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Seshat: Global History Databank

✓ the most current and comprehensive body of knowledge about human history
✓ collects what is currently known about the social and political organization of human societies over time
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✓ founded in 2011 and thriving ever since

Seshat

General Variables

26

variables

in categories: Identity and Location, Temporal Bounds, Language, Religion, Supra-cultural relations
8794

datapoints

Alternative Name (Identity and Location)

Polity Peak Years (Temporal Bounds)

Polity Capital (Identity and Location)

Polity Language (Language)

Polity Religion (Religion)

Degree of Centralization (Temporal Bounds)

Succeeding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

Relationship to Preceding Entity (Supra-cultural relations)

and 18 more... for 515 Polities

Social Complexity Variables

77

variables

in categories: Social Scale, Hierarchical Complexity, Professions, Bureaucracy Characteristics, Law, Specialized Buildings: polity owned, Transport Infrastructure, Special-purpose Sites, Information
20458

datapoints

Polity Territory (Social Scale)

Polity Population (Social Scale)

Settlement Hierarchy (Hierarchical Complexity)

Irrigation System (Specialized Buildings: polity owned)

Merit Promotion (Bureaucracy Characteristics)

Formal Legal Code (Law)

Road (Transport Infrastructure)

Postal Station (Information / Postal System)

and 69 more... for 506 Polities

Warfare Variables

49

variables

in categories: Fortifications, Military use of Metals, Projectiles, Handheld weapons, Animals used in warfare, Armor, Naval technology
17527

datapoints

Bronze (Military use of Metals)

Javelin (Projectiles)

Battle Axe (Handheld Weapons)

Sword (Handheld Weapons)

Horse (Animals used in warfare)

Small Vessels (canoes, etc) (Naval technology)

Shield (Armor)

Wooden Palisade (Fortifications)

and 41 more... for 373 Polities

Human Sacrifice

The deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
357

datapoints

was Present: 1275 CE 1399 CE in Cahokia - Sand Prairie

was Present: 1702 CE 1895 CE in Ashanti Empire

was Absent: 1340 CE 1519 CE in Sind - Samma Dynasty

was Absent: 1581 CE 1689 CE in Late Mongols

was Present: 1650 BCE 1251 BCE in Erligang

was Absent: 1900 BCE 1701 BCE in The Old Palace Crete

was Absent: 2250 BCE 2113 BCE in Akkadian Empire

was Present: 1501 CE 1701 CE in Akan - Pre-Ashanti

and 349 more... coded for 323 Polities

CrisisDB

Power Transitions

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
OT Overturn
PA Predecessor Assassination
IE Intra-Elite
MR Military Revolt
PU Popular Uprising
SR Separatist Rebellion
EV External Invasion
EF External Inteference
2959

transitions

1567 CE in Republic of Venice IV: Girolamo Priuli Pietro Loredan OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

627 BCE 626 BCE in Neo-Assyrian Empire: Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1321 CE 1328 CE in Ifat Sultanate: Haqq ad-Din Sabr ad-Din II OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

827 CE 840 CE in Later Tang Dynasty: Wenzong of Tang (Li Han, Wen Tsung) Wuzong of Tang (Li Chan, Wun Tsung) OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1636 CE 1655 CE in Saadi Sultanate: Mohammed esh Sheikh es Seghir Ahmad al-Abbas OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

189 CE in Eastern Han Empire: Shaodi (Minor Emperor) Xiandi OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1243 CE 1295 CE in Late Angkor: Jayavarman VIII Indravarman III OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

1873 CE 1877 CE in Sokoto Caliphate: Abu Bakr Bello Mu'adh Bello OV PA IE MR PU SR EV EF

and 2951 more... coded for 236 Polities

Crisis Consequences

Crisis periods are defined as periods of turmoil within a polity duration. We measure this turmoil by:
  1. tracking known destabilizing events such as major revolts, civil violence, and institutional reform; and
  2. following established scholarship which identifies such crisis periods
167

cases

  absent     present     inferred absent     inferred present     suspected unknown     unknown are coded for:
PD Population Decline
PC Population Collapse
EP Epidemic
DM Elite Downward Mobility
EX Elite Extermination
UP Uprising
RV Revolution
SR Successful Revolution
CW Civil War
C+ Lasted a Century +
FR Fragmentation
CL Capital Loss
EC External Conquest
RA Ruler Assassination
RD Ruler Depose
CC Constitution Change
LC Labor Change
UL Unfree Labor Change
SF Suffrage
PG Public Goods Change
RC Religion Change

1200 CE 1250 CE in Cahokia - Moorehead: Abandoment of Cahokia Mounds: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

225 CE in Satavahana Empire: Fall of the Satavahana Empire: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1528 CE 1570 CE in Inca Empire: Inca decline and civil war: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1848 CE 1867 CE in Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II: Habsburg Empire Revolution: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1454 CE 1455 CE in Oirats: Death of Esen Taishi and internal unrest: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1884 CE 1942 CE in Orokaiva - Colonial: Colonial occupation of Orokaiva lands: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

1789 CE 1799 CE in French Kingdom - Late Bourbon: French Revolution: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV SR CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

877 CE 888 CE in Carolingian Empire II: Fragmentation of Carlingian Rule: PD PC EP DM EX UP RV CW C+ FR CL EC RA RD CC LC UL SF PG RC

and 159 more... coded for 152 Polities

🇺🇸 US Political Violence Database

✓ coded for Date, Type, Subtype(s), Location(s), Fatalities, etc
1903

cases

Oct. 1, 1930 lynching (race) in Georgia (GA), Cartersville: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Aug. 1, 1915 lynching (extralegal) in Georgia (GA), Marietta: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

April 1, 1918 lynching (extralegal) in California (CA), Monroe: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

May 7, 1981 terrorism () in Oregon (OR), Salem: 4 were killed. Source(s):   TVPDB: The Violence Project database of mass shootings in the United States (Version 7)

Dec. 1, 1868 riot (race) in Tennessee (TN), Overton: 5 were killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Nov. 1, 1868 lynching (race) in Alabama (AL), Florence: 1 was killed. Source(s):   Paul A. Gilje, Riots In The United States

Oct. 1, 1967 riot (political, race) in California (CA), Oakland: 1 was killed. Source(s):

March 1, 1971 riot (political) in PR (PR), San Juan: 3 were killed. Source(s):   Hartford Daily Courant Or The Hartford Courant

and 1895 more...

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