Home Region:  Southern Europe (Europe)

Spanish Empire I

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  es_spanish_emp_1 / EsHabsb

Preceding:
[continuity; Crown of Castile and Aragon] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1648 CE 1795 CE Dutch Empire (nl_dutch_emp_1)    [None]
1716 CE 1814 CE Spanish Empire II (es_spanish_emp_2)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Habsburg Dynasty came together as Ferdinand II united the Kingdoms of Aragon and Castile under his rule. When he died in 1516 CE, his grandson Charles I—son of the Aragon Queen Joanna and the Habsburg Philip, a Prince in the Holy Roman Empire—became the first crowned King of All Spain.
The Spanish Habsburg empire held territory in northern Europe, Italy, the Mediterranean, the Americas, Africa, India, and the Orient. “Yet Spain itself was rather unpromising material for greatness; the land was barren, the economy backward and the peninsula was politically fragmented.” [1]
The Austrian Habsburg family inherited the Valois duchy of Burgundy (present day Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg, and part of Burgundy) and the crowns of Aragon (including Balearics, Sardinia, Naples, and Sicily) and Castile (including Navarre, and the Americas- Mexico and Peru). This territory was inherited by Charles Habsburg (Charles V, 1519-56). When Charles V abdicated in 1555-56 he spilt the territory between his brother and his son (Austrian and Spanish branches of the Habsburgs), thus expanding the Spanish Habsburg Empire even further by 1556. [1]
Spain’s territorial conquests brought in a wealth of gold and other resources from around the world. This boom led to a rapid growth in urbanization and marketization, as several Spanish cities became major hubs of production for manufactured goods (metal products and textiles especially). [2]
By 1550 the Habsburg Empire had a population of 29 million across the world, including 9 million native people in the lands they had colonised.

[1]: (Darby 2014, preview). Darby, Graham. 2014. Spain in the seventeenth century. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3XIHTNCH

[2]: Pocket World History in Figures

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
30 N  
Original Name:
Spanish Empire  
Capital:
Madrid  
Valladolid  
Madrid  
Alternative Name:
Spanish Empire  
Habsburg Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,556 CE ➜ 1,598 CE]  
Duration:
[1,516 CE ➜ 1,700 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
es_spanish_emp_1 personal union with at_habsburg_1 1519 CE 1556 CE
Succeeding Entity:
House of Bourbon-Spain  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Dutch Empire (nl_dutch_emp_1)    [None]  
Succeeding: Spanish Empire II (es_spanish_emp_2)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Castilian Spanish  
Castilian Spanish  
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholic  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
224,000 people 1600 CE
Polity Territory:
7,100,000 km2 1640 CE
Polity Population:
29,000,000 people 1550 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7  
Religious Level:
10  
Military Level:
13  
Administrative Level:
6  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
present  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling:
present  
absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
present  
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
inferred absent  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Spanish Empire I (es_spanish_emp_1) was in:
 (1521 CE 1532 CE)   Valley of Oaxaca
 (1532 CE 1700 CE)   Valley of Oaxaca     Cuzco
Home NGA: Cuzco

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Spanish Empire

Capital:
Madrid

Capital in Madrid was established in 1561. [1]

[1]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 190) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP

Capital:
Valladolid

Capital in Madrid was established in 1561. [1]

[1]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 190) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP

Capital:
Madrid

Capital in Madrid was established in 1561. [1]

[1]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 190) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP


Alternative Name:
Spanish Empire
Alternative Name:
Habsburg Empire

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,556 CE ➜ 1,598 CE]

Rule of Philip II
"To Spaniards, he has been the great ruler who guided the empire at the height of its power, the sword arm of Catholicism, defender of the faith and unity of Europe. He has also been called el prudente-"the wise" or "prudent." [1]
"With the passing of Felipe II, the Spanish politico-military hegemony did not by any means come to an end but would last half a century more. The Spanish sense of providential mission, however, of being the sword arm of Catholic Christendom, of expanding a divinely guided empire, was indeed beginning to wane." [2]

[1]: (Payne 1973, 256-7) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP

[2]: (Payne 1973, 263) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP


Duration:
[1,516 CE ➜ 1,700 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
es_spanish_emp_1 personal union with at_habsburg_1
1519 CE 1556 CE

Charles I (Charles V) held the Archduchy of Austria from 1519 to 1521 before he abdicated as Duke of Austria in favour of his brother, Ferdinand I, who had also been made King of the Romans in 1531. Ferdinand continued to rule in his name as Imperial Lieutenant until Charles I’s abdication in 1556. [1] [2] [3]

[1]: Martyn C. Rady, The Emperor Charles V, Seminar studies in history (London ; New York: Longman, 1988). Zotero link: Y6MXWNC7

[2]: Fichtner, Paula. 2017. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848: Attributes of Empire. Macmillan International Higher Education. 116, 123, 124–5, 130.

[3]: Whaley, Joachim. 2018. "The early modern empire (1): from Maximilian I to the Thirty Years Wars" in The Holy Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Succeeding Entity:
House of Bourbon-Spain

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

“Ferdinand and Isabella had been remarkably successful in carrying out the union of the two Crowns, but their lack of a male heir threatened to undo that work. As a result of the premature death of their only son, as well as other deaths in the family, their youngest daughter Juana stood to inherit the throne, but Juana, known as ‘La Loca’ was widely deemed incapable of ruling Spain. Because of Juana’s mental state and her marriage to a member of the Habsburg family (rulers of the Holy Roman Empire), it fell to Ferdinand and Isabella’s grandson (and Juana’s son) Charles to inherit the Spanish throne in 1516.” [1]

[1]: (Cowans 2003, 46) Cowans, John. 2003. Early Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MRSP5DU


Preceding Entity:
Crown of Castile and Aragon

“Ferdinand and Isabella had been remarkably successful in carrying out the union of the two Crowns, but their lack of a male heir threatened to undo that work. As a result of the premature death of their only son, as well as other deaths in the family, their youngest daughter Juana stood to inherit the throne, but Juana, known as ‘La Loca’ was widely deemed incapable of ruling Spain. Because of Juana’s mental state and her marriage to a member of the Habsburg family (rulers of the Holy Roman Empire), it fell to Ferdinand and Isabella’s grandson (and Juana’s son) Charles to inherit the Spanish throne in 1516.” [1]

[1]: (Cowans 2003, 46) Cowans, John. 2003. Early Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MRSP5DU

Preceding Entity:
EsHabsb [es_spanish_emp_1] ---> Dutch Empire [nl_dutch_emp_1]
Preceding Entity:
Spanish Empire I [es_spanish_emp_1] ---> Spanish Empire II [es_spanish_emp_2]

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

“Although Castile, with its relatively small population and weak economy, did not have the resources to sustain great-power status on its own, when these were allied with the naval expertise and military manpower of Genoa and Naples, Flemish and Milanese weaponry and American silver, it could. In any event we must be careful not the judge the Monarchy from our own perspective of the compact nation state. The Spanish Habsburgs looked upon their network of domains as a family patrimony, and this concept of patrimony was accepted and understood by the elite.” [1]
“It was attempts at increasing control beyond what was customary which led to unrest and rebellion, as happened with the Dutch in the sixteenth century and the Portuguese and Catalans in the seventeenth.” [1]
“In New Spain and Peru, a series of extraordinary vicerorys brought administrative order out of the chaos of conquest and shaped a well-structured hierarchy of power that relied on the loyalty of soldiers, clerics, nobles, bureaucrats, and ordinary citizens…Some area in the Americans continued to resist Spanish control, but overall the empire functioned as an evolving fusion of Spanish and New World laws, peoples, institutions, and social structures.” [2]
“From the time of Charles V, the military leaders of Italy, notably from the families of Gonzaga, Colonna and Medici, took service with the Spanish crown and helped to impose Spanish influence over the Italian states. At the same time, these military leaders strengthened the links of the Crown with local governing elites. The efficiency of the council of Italy lay in the fact that it was linked to a network of influence that spread throughout Italy. The community of interest, therefore, between local nobility and the distant crown, made it possible for a system of ‘empire’ to develop whereby the ruling circles benefited considerably from the Spanish presence, at the same time as they sought to make that presence less onerous. The crown had two powerful inducements it could use. It could offer posts in the bureaucracy to local nobility and thereby confirm their power; it could also distribute honours, titles, privileges and pensions, and in that way build up a network of eager clients.” [3]

[1]: (Darby 2014, preview). Darby, Graham. 2014. Spain in the seventeenth century. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3XIHTNCH

[2]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 185) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP

[3]: (Kamen 2002, 312) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Castilian Spanish

Native languages were spoken in the Habsburg empire as well including Quechua, Aymara, Mayan, Tagalog, and Nahautl. [1] [2]

[1]: (Alves, Abel. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. Email. April 2020)

[2]: (Woods 2015. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WWSAZIWU)

Language:
Castilian Spanish

Native languages were spoken in the Habsburg empire as well including Quechua, Aymara, Mayan, Tagalog, and Nahautl. [1] [2]

[1]: (Alves, Abel. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. Email. April 2020)

[2]: (Woods 2015. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WWSAZIWU)


Religion
Religious Tradition:
Christianity



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
224,000 people
1600 CE

Inhabitants.
Naples: 224,000: 1600 CE [1]

[1]: Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Alice Willard. 2007. "Populations of Largest Cities in PMNs from 2000BC to 1988AD". Retrieved May 4, 2017. http://irows.ucr.edu/cd/courses/compciv/citypops4000.txt https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D55F2NG3


Polity Territory:
7,100,000 km2
1640 CE

in squared kilometers [1] [2]
Estimates from Taagepera’s graph in "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia."

  • 1610 CE: 5,000,000 km2
  • 1700 CE: 10,000,000 km2
  • 1618-1697: Spanish conquest of Petén
  • 1620-1622: Spanish conquest of the Palatinate
  • 1626: Spanish expedition to Formosa
  • 1633: Capture of Rheinfelden

[1]: (Taagepera 1997, 499) Taagepera, Rein. 1997. "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia." International Studies Quarterly 41(3): 475-504. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5A6JA43D

[2]: (Taagepera 1997, 484) Taagepera, Rein. 1997. "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia." International Studies Quarterly 41(3): 475-504. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5A6JA43D/


Polity Population:
29,000,000 people
1550 CE

People.
"By the middle of the 16th century, The 7.5 million inhabitants of the Spanish kingdoms were the mainstay of the Habsburg Empire, which controlled more than 20 of Europe’s 90 millions and 9m of the 12m natives in the New World." [1]
Spain: 7,500,000: 1540 CE; 8,500,000: 1590-1600 CE; 7,000,000: 1700 CE [2] [3]
Iberian Union: 29,997,000: 1580-1640 CE (estimate from Wikipedia, needs checking and citation)
Spain and Portugal: 9,000,000-9,500,000: 1600 CE [3]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 99-100) McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of world population history. Great Britain: Penguin. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6U4QZXCG

[2]: (Payne 1973, 291) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP

[3]: (Payne 1973, 267) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7

levels.
Spain:
1. Capital (Madrid): Permanent court established in the 1560s by Philip II. [1]
1. Unofficial Capital: Before the 1560s: "The capital was where the monarch, the embodiment of the body politic, was to be found… often Toledo and other leading cities." [1] 2. Kingdoms/Provinces: Castile, Aragon, Valencia, León, Andalusia, Granada, Catalonia, Murica, Navarre [2] 3. Regional Capitals: Barcelona, Seville, Zaragoza, Pamplona [3] 4. Cities: Toledo5. Towns6. Villages7. Rural Settlements
Colonial Outposts

  • Spanish East Indies: Philippines
  • Viceroyalty of New Spain
  • Viceroyalty of Peru
  • North African Towns and Outposts
  • Canary Islands
Viceroyalty of Peru [4]
1. Audiencia Capitals. Examples: Bogota, Lima, Panama, Quito2. Major Provincial Cities. Examples: Cusco, Cartagena, Arequipa, Guayaquil,3. Missions
3. Presidios
3. Town4. Village (inferred)5. Rural Settlement (inferred)
Colonies Under the Iberian Union (1580-1640)
  • Brazil (Porto Seguro)
  • Azores
  • Ceuta
  • Madeira
  • Cape Verde
  • Angola
  • Mozambique
  • Ormuz (1515-1622)
  • Muscat (1508-1650)
  • Diu
  • Bombay
  • Goa
  • Calcut
  • Cochin
  • Colombo
  • Macau
  • Malacca (1511-1641)
  • Nagasaki (trading post until 1638)
  • Ternate (1522-1622)
  • East Timor
  • Mina (until 1637)
  • Mombasa
  • Guinea

[1]: (Alves, Abel. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.

[2]: (Sommerville, Johan. “Spain in the Seventeenth Century.” https://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/spain.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KQS9J33T)

[3]: Sommerville, Johan. “Spain in the Seventeenth Century.” https://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/spain.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KQS9J33T

[4]: (Kamen 2002, 24) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ


Religious Level:
10

levels.
1. Pope
2. King
3. Crown-Cardinal
3. Archbishop: Archbishop of Toledo, Archbishop of Burgos, Archbishop of Seville ("fourth highest ranking in Castilian see succession"), Archbishop of Santiago. [1]
3. Senior Royal Chaplain (traditionally held by the Archbishop of Santiago) [2]
3. Grand Almoner [2]
3. Grand Inquisitor (either a bishop or archbishop)
4. Bishop: In the Americas: “The king personally nominated bishops and abbots to the pope. Members of a cathedral chapter were selected by either the king or the Council of Indies from a list of three names submitted by the bishop. The crown normally delegated the appointment of parish priests to the viceroy or governor.” [3] [2]
5. Royal Confessor: "Those religious who had previously served as royal preachers or confessors, as provincials and generals of their orders, as university professors and as theological advisors (calificadores) to the inquisition all became major contenders for promotion to the Castilian episcopal bench." [4]
5. Royal Preachers: "Those religious who had previously served as royal preachers or confessors, as provincials and generals of their orders, as university professors and as theological advisors (calificadores) to the inquisition all became major contenders for promotion to the Castilian episcopal bench." [4]
6. Lesser Royal Chaplains [2]
7. Abbot [3] . In the Americas: “The king personally nominated bishops and abbots to the pope. Members of a cathedral chapter were selected by either the king or the Council of Indies from a list of three names submitted by the bishop. The crown normally delegated the appointment of parish priests to the viceroy or governor.” [3]
8. Parish Priest: In the Americas: “The king personally nominated bishops and abbots to the pope. Members of a cathedral chapter were selected by either the king or the Council of Indies from a list of three names submitted by the bishop. The crown normally delegated the appointment of parish priests to the viceroy or governor.” [3]
9. Deacon
9. Prior
10. Friar [5]
10. Monk [6]
10. Nun [7]
10. Overseas Missionaries [8]

  • “Until 1559 the crown had little direct influence on the church in the Netherlands.” [3]
  • “The church in the Italian kingdoms continued to operate in the canonical way, which is to say that cathedral chapters nominated bishops to the pope.” [3]

[1]: (Rawlings 2005, 457-468) Rawlings, Helen. 2005. "Bishops of the Habit in Castile, 1621-1665: A Prosopographical Approach." The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 455-472. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UZVV8CVN

[2]: (Rawlings 2005, 457) Rawlings, Helen. 2005. "Bishops of the Habit in Castile, 1621-1665: A Prosopographical Approach." The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 455-472. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UZVV8CVN

[3]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH

[4]: (Rawlings 2005, 461) Rawlings, Helen. 2005. "Bishops of the Habit in Castile, 1621-1665: A Prosopographical Approach." The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 455-472. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UZVV8CVN

[5]: (Rawlings 2005, 460) Rawlings, Helen. 2005. "Bishops of the Habit in Castile, 1621-1665: A Prosopographical Approach." The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 455-472. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UZVV8CVN

[6]: (Payne 1973, 377) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 2, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z6EHG6PP

[7]: (Payne 1973, 363) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 2, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z6EHG6PP

[8]: (Rawlings 2005, 462) Rawlings, Helen. 2005. "Bishops of the Habit in Castile, 1621-1665: A Prosopographical Approach." The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 455-472. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UZVV8CVN


Military Level:
13

levels.
1. King
2. Chief Secretary of Council of War (inferred)
3. Council of War (Consejo de Guerra) [1]
_Tercios_ (“Tercios were not, as a rule, employed within Spain, unless other forces could not be raised. Though well organized they were not numerous, and formed only a small proportion of the total forces available to the crown.”) [2]
4. Captain-General [3]
5. Maestre del Campo (Field Marshal): “Chosen by the Crown to command a new Tercio, or by the captain-general of a field army to fill a vacancy. He was to pass on the orders given by the captain-general, and to take command in the latter’s absence.” [3]
6. Sergento Mayor (Sergeant-Major): “The second-in-command of the Tercio, he was responsible for passing on the field marshal’s orders to the captains.” [4]
7. Capitán (Captain) [5]
8. Alférez (Ensign, Lieutenant) [6]
9. Sargento (Sergeant) [7]
10. Cabo (Corporal) [7]
11. Specialist: Arquebusier, Musketeer [7]
12. Coselete: soldier with armor [7]
13. Pica Seca: soldier without armor [7]
Headquarters positions:

  • Tambor Mayor (Drum Major): "The tambor mayor (drum major) reported directly to the sergeant-major, and was responsible for the training of all company drummers. He had to know the drumbeats of all nations, both allies and enemies. Together with the fife-players, the drummers marked the rhythm for marching." [8]
  • Furriel Mayor (quartermaster-major): "was responsible for the distribution of equipment and supplies, the organization of quarters, and the necessary bookkeeping. Below him, each company had a quartermaster to perform the same duties on a lesser scale." [8]
  • Barrachel (military provost) [8]
  • Auditor (legal officer): "one of his most important tasks was to validate the soldiers’ wills, which they customarily drew up before going into battle." [8]
  • Doctor [8]
  • Surgeon [8]
  • Barber [8]
  • Chaplain-major [8]

[1]: (Núñez 2006, 41) Nunez, Alfredo Jiménez. 2006. El Gran Norte de México: Une frontera imperial en la Nueva España (1540-1820). Madrid: Editorial Tebar, S.L. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/N28BC89X

[2]: (Kamen 2002, 359) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ

[3]: (López 2012, 38) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[4]: (López 2012, 42) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[5]: (López 2012, 44) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[6]: (López 2012, 45) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[7]: (López 2012, 47) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[8]: (López 2012, 51) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Administrative Level:
6

levels.
1. King
_Central Government_
2. Grand Chancellor [1]
2. Chief Secretaries of Councils [1] 3. Consejo de la Cámara de Castilla: small advisory cabinet to the King [1]
3. Council of State (Consejo de Estado) [2] : Archbishop of Toledo, Dukes of Alba and Bėjar, the royal confessor, and the Bishop of Jaén
3. Council of Castile (Consejo de Castilla) [2]
3. Council of War (Consejo de Guerra) [2]
3. Council of Finance (Consejo de Hacineda) [2]
3. Council of Aragon (Consejo de Aragon) [2]
3. Council of Portugal (Consejo de Portugal) [2]
3. Council of Flanders (Consejo de Flandes) [2]
3. Council of the Indes (Consejo de Indias) [3] [2] 4. House of Trade (Casa de Contratación) [4]
4. High Chancellor [3] 5. Lawyers [3]
5. Fiscal [3]
5. Secretaries [3]
5. Lieutenant Chancellor [3]
5. Accountants [3] 6. Auditors [3]
6. Copyrights [3]
6. Reporters [3]
6. Clerks [3]
3. Cortes Generales
_Aragon, Navarre, and Castile_
1. King
2. Council of Aragon, Castile
2. Cortes in Catalan: Aragon, Navarre and Castile: “Each of the three component states had its own Cortes (Corts in Catalan), but these bodies met together as a Cortes General to deal with matters involving the entire kingdom.” [5] 3. Deputy of the Generalitat (Cortes subcommittee): “Each body elected a subcommittee of its Cortes known as the Generalitat or Disputacio that contained a deputy and an oidor or an auditor from each of the three estates.” [5] 4. Low Officials (inferred)
_Colonial Government_
1. Viceroy: chief executive of the colony, representative of the king [6] Responsible to the Council of the Indes. "Although they governed from a royal court- situated permanently in Madrid after 1561- the Spanish Habsburgs relied on a decentralized power structure of viceroys, magistrates and royal officials who were stationed in a network of cities from Seville to Brussels and from Naples to Mexico City.” [7] "Viceroys represented the crown in Zaragoza, Barcelona, Valencia, Palermo, and Naples, and after the incorporation of Hispanic Navarre (1512), in Pamplona as well. Overseas, powers of viceroy were delegated to Columbus in the first charter of 1492 and subsequently divided between two viceroys in Mexico and Peru. All commerce and navigation with Spanish America was controlled and administered by the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade), an agency of the Council of the Indies established in Seville and modeled, to some extent at least, on the medieval Catalan consulate, though its powers were more extensive and arbitrary." [4]
1. Captain-general: "Captain-general: “the title of captain-general was primarily of military significance, and it was exercised alike by viceroys and governors; the official designation of the former being ‘my viceroy and captain-general’ and that of the latter being ‘my governor and captain general.” Not all governors were captains-general." [6]
1. Governor: chief executive of the colony, representative of the king [6]
1. Audiencia: tribunal of justice and administrative organs [8] "“The audiencias of the colonies were alike dependent on the Council of the Indes; common institutions and departments of government existed in Spain for the control and regulations of the tribunals of the colonies. All were of equal judicial rank before the Council of the Indes.” [9] 2. President [8]
2. Regent [8]
2. Magistrate [8] 3. Criminal alcade [8]
3. Fiscal [8]
3. Oidores [8]
_Provincial Government_
1. Military governors
1. Viceroy: "Viceroys represented the crown in Zaragoza, Barcelona, Valencia, Palermo, and Naples, and after the incorporation of Hispanic Navarre (1512), in Pamplona as well. Overseas, powers of viceroy were delegated to Columbus in the first charter of 1492 and subsequently divided between two viceroys in Mexico and Peru. All commerce and navigation with Spanish America was controlled and administered by the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade), an agency of the Council of the Indies established in Seville and modeled, to some extent at least, on the medieval Catalan consulate, though its powers were more extensive and arbitrary." [4]
1. Dukes (inferred)2. Provincial Estate: “Each province had its provincial estate, a representative body that included members from the towns and the from the land-holding nobility." [10] 3. Local government
_Village_
1. Feudal Lord [11] 2. Alcade Mayor [11] 3. Regidor [11]
3. Justice [11] 4. Market Inspector [11]
4. Constable [11]
4. Clerk of the Council [11]

[1]: (Elliot 1963, preview) Elliot, J.H. 1963. Imperial Spain 1469-1716. London: Edward Arnold.

[2]: (Núñez 2006, 41) Nunez, Alfredo Jiménez. 2006. El Gran Norte de México: Une frontera imperial en la Nueva España (1540-1820). Madrid: Editorial Tebar, S.L. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/N28BC89X

[3]: (Cunningham 1919, 25) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR

[4]: (Payne 1973, 256) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP

[5]: (Maltby 2009, 38) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH

[6]: (Cunningham 1919, 16-17) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR

[7]: (Escobar 2016, 259) Escobar, Jesús. 2016. "Architecture in the Age of the Spanish Habsburgs." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75(3): 258-261. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F2BFHI82

[8]: (Cunningham 1919, 33) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR

[9]: (Cunningham 1919, 14) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR

[10]: (Maltby 2009, 36) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH

[11]: (Casey 2002, 102) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Mercenaries.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Parish priests, missionaries, friars. [1]

[1]: (Cunningham 1919, 92) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR


Professional Military Officer:
present

’During the sixteenth century, the regular army became a popular institution, and even younger sons of the gentry sometimes served brief periods in the ranks. The officers were almost exclusively Spanishsubjects, until the latter part of the century, and these professionals provided the best leadership to befound in their time."


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Town Halls, civic buildings. [1]

[1]: (Escobar 2016, 260) Escobar, Jesús. 2016. "Architecture in the Age of the Spanish Habsburgs." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75(3): 258-261. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F2BFHI82


Merit Promotion:
present

Promotion in the aristocracy through military service. "The military leader was or became an aristocrat ipso facto, and the lower classes often had access to that rank through military achievement." [1] "Letrados could start life as commoners, although upon receiving a university education and serving as bureaucrats, they were treated as hidalgos." [2]

[1]: (Payne 1973, 268) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP

[2]: (Alves, Abel. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Officials


Examination System:
absent

Promotion in the aristocracy seemed to be through military service or inheritance. [1]

[1]: (Payne 1973, 271) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Lawyers present in the Council of the Indes. [1] [2]

[1]: (Cunningham 1919, 25) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR

[2]: (Casey 2002, 101) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Judges present in Europe and the colonies. “In 1511, a tribunal of independent royal judges was constituted in the colony of Espanola to try cases appealed from the town magistrates and the governor.” [1] [2]

[1]: (Cunningham 1919, 25.) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CM5NJJRR)

[2]: (Casey 2002, 88) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Formal Legal Code:
present

Roman and Spanish law. [1]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH


Courts present in Europe and the colonies. “In 1511, a tribunal of independent royal judges was constituted in the colony of Espanola to try cases appealed from the town magistrates and the governor.” [1] [2]

[1]: (Cunningham 1919, 25.) Cunningham, Charles Henry. 1919. The Audiencia in the Spanish Colonies As illustrated by the Audiencia of Manila (1583-1800).

[2]: (Escobar 2016, 260) Escobar, Jesus. 2016. "Architecture in the Age of the Spanish Habsburgs." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75(3): 258-261. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F2BFHI82


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

market-places were present [1] "What gave order to Granada, thought its chronicler Bermúdez de Pedraza (1638), was ultimately the network of markets—the plazas or squares, ‘the stomach of this commonwealth, from which food is distributed throughout its members’." [2]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 128) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Casey 2002, 114) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Irrigation System:
present

Sluice gates used for irrigation. [1] "Vilanova de Castelló (Valencia) borrowed heavily over several generations between 1587 and 1645 to build and maintain an irrigation canal." [2] However, there was not systemic nationwide irrigation: "The positive plans (among many fantasies) advocated by the arbitristas included the drastic cutting of government expenditure, the reform of the tax system, the encouragement of immigration into Castile, systematic and extensive irrigation, protection of industry, improvement of transport, and, finally, the sharing of the cost of empire among the constituent kingdoms of the monarchy. These were reasonable proposals, not unlike those put forward by mercantilist writers in the rest of Europe who treated economic activity as a means of increasing the power of the state. But time would show that the Castilian ruling classes would be neither capable nor willing to act on them." [3]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 32) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Casey 2002, 42) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[3]: -- “Spain | Facts, Culture, History, & Points of Interest.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed May 4, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/place/Spain/Spain-in-1600. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q2FI5HX5


Food Storage Site:
present

Seville set up a public granary in 1476. “During the sixteenth century, these municipal granaries (positos) began to spread throughout Castile and Valencia.” [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 129) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

“Seville relied partly on water brought fifteen miles from Alcara de Guadaira along an aqueduct built by the Muslims, and on from that Carmona, twenty mile away, running along another Roman aqueduct. A network of underground pipes, made of lead, carried the water to the fountains which stood in every little square and directly to a few of the chief households. Even small towns showed considerable ingenuity: Xativa, with about 8,000 inhabitants, had by the middle of the sixteenth century a new aqueduct to add to the old one, both bringing water from a league or so away. At least a quarter of the houses had their own piped supply.” [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 33) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Transport Infrastructure

Spain had a well-developed road system. [1] Improvements of roads and mountain passes were made under Charles III [2]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 23) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Casey 2002, 15) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Spain had a number of major ports. [1] [2]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 75) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Payne 1973, 296) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6MIH95XP


"Vilanova de Castelló (Valencia) borrowed heavily over several generations between 1587 and 1645 to build and maintain an irrigation canal." [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 42) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Bridge:
present

"Churches, town halls, bridges, and public works of all sorts were created in the image of Escorial well into the second quarter of the seventeenth century." [1] "A majority of deputies to the Cortes of 1586-8 criticised the government for authorising too many schemes for bridges, without offering any funds of its own to help along the work." [2]

[1]: (Escobar 2016, 260) Escobar, Jesús. 2016. "Architecture in the Age of the Spanish Habsburgs." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 75(3): 258-261. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F2BFHI82

[2]: (Casey 2002, 11) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Mines. [1]

[1]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 193) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

“The sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were a golden age in theology and devotional writing as well as politics.” [1] [2]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH

[2]: (Cowans 2003, 46) Cowans, John. 2003. Early Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MRSP5DU


Script:
present

“The sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were a golden age in theology and devotional writing as well as politics.” [1]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

“The sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were a golden age in theology and devotional writing as well as politics.” [1]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH


Nonwritten Record:
present

“The sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were a golden age in theology and devotional writing as well as politics.” [1] [2]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH

[2]: (Cowans 2003, 46) Cowans, John. 2003. Early Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MRSP5DU


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

example: Tomás de Mercado’s Suma de tratos y contratos (On deals and contracts) (1571)- economic science


Sacred Text:
present

The Bible (however, Castilian translations were destroyed during the Inquisition) [1]

[1]: (Greenslide 1975, 123) Greenslide, S. L. 1975. The Cambridge History of the Bible: The West from Reformation to Present Day. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JQ22AIMK


Religious Literature:
present

“The sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were a golden age in theology and devotional writing as well as politics.” [1]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 91) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH


Practical Literature:
present

example: Tomás de Mercado’s Suma de tratos y contratos (On deals and contracts) (1571)


Philosophy:
present

example: works by Baltasar Gracián and Francisco Suárez


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Classifications: “In May 1576 Philip issued a detailed list of forty-nine questions which were to be answered by all officials in America. The questionnaire covered every conceivable topic from botany and geography to economy and religion. The answers, the famous ‘geographic relations’, began to come in from 1577 and trickled through for ten years more.” [1]

[1]: (Kamen 2002, 353) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ


History:
present

Official cosmographer-historian appointed for America. [1] Official historians. [2] “In subsequent decades, Castilian historians reconciled themselves to the Habsburg dynasty so completely that they presented in their writings a Castile which had become, in the words of the emperor to the Cortes of Valladolid in 1523, ‘the head of all the rest’ (he meant the rest of the peninsular realms).” [3]

[1]: (Kamen 2002, 351) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ

[2]: (Kamen 2002, 204) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ

[3]: (Kamen 2002, 157) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ


Fiction:
present

example: Don Quixote; Lazarillo de Tormes


Calendar:
present

Spain adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1582. [1]

[1]: (Kamen 1998, 248) Kamen, Henry. 1998. Philip of Spain. New Haven: Yale University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z2SSCBKS


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Silver from the Americas used in trade [1]

[1]: (Philips and Philips 2010, 193) Philips, William D. and Carla Rahn Philips. 2010. A Concise History of Spain. Cambridge: CUP. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZT84ZFTP


Paper Currency:
absent

Banknotes were introduced in 1780 [1]

[1]: (Payne 1973, 365) Payne, Stanley G. 1973. A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 2, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z6EHG6PP


Indigenous Coin:
present

Copper coins for petty trade. [1] Silver and gold real coins.

[1]: (Casey 2002, 58) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Foreign Coin:
present

ducats, florins [1]

[1]: (Maltby 2009, 35) Maltby, William S. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SUSVXWVH


Article:
present

Sugar, spice [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 58) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

“A regular postal service was set up between Valencia and Madrid in the early sixteenth century, with riders guaranteeing to cover a minimum of ten leagues a day, and if they were paid extra, up to twenty leagues (112 km).” [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 14) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


General Postal Service:
present

“A regular postal service was set up between Valencia and Madrid in the early sixteenth century, with riders guaranteeing to cover a minimum of ten leagues a day, and if they were paid extra, up to twenty leagues (112 km).” [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 14) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Courier:
present

“A regular postal service was set up between Valencia and Madrid in the early sixteenth century, with riders guaranteeing to cover a minimum of ten leagues a day, and if they were paid extra, up to twenty leagues (112 km).” [1]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 14) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Wooden palisades used in Callao, Peru [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 54) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Stone walls built as defences in Peru [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 85) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"The great economic historian Carande, in the title of a famous essay, called Seville ‘a fortress and a market’, and it is a useful reminder of the twin functions of the Spanish town." [1] Fortress towns. [2]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 115-6) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Casey 2002, 3 Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Modern Fortification:
present

Royal Fortress of the Concepcion built in 1663 on the Portuguese-Spanish border area. It’s an example of a starfort.


Moat used as a defence in Peru. [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 58) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Fortified Camp:
present

Garrisons [1] "Since the great wars of the fourteenth century, when Barcelona and Valencia built the magnificent fortifications which survived down to the nineteenth century, the walls of Spanish towns had generally been allowed to fall into decline. Travellers from the war-torn Europe of the 1500s and 1600s were surprised at how Spain managed to get along with medieval ramparts, and how little was spent on the bastions and counter-scarps of contemporary defence. But the walls were still used as a control on movement in and out, and particularly for the collection of the sisas or excise tax, which was the basis of municipal budgets." [2] Fortress towns. [3]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 195) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR

[2]: (Casey 2002, 113) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[3]: (Casey 2002, 3 Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT


Earth Rampart:
present

"Trenches and earthworks" in Callao, Peru [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 54) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


"Trenches and earthworks" at Callao [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 54) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Complex Fortification:
absent

"Since the great wars of the fourteenth century, when Barcelona and Valencia built the magnificent fortifications which survived down to the nineteenth century, the walls of Spanish towns had generally been allowed to fall into decline. Travellers from the war-torn Europe of the 1500s and 1600s were surprised at how Spain managed to get along with medieval ramparts, and how little was spent on the bastions and counter-scarps of contemporary defence. But the walls were still used as a control on movement in and out, and particularly for the collection of the sisas or excise tax, which was the basis of municipal budgets." [1] Fortress towns. [2]

[1]: (Casey 2002, 113) Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT

[2]: (Casey 2002, 3 Casey, James. 2002. Early Modern Spain: A Social History. New York: Routledge. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNTRSWT



Military use of Metals

Examples: steel flintlock [1] , steel gauntlets [2]

[1]: (López 2012, 91) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[2]: (López 2012, 67) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Examples: iron gunpowder flask [1] , iron kettle hats [2]

[1]: (López 2012, 90) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ

[2]: (López 2012, 106) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Widespread in Europe by this time.


Widespread in Europe by this time.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Inferred from the absence of tension siege engines in previous and subsequent polities in Cuzco.



Used against the Spanish by the Maya. [1] We need to know whether the Habsburgs used them.

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS

Used against the Spanish by the Maya. [1] We need to know whether the Habsburgs used them.

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Cuzco. Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Used against the Spanish by Aztecs, Inca, and Maya, etc. [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Inferred use (even if rarely) against the Incas and Aztecs by Spanish soldiers. “Rocks provided an almost limitless supply of ammunition, and the wooden and stone arrows and javelins could also be manufactured in great numbers.” [1] We don’t know whether the Habsburgs use them themselves.

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Handheld Firearm:
present

Arquebusiers , Muskets [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 56 ) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Cannons [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 56 ) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


“The crossbow, too, was only of limited use of the Spanish. It could fire at a superior velocity when compared to the native bows, but that extra power was designed to penetrated metal armour on the European battlefields.” [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Composite Bow:
absent

Inferred from the absence of composite bows in previous and subsequent polities in Cuzco.


Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Used against the Spanish by Maya. [1] We need to know whether the Habsburgs used them.

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS

Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Used against the Spanish by Maya. [1] We need to know whether the Habsburgs used them.

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Handheld weapons

Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Inferred use (even if rarely) against the Incas and Aztecs by Spanish soldiers. Used against the Spanish by the Aztecs: macana wooden clubs. [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


“The sword remained as a secondary weapon for hand-to-hand fighting.” [1]

[1]: (López 2012, 87) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Pikes, lances. [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 54) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


“The company officers carried different polearms. The halberd was the weapon of the sergeants.” “Captains (and sometimes sergeant-majors carried a gineta, with a teardrop-shaped blade above a fringed collar, and the partesana was the weapon of corporals. However these arms were carried as distinctions of status rather than fighting, and captains fought with the weapons of their companies.” [1]

[1]: (López 2012, 86-7) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


“Each fighter was expected to carry a dagger, both as a weapon of last resort and an everyday tool.” [1]

[1]: (López 2012, 87) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Battle Axe:
present

Did Spanish soldiers ever use New World weapons? Inferred use (even if rarely) against the Incas and Aztecs by Spanish soldiers. Used against the Spanish by the Incas. [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Animals used in warfare

Inferred from the absence of elephants in previous polities in Cuzco.


Used for military transportation [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 56) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR



Inferred from the absence of camels in previous polities in Cuzco.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Wooden shields [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)


Scaled Armor:
present

Helmets with “an additional plate or lamellar neck and cheek protection.” [1]

[1]: (López 2012, 93) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Plate Armor:
present

"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [2]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Limb Protection:
present

"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [2] “The armour used by soldiers of the Tercio diminished over the years. The 16th century heavy coslete who fought exposed in the front several ranks of the squadron wore a full cuirass, a gorget tasset hanging down the thights, armour covering the upper and lower arms, and metal plated gauntlets.” [3]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS

[3]: (López 2012, 91-2) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Leather Cloth:
present

“Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [1]

[1]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Laminar Armor:
absent

"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [2]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [2] “Both the classes of pikemen and 16th century arquebusiers usually wore a metal helmet.” [3]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS

[3]: (López 2012, 93) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “Captains and wealthier nobles might have three-quarter armour, consisting of a closed helmet, curiass (breastplate), arm defences, and leg defences that ended at the knees. Those of lesser means made do with a helmet and some form of leather or cotton armour. In time, however, the Spanish began to favour the native-style quilted cotton armour, which was far more comfortable to wear in the humid climate of the New World.” [2]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (Pemberton 2011, preview) Pemberton, John. 2011. Conquistadors: Searching for El Dorado: The Terrifying Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Canary Press eBooks Limited. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3SI549GS


Breastplate:
present

"The widespread use of firearms and waning popularity of jousting tournaments caused a steep decline in the production of armor in the seventeenth century. Because the symbolic value of armor outlived its effectiveness in battle, sumptuous examples were still made as diplomatic gifts and appeared in portraits of members of the royal family." [1] “The armour used by soldiers of the Tercio diminished over the years. The 16th century heavy coslete who fought exposed in the front several ranks of the squadron wore a full cuirass, a gorget tasset hanging down the thights, armour covering the upper and lower arms, and metal plated gauntlets.” [2]

[1]: “The Art of Power: Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain. National Gallery of Art. Web. Accessed May 5, 2017. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WHH6KD3N)

[2]: (López 2012, 91-2) López, Ignacio J.N. 2012. The Spanish Tercios 1536-1704. Osprey Publishing. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4EWFWHCQ


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

The Spanish Armada. "The Armada of 1588 was a much more complex enterprise than the expedition to Lepanto seventeen years earlier had been. It was the most massive high seas fleet that Europe had ever seen, but it was also part of an amphibious operation that planned to ferry much of the Spanish forces in the Low Countries to a land invasion of England. There were some one hundred thirty ships in the Armada." “In the 1550s, two-thirds of the Mediterranean galleys employed by the crown were contracted from private owners, the majority Italians” [1]

[1]: (Kamen 2002, 305) Kamen, Henry. 2002. Spain’s Road to Empire: The Making of a World Power, 1492-1763. London: Penguin Books. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5IIFB6KQ


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Canoes in Peru (transportation or military?) [1]

[1]: (Bradley 2009, 197) Bradley, Peter T. 2009. Spain and the Defense of Peru: Royal Reluctance and Colonial Self-Reliance. Lulu.com. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/VFMNE6JR


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions