggles: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

877 CE 888 CE in Carolingian Empire II: Fragmentation of Carlingian Rule: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

and 161 more... coded for 153 Polities

🇺🇸 US Political Violence Database

✓ coded for Date, Type, Subtype(s), Location(s), Fatalities, etc
1903

cases

Nov. 1, 1834 riot (ethnic, labor) in New York (NY), Maryland: 3 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Sept. 1, 1934 riot (labor) in Rhode Island (RI), Woonsocket: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 7, 1981 terrorism () in Oregon (OR), Salem: 4 were killed. Source(s):   TVPDB: The Violence Project database of mass shootings in the United States (Version 7)

Aug. 1, 1913 lynching (race) in North Carolina (NC), Charlotte: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Jan. 1, 1868 riot (race) in Louisiana (LA), Northern Louisiana: 192 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Nov. 8, 1992 terrorism () in California (CA), Paso Robles: 6 were killed. Source(s):   TVPDB: The Violence Project database of mass shootings in the United States (Version 7)

Nov. 1, 1972 riot (education) in Louisiana (LA), Baton Rouge: 2 were killed. Source(s):   Hartford Daily Courant Or The Hartford Courant

March 29, 2009 terrorism () in North Carolina (NC), Carthage: 8 were killed. Source(s):   The New York Times

and 1895 more...

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