List of all:

Polities (light)


Europe

Western Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Beaker Culture fr_beaker_eba FrBeakr 3200 BCE 2000 BCE
  Atlantic Complex fr_atlantic_complex FrAtlBA 2200 BCE 1000 BCE
  Hallstatt A-B1 fr_hallstatt_a_b1 FrHallA 1000 BCE 900 BCE
  Hallstatt B2-3 fr_hallstatt_b2_3 FrHallB 900 BCE 700 BCE
  Hallstatt C fr_hallstatt_c FrHallC 700 BCE 600 BCE
  Hallstatt D fr_hallstatt_d FrHallD 600 BCE 475 BCE
  La Tene A-B1 fr_la_tene_a_b1 FrTeneA 475 BCE 325 BCE
  La Tene B2-C1 fr_la_tene_b2_c1 FrTeneB 325 BCE 175 BCE
  La Tene C2-D fr_la_tene_c2_d FrTeneC 175 BCE 27 BCE
  Brythonic Kingdoms gb_brythonic_k 410 CE 1283 CE
  Anglo-Saxon England I gb_anglo_saxon_1 gb_anglo_saxon 410 CE 926 CE
  Kingdom of the Burgundians fr_burgundian_k 411 CE 534 CE
  Early Merovingian fr_merovingian_emp_1 FrMervE 481 CE 543 CE
  Dál Riata gb_dal_riata 498 CE 899 CE
  Middle Merovingian fr_merovingian_emp_2 FrMervM 543 CE 687 CE
  Duchy of Aquitaine I fr_aquitaine_duc_1 FrAquit 602 CE 768 CE
  Proto-Carolingian fr_merovingian_emp_3 FrMervL 687 CE 751 CE
  Carolingian Empire I fr_carolingian_emp_1 FrCarlE 752 CE 840 CE
  Carolingian Empire II fr_carolingian_emp_2 FrCarlL 840 CE 987 CE
  Danelaw gb_danelaw 878 CE 954 CE
  Duchy of Aquitaine II fr_aquitania_duc_2 893 CE 1137 CE
  Kingdom of Alba gb_alba_k 900 CE 1286 CE
  Anglo-Saxon England II gb_anglo_saxon_2 gb_england_k 927 CE 1065 CE
  Proto-French Kingdom fr_capetian_k_1 FrCaptE 987 CE 1150 CE
  Norman England gb_england_norman 1067 CE 1143 CE
  Plantagenet England gb_england_plantagenet 1144 CE 1485 CE
  French Kingdom - Late Capetian fr_capetian_k_2 FrCaptL 1150 CE 1328 CE
  French Kingdom - Early Valois fr_valois_k_1 FrValoE 1328 CE 1450 CE
  French Kingdom - Late Valois fr_valois_k_2 FrValoL 1450 CE 1589 CE
  Tudor and Early Stuart England gb_england_tudor_and_early_stuart GBEnglK 1486 CE 1689 CE
  French Kingdom - Early Bourbon fr_bourbon_k_1 FrBurbE 1589 CE 1660 CE
  French Kingdom - Late Bourbon fr_bourbon_k_2 FrBurbL 1660 CE 1815 CE
  British Empire I gb_british_emp_1 1690 CE 1849 CE
  Napoleonic France fr_france_napoleonic 1816 CE 1870 CE
  British Empire II gb_british_emp_2 GbEmpr2 1850 CE 1968 CE
  British Empire IIIIIIIIII gb_british_emp_222222 1850 CE 1968 CE
  Modern France I fr_france_modern_1 1871 CE 1940 CE
  Republic of Ireland ei_ireland_rep 1922 CE 2020 CE

Southern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Latium - Copper Age it_latium_ca ItLatCA 3600 BCE 1800 BCE
  Latium - Bronze Age it_latium_ba ItLatBA 1800 BCE 900 BCE
  Latium - Iron Age it_latium_ia ItLatIA 1000 BCE 580 BCE
  Roman Kingdom it_roman_k ItRomRg 716 BCE 509 BCE
  Early Roman Republic it_roman_rep_1 ItRomER 509 BCE 264 BCE
  Middle Roman Republic it_roman_rep_2 ItRomMR 264 BCE 133 BCE
  Late Roman Republic it_roman_rep_3 ItRomLR 133 BCE 31 BCE
  Roman Empire - Principate it_roman_principate ItRomPr 31 BCE 284 CE
  Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity it_western_roman_emp ItRomWe 395 CE 476 CE
  Kingdom of the Suebi pt_suebi_k 409 CE 584 CE
  Visigothic Kingdom es_visigothic_k EsVisigoth 418 CE 711 CE
  Italian Kingdom Late Antiquity it_italy_k ItRomLA 476 CE 489 CE
  Ostrogothic Kingdom it_ostrogoth_k ItOstrg 489 CE 554 CE
  Exarchate of Ravenna it_ravenna_exarchate ItRav** 568 CE 751 CE
  Lombard Kingdom it_lombard_k ItLombr 568 CE 774 CE
  Republic of St Peter I it_st_peter_rep_1 ItStPet 711 CE 904 CE
  Kingdom of Asturias es_asturias_k 718 CE 924 CE
  Emirate of Córdoba es_cordoba_emirate 756 CE 928 CE
  Rome - Republic of St Peter II it_st_peter_rep_2 ItPapEM 904 CE 1198 CE
  Leon es_leon_k EsLeon 910 CE 1158 CE
  Kingdom of Galicia es_galicia_k 911 CE 1111 CE
  Cordoba Caliphate es_cordoba_cal EsCordo 929 CE 1031 CE
  Taifas of Iberia es_taifas 1010 CE 1241 CE
  Aragon Kingdom es_aragon_k EsAragn 1035 CE 1163 CE
  Castile Kingdom es_castile_k EsCastil 1065 CE 1230 CE
  Republic of Genoa I it_genoa_rep 1099 CE 1284 CE
  Republic and Duchy of Florence it_florence_rep 1115 CE 1568 CE
  Kingdom of Portugal pt_portugal_k 1139 CE 1494 CE
  Crown of Aragon es_aragon_crown 1164 CE 1515 CE
  Sicily Kingdom it_sicily_k ItSicilK 1194 CE 1266 CE
  Papal States - High Medieval Period it_papal_state_1 ItPapHM 1198 CE 1309 CE
  Republic of Venice III it_venetian_rep_3 ItVenR3 1204 CE 1563 CE
  Leon & Castille es_leon_castille EsLeCas 1230 CE 1715 CE
  Crown of Castile es_castile_crown 1231 CE 1515 CE
  Kingdom of Naples it_naples_k 1282 CE 1442 CE
  Republic of Genoa II it_genoa_rep_2 1285 CE 1528 CE
  Italian Republic Restoration Period it_republic_restoration 1309 CE 1378 CE
  Papal States - Renaissance Period it_papal_state_2 ItPapRn 1378 CE 1527 CE
  Duchy of Milan it_milan_duc_1 1395 CE 1534 CE
  Portuguese Empire - Renaissance Period pt_portuguese_emp_1 1495 CE 1579 CE
  Duchy of Milan II it_milan_duc_2 1499 CE 1796 CE
  Spanish Empire I es_spanish_emp_1 EsHabsb 1516 CE 1715 CE
  Papal States - Medieval Period I it_papal_state_3 ItPapM1 1527 CE 1648 CE
  Republic of Genoa III it_genoa_rep_3 1529 CE 1797 CE
  Republic of Venice IV it_venetian_rep_4 ItVenR4 1564 CE 1797 CE
  Grand Duchy of Tuscany it_tuscany_grand_duc 1569 CE 1860 CE
  Portuguese Empire - Early Modern pt_portuguese_emp_2 1640 CE 1806 CE
  Papal States - Medieval Period II it_papal_state_4 ItPapM2 1648 CE 1809 CE
  Spanish Empire II es_spanish_emp_2 1716 CE 1814 CE
  Late Dutch Empire nl_dutch_emp_2 1815 CE 1940 CE
  Spanish Empire III es_spanish_emp_3 1815 CE 1931 CE
  Kingdom of Italy it_italian_k 1861 CE 1946 CE

Northern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Kingdom of Norway I no_norway_k_1 872 CE 1261 CE
  Icelandic Commonwealth is_icelandic_commonwealth IsCommw 930 CE 1262 CE
  Kingdom of Norway II no_norway_k_2 NorKing 1262 CE 1380 CE
  Kalmar Union sv_kalmar_union SeKalma 1397 CE 1523 CE
  Swedish Kingdom sv_swedish_k SeSwedi 1523 CE 1721 CE
  United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway sv_united_k_sweden_and_norway 1816 CE 1905 CE
  Danish Empire dk_danish_emp_modern 1816 CE 1940 CE
  Kingdom of Norway - Modern no_norway_k_modern 1905 CE 1940 CE
  Kingdom of Sweden sv_sweden_k_modern 1906 CE 2020 CE
  Republic of Finland su_finland_rep 1917 CE 2020 CE

Central Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Kingdom of the Huns hu_hun_k HuKHuns 376 CE 469 CE
  Avar Khaganate hu_avar_khaganate HuAvarK 586 CE 822 CE
  Samo's Empire it_genoa_rep_1 cz_samo_k 623 CE 658 CE
  Great Moravia cz_moravia_k 820 CE 907 CE
  East Francia de_east_francia 842 CE 919 CE
  Principality of Hungary hu_hungary_principality 895 CE 999 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Ottonian-Salian Dynasty de_empire_1 919 CE 1125 CE
  Polish Kingdom - Piast Dynasty pl_piast_dyn_1 PlPoliK 963 CE 1138 CE
  Hungary Kingdom - Árpád Dynasty hu_arpad_dyn 1000 CE 1301 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen and Welf Dynasties de_empire_2 1126 CE 1254 CE
  Polish Kingdom - Piast Dynasty Fragmented Period pl_piast_dyn_2 1139 CE 1370 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Hohenstaufen Faction de_empire_2_sub 1198 CE 1215 CE
  Kingdom of Bohemia - Přemyslid Dynasty cz_bohemian_k_1 1198 CE 1309 CE
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania lt_lithuania_grand_duc 1220 CE 1385 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Fragmented Period de_empire_3 1255 CE 1453 CE
  State of the Teutonic Order pl_teutonic_order PlTeuton 1300 CE 1400 CE
  Hungary Kingdom - Anjou and Later Dynasties hu_later_dyn 1302 CE 1526 CE
  Kingdom of Bohemia - Luxembourgian and Jagiellonian Dynasty cz_bohemian_k_2 1310 CE 1526 CE
  Old Swiss Confederacy ch_swiss_conf_1 1315 CE 1515 CE
  Poland-Lithuania Kingdom pl_jagiellonian_dyn PlPoLit 1386 CE 1569 CE
  Electorate of Brandenburg de_hohenzollern_1 de_brandenburg_1 1415 CE 1618 CE
  Austria - Habsburg Dynasty I at_habsburg_1 1454 CE 1648 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Minor Imperial States I de_empire_minor_1 1454 CE 1648 CE
  Swiss Confederation - early modern period ch_swiss_conf_2 1516 CE 1798 CE
  Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth pl_poland_lithuania_commonwealth 1570 CE 1791 CE
  Brandenburg-Prussia de_hohenzollern_2 de_brandenburg_2 1618 CE 1870 CE
  Electorate of Bavaria de_bavaria_1 1623 CE 1806 CE
  Austria - Habsburg Dynasty II at_habsburg_2 1649 CE 1918 CE
  Holy Roman Empire - Minor Imperial States II de_empire_minor_2 1649 CE 1806 CE
  Swiss Confederation - Napoleonic period ch_swiss_conf_3 1799 CE 1848 CE
  Swiss Confederation - modern period ch_swiss_conf_4 1849 CE 2014 CE
  Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at_austro_hungarian_emp 1867 CE 1918 CE
  Germany - Hohenzollern Dynasty de_hohenzollern_3 1871 CE 1918 CE
  Weimar Republic de_weimar_rep 1918 CE 1932 CE
  Interwar Austria at_interwar_austria 1918 CE 1938 CE
  Czechoslovakia cz_czechoslovakia 1919 CE 1992 CE
  Nazi Germany de_ns_germany de_third_reich 1933 CE 1945 CE
  Second Austrian Republic at_austrian_rep_2 1945 CE 2020 CE
  Polish People's Republic pl_polish_peoples_rep 1953 CE 1989 CE
  Czech Republic cz_czech_rep 1993 CE 2020 CE

Southeastern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Neolithic Crete gr_crete_nl GrCrNeo 7000 BCE 3000 BCE
  Prepalatial Crete gr_crete_pre_palace GrCrPre 3000 BCE 1900 BCE
  The Old Palace Crete gr_crete_old_palace GrCrOPa 1900 BCE 1700 BCE
  New Palace Crete gr_crete_new_palace GrCrNPa 1700 BCE 1450 BCE
  Monopalatial Crete gr_crete_mono_palace GrCrMPa 1450 BCE 1300 BCE
  Postpalatial Crete gr_crete_post_palace_1 GrCrPPa 1300 BCE 1200 BCE
  Final Postpalatial Crete gr_crete_post_palace_2 GrCrFPa 1200 BCE 1000 BCE
  Geometric Crete gr_crete_geometric GrCrGeo 1000 BCE 710 BCE
  Archaic Crete gr_crete_archaic GrCrArc 710 BCE 500 BCE
  Classical Crete gr_crete_classical GrCrCls 500 BCE 323 BCE
  Macedonian Empire gr_macedonian_emp GrMaced 330 BCE 312 BCE
  Hellenistic Crete gr_crete_hellenistic GrCrHel 323 BCE 69 BCE
  Kingdom of the Gepids rs_gepid_k 454 CE 567 CE
  Bulgaria - Early bg_bulgaria_early BgErBlg 681 CE 864 CE
  Duchy and Kingdom of Croatia hr_croatia_k 790 CE 1102 CE
  The Emirate of Crete gr_crete_emirate GrCrEmr 824 CE 961 CE
  Bulgaria - Middle bg_bulgaria_medieval BgMdBlg 865 CE 1018 CE
  Volga Kingdom bg_volga_k BgVolga 965 CE 1236 CE
  Grand Principality, Kingdom and Serbian Empire rs_serbia_k 1091 CE 1371 CE
  Banate of Bosnia ba_bosnia_banate 1154 CE 1376 CE
  Kingdom of Cyprus cy_cyprus_k 1192 CE 1489 CE
  Principality of Achaea gr_achaea_principality 1204 CE 1432 CE
  Despotate of Epirus gr_epirus_despot 1205 CE 1479 CE
  Kingdom of Bosnia ba_bosnia_k 1377 CE 1463 CE
  Yugoslavia sr_yugoslavia 1944 CE 1992 CE

Eastern Europe (Europe)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Third Scythian Kingdom ua_skythian_k_3 UaSky3K 429 BCE 225 BCE
  Novgorod Land ru_novgorod_land RuNovPr 880 CE 1240 CE
  Kievan Rus ua_kievan_rus UaKiev1 880 CE 1242 CE
  Principality of Ryazan ru_ryazan_principality RuRyazan 1097 CE 1521 CE
  Russian Principate ua_russian_principate UaRusPr 1133 CE 1240 CE
  Novgorod Republic ru_novgorod_rep RuNovRp 1135 CE 1478 CE
  Vladimir-Suzdal ru_vladimir_suzdal RuVldSz 1157 CE 1331 CE
  Galicia-Volhynia Principality ua_galicia_volhynia_principality UaGalicia 1199 CE 1349 CE
  Grand Principality of Moscow, Mongolian period ru_moskva_mongolian_period 1240 CE 1479 CE
  Principality of Wallachia ro_wallachia_principality ro_wallachia_k 1330 CE 1859 CE
  Principality of Moldavia I md_moldavia_principality_1 1346 CE 1503 CE
  Grand Principality of Moscow, Rurikid Dynasty ru_moskva_rurik_dyn RuMoskva 1480 CE 1613 CE
  Principality of Moldavia II md_moldavia_principality_2 1504 CE 1710 CE
  Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty I ru_romanov_dyn_1 1614 CE 1775 CE
  Principality of Moldavia III md_moldavia_principality_3 1711 CE 1859 CE
  Russian Empire, Romanov Dynasty II ru_romanov_dyn_2 1776 CE 1917 CE
  Soviet Union ru_soviet_union 1918 CE 1991 CE
  Republic of Poland I pl_polish_rep_1 1919 CE 1939 CE

Africa

Maghreb (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Carthage Empire tn_carthage_emp TnCarth 814 BCE 146 BCE
  Numidia dz_numidia DzNumid 220 BCE 46 BCE
  Vandal Kingdom dz_vandal_k DzVandal 429 CE 534 CE
  Tahert dz_tahert DzTahrt 761 CE 909 CE
  Idrisids ma_idrisid_dyn MaIdris 789 CE 917 CE
  Zirids tn_zirid_dyn TnZirid 973 CE 1148 CE
  Almoravids ma_almoravid_dyn MaAlmor 1035 CE 1150 CE
  Almohad Empire ma_almohad_emp MaAlmoh 1123 CE 1248 CE
  Banu Ghaniya ib_banu_ghaniya IbBnGhn 1126 CE 1227 CE
  Hafsid Dynasty tn_hafsid_dyn TnHafsid 1227 CE 1452 CE
  Tlemcen dz_tlemcen DzTlmcn 1235 CE 1554 CE
  Marinid Dynasty ma_marinid_dyn MaMarinid 1269 CE 1465 CE
  Wattasid ma_wattasid_dyn MaWaFez 1465 CE 1554 CE
  Alaouite Dynasty I mo_alawi_dyn_1 1631 CE 1727 CE
  Alawi Dynasty mo_alawi_dyn_2 1728 CE 1912 CE
  Republic of Tunisia tn_tunisia_rep 1956 CE 2020 CE

Northeast Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Badarian eg_badarian EgBadar 4400 BCE 3800 BCE
  Naqada I eg_naqada_1 EgNaqa1 3800 BCE 3550 BCE
  Naqada II eg_naqada_2 EgNaqa2 3550 BCE 3300 BCE
  Egypt - Dynasty 0 eg_naqada_3 EgNaqa3 3300 BCE 3100 BCE
  Egypt - Dynasty I eg_dynasty_1 EgDyn1* 3100 BCE 2900 BCE
  Egypt - Dynasty II eg_dynasty_2 EgDyn2* 2900 BCE 2687 BCE
  Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom eg_old_k_1 EgOldK1 2650 BCE 2350 BCE
  Egypt - Late Old Kingdom eg_old_k_2 EgOldK2 2350 BCE 2150 BCE
  Egypt - Period of the Regions eg_regions EgRegns 2150 BCE 2016 BCE
  Egypt - Middle Kingdom eg_middle_k EgMidKg 2016 BCE 1700 BCE
  Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period eg_thebes_hyksos EgThebH 1720 BCE 1567 BCE
  Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period eg_new_k_1 EgNKThu 1550 BCE 1293 BCE
  Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period eg_new_k_2 EgNKRam 1293 BCE 1070 BCE
  Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period eg_thebes_libyan EgThebL 1069 BCE 747 BCE
  Egypt - Kushite Period eg_kushite SdKusht 747 BCE 656 BCE
  Kush Kingdom sd_kush_k SdKush 747 BCE 656 BCE
  Egypt - Saite Period eg_saite EgSaite 664 BCE 525 BCE
  Meroe sd_meroe Meroe 600 BCE 300 BCE
  Egypt - Inter-Occupation Period eg_inter_occupation EgIntOc 404 BCE 342 BCE
  Ptolemaic Kingdom I eg_ptolemaic_k_1 EgPtol1 305 BCE 217 BCE
  Ptolemaic Kingdom II eg_ptolemaic_k_2 EgPtol2 217 BCE 30 BCE
  Makuria Kingdom I sd_makuria_k_1 SdMakur1 568 CE 618 CE
  Alodia Kingdom sd_alodia SdAlodia 600 CE 1504 CE
  Makuria Kingdom II sd_makuria_k_2 SdMakur2 619 CE 849 CE
  Makuria Kingdom III sd_makuria_k_3 SdMakur3 850 CE 1099 CE
  Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period eg_thulunid_ikhshidid EgTulIk 868 CE 969 CE
  Fatimid Caliphate tn_fatimid_cal TnFatim 909 CE 1171 CE
  Ayyubid Sultanate eg_ayyubid_sultanate EgAyyub 1171 CE 1250 CE
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I eg_mamluk_sultanate_1 EgMamBh 1260 CE 1348 CE
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II eg_mamluk_sultanate_2 EgMamCP 1348 CE 1412 CE
  Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III eg_mamluk_sultanate_3 EgMamBu 1412 CE 1517 CE
  Republic of Egypt eg_egypt_rep 1959 CE 2020 CE

Sahel (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Mauretania ma_mauretania MaKgMau 125 BCE 44 CE
  Kanem Empire td_kanem TdKanem 850 CE 1380 CE
  Zayyanid Berber Kingdom dz_zayyanid_dyn DzBrbZy 1235 CE 1509 CE
  Songhai Empire ml_songhai_1 MlSong1 1376 CE 1493 CE
  Bornu Empire td_bornu_emp TdBornu 1380 CE 1846 CE

West Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Middle and Late Nok ni_nok_1 1500 BCE 901 BCE
  Middle and Late Nok ni_nok_2 900 BCE 0 CE
  Proto-Yoruboid ni_proto_yoruboid 300 BCE 300 CE
  Jenne-jeno I ml_jenne_jeno_1 MlJeJe1 250 BCE 49 CE
  Jenne-jeno II ml_jenne_jeno_2 MlJeJe2 50 CE 399 CE
  West Burkina Faso Yellow I bf_west_burkina_faso_yellow_5 100 CE 500 CE
  Early Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_1 MrWagdE 250 CE 700 CE
  Proto-Yoruba ni_proto_yoruba 301 CE 649 CE
  Jenne-jeno III ml_jenne_jeno_3 MlJeJe3 400 CE 899 CE
  West Burkina Faso Yellow II bf_west_burkina_faso_yellow_6 501 CE 700 CE
  Kwararafa ni_kwararafa 596 CE 1820 CE
  Pre-Sape Sierra Leone si_pre_sape 600 CE 1400 CE
  Late Formative Yoruba ni_formative_yoruba 650 CE 1049 CE
  Middle Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_2 MrWagdM 700 CE 1077 CE
  West Burkina Faso Red I bf_west_burkina_faso_red_1 701 CE 1100 CE
  Kanem cd_kanem 800 CE 1379 CE
  Igodomingodo ni_igodomingodo 900 CE 1450 CE
  Jenne-jeno IV ml_jenne_jeno_4 MlJeJe4 900 CE 1300 CE
  Hausa bakwai ni_hausa_k 900 CE 1808 CE
  Classical Ife ni_yoruba_classic 1000 CE 1400 CE
  Ọ̀ràézè Ǹrì ni_nri_k 1043 CE 1911 CE
  Later Wagadu Empire mr_wagadu_3 MrWagdL 1078 CE 1203 CE
  Mossi bf_mossi_k_1 1100 CE 1897 CE
  Allada ni_allada_k 1100 CE 1724 CE
  West Burkina Faso Red II and III bf_west_burkina_faso_red_2 1100 CE 1400 CE
  Benin Empire ni_benin_emp 1140 CE 1897 CE
  Mali Empire ml_mali_emp MlMali* 1230 CE 1410 CE
  Kingdom of Waalo se_waalo_k 1287 CE 1855 CE
  Oyo ni_oyo_emp_1 1300 CE 1535 CE
  Kingdom of Sine se_sine_k 1350 CE 1887 CE
  Jolof Empire se_jolof_emp 1360 CE 1549 CE
  Kanem-Borno ni_bornu_emp 1380 CE 1893 CE
  Sape si_sape 1400 CE 1550 CE
  West Burkina Faso Red IV bf_west_burkina_faso_red_4 1401 CE 1500 CE
  Kingdom of Saloum se_saloum_k 1490 CE 1863 CE
  Denyanke Kingdom se_great_fulo_emp 1490 CE 1776 CE
  Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty ml_songhai_2 MlSong2 1493 CE 1591 CE
  Kaabu gm_kaabu_emp 1500 CE 1867 CE
  Akan - Pre-Ashanti gh_akan GhAshnE 1501 CE 1701 CE
  Kingdom of Jolof se_jolof_k 1549 CE 1865 CE
  Kingdom of Cayor se_cayor_k 1549 CE 1864 CE
  Kingdom of Baol se_baol_k 1550 CE 1890 CE
  Mane si_mane_emp 1550 CE 1650 CE
  Saadi Sultanate ma_saadi_sultanate MaSaadi 1554 CE 1659 CE
  Foys ni_dahomey_k 1600 CE 1892 CE
  Igala ni_igala_k 1600 CE 1900 CE
  Ilú-ọba Ọ̀yọ́ ni_oyo_emp_2 1601 CE 1835 CE
  Segou Kingdom ml_segou_k MlSegou 1650 CE 1712 CE
  Early Modern Sierra Leone si_early_modern_interior 1650 CE 1896 CE
  Whydah ni_whydah_k 1671 CE 1727 CE
  Aro ni_aro 1690 CE 1902 CE
  Ashanti Empire gh_ashanti_emp GhAshnL 1701 CE 1895 CE
  Wattara Empire ic_wattara_emp 1710 CE 1895 CE
  Bamana kingdom ml_bamana_k MlBaman 1712 CE 1861 CE
  Futa Jallon gu_futa_jallon 1725 CE 1896 CE
  Imamate of Futa Toro se_futa_toro_imamate 1776 CE 1860 CE
  Freetown si_freetown_1 1787 CE 1808 CE
  Sokoto Caliphate ni_sokoto_cal 1804 CE 1904 CE
  Wukari Federation ni_wukari_fed 1820 CE 1899 CE

Central Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Early Nyoro ug_early_nyoro UgEarlyNyoro 900 CE 1449 CE
  Cwezi Dynasty ug_bunyoro_k_1 UgCwezi 1450 CE 1699 CE
  Kingdom of Congo ao_kongo_2 AoKngo2 1491 CE 1568 CE
  Kingdom of Lunda cg_lunda_k 1600 CE 1895 CE
  Kingdom of Rwanda rw_rwanda_k 1650 CE 1897 CE
  Bito Dynasty ug_bunyoro_k_2 UgBito 1700 CE 1894 CE
  Democratic Republic of the Congo cg_congo_democratic_rep 1960 CE 2020 CE
  Republic of Rwanda rw_rwanda_rep 1962 CE 2020 CE

East Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Harla Kingdom et_harla_k 10000 BCE 2000 CE
  Mubari rw_mubari_k Mubari 10000 BCE 2000 CE
  Buhaya tz_buhayo_k Buhaya 10000 BCE 2000 CE
  Axum I et_aksum_emp_1 EtAksm1 149 BCE 349 CE
  Early East Africa Iron Age tz_east_africa_ia_1 200 CE 499 CE
  Axum II et_aksum_emp_2 EtAksm2 350 CE 599 CE
  Early Tana 1 tz_early_tana_1 500 CE 749 CE
  Axum III et_aksum_emp_3 EtAksm3 600 CE 800 CE
  Early Tana 2 tz_early_tana_2 750 CE 1099 CE
  Late East Africa Iron Age tz_east_africa_ia_2 800 CE 1150 CE
  Tunni Sultanate so_tunni_sultanate 800 CE 1200 CE
  Habesha et_habesha 801 CE 1136 CE
  Classic Tana tz_tana 1100 CE 1498 CE
  Shoa Sultanate et_showa_sultanate 1108 CE 1285 CE
  Zagwe et_zagwe EtZagwe 1137 CE 1269 CE
  Ajuran Sultanate so_ajuran_sultanate 1250 CE 1700 CE
  Ethiopia Kingdom et_ethiopian_k EtEthiK 1270 CE 1500 CE
  Ifat Sultanate so_ifat_sultanate 1280 CE 1375 CE
  Isaaq Sultanate so_isaaq_sultanate 1300 CE 1886 CE
  Hadiya Sultanate et_hadiya_sultanate 1300 CE 1680 CE
  Habr Yunis so_habr_yunis 1300 CE 1886 CE
  Medri Bahri er_medri_bahri 1310 CE 1889 CE
  Adal Sultanate so_adal_sultanate 1375 CE 1543 CE
  Kingdom of Kaffa et_kaffa_k 1390 CE 1897 CE
  Buganda ug_buganda_k_1 Early Buganda copy 1450 CE 1699 CE
  Nkore ug_nkore_k_1 Early Nkore 1450 CE 1749 CE
  Karagwe tz_karagwe_k Karagwe 1500 CE 1916 CE
  Funj Sultanate et_funj_sultanate 1504 CE 1820 CE
  Fipa tz_milansi_k Milansi 1600 CE 1890 CE
  Ethiopia Kingdom II et_ethiopian_k_2 1621 CE 1768 CE
  Emirate of Harar et_harar_emirate 1650 CE 1875 CE
  Kingdom of Niynginya Early Niynginya 1650 CE 1897 CE
  Burundi bu_burundi_k Burundi 1680 CE 1903 CE
  Buganda ug_buganda_k_2 Classical Buganda 1700 CE 1894 CE
  Bugesera rw_bugesera_k Bugesera 1700 CE 1799 CE
  Gisaka rw_gisaka_k Gisaka 1700 CE 1867 CE
  Ndorwa rw_ndorwa_k Ndorwa 1700 CE 1800 CE
  Early Sultanate of Aussa et_aussa_sultanate 1734 CE 1895 CE
  Majeerteen Sultanate so_majeerteen_sultanate 1750 CE 1926 CE
  Nkore ug_nkore_k_2 Classical Nkore 1750 CE 1901 CE
  Sultanate of Geledi so_geledi_sultanate 1750 CE 1911 CE
  Ethiopia Kingdom III et_ethiopian_k_3 1769 CE 1854 CE
  Kingdom of Gomma et_gomma_k 1780 CE 1886 CE
  Kingdom of Jimma et_jimma_k 1790 CE 1932 CE
  Kingdom of Gumma et_gumma_k 1800 CE 1897 CE
  Toro ug_toro_k Toro 1830 CE 1896 CE

Southern Africa (Africa)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Toutswe zi_toutswe 700 CE 1250 CE
  Pre-Maravi mw_pre_maravi 1151 CE 1399 CE
  Great Zimbabwe zi_great_zimbabwe 1270 CE 1550 CE
  Early Maravi mw_early_maravi 1400 CE 1499 CE
  Mutapa zi_mutapa 1450 CE 1880 CE
  Torwa-Rozvi zi_torwa_rozvi 1494 CE 1850 CE
  Northern Maravi Kingdom mw_northern_maravi_k 1500 CE 1621 CE
  Maravi Empire mw_maravi_emp 1622 CE 1870 CE
  Republic of South Africa sa_south_africa_rep 1920 CE 2020 CE

Southwest Asia

Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Konya Plain - Early Neolithic tr_konya_enl TrNeoER 9600 BCE 7000 BCE
  Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic tr_konya_mnl TrNeoCR 7000 BCE 6600 BCE
  Konya Plain - Late Neolithic tr_konya_lnl TrNeoLT 6600 BCE 6000 BCE
  Konya Plain - Early Chalcolithic tr_konya_eca TrClcER 6000 BCE 5500 BCE
  Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic tr_konya_lca TrClcLT 5500 BCE 3000 BCE
  Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age tr_konya_eba TrBrzER 3000 BCE 2000 BCE
  Middle Bronze Age in Central Anatolia tr_central_anatolia_mba TrBrzMD 2000 BCE 1700 BCE
  Hatti - Old Kingdom tr_hatti_old_k TrHatOK 1650 BCE 1500 BCE
  Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II tr_konya_lba TrBrzL2 1500 BCE 1400 BCE
  Hatti - New Kingdom tr_hatti_new_k TrHatNK 1400 BCE 1180 BCE
  Urartu Kingdom tr_urartu_k TrUrart 1200 BCE 710 BCE
  Neo-Hittite Kingdoms tr_neo_hittite_k TrNHitt 1180 BCE 900 BCE
  Phrygian Kingdom tr_phrygian_k TrPhryg 900 BCE 695 BCE
  Tabal Kingdoms tr_tabal_k TrTabal 900 BCE 730 BCE
  Kingdom of Lydia tr_lydia_k TrLydia 670 BCE 546 BCE
  Lysimachus Kingdom tr_lysimachus_k TrLysim 323 BCE 281 BCE
  Late Cappadocia tr_cappadocia_2 TrCappL 322 BCE 93 BCE
  Pergamon Kingdom tr_pergamon_k TrPergm 282 BCE 133 BCE
  Armenian Kingdom am_artaxiad_dyn AmArtax 188 BCE 6 CE
  Roman Empire - Dominate tr_roman_dominate TrRomDm 285 CE 394 CE
  East Roman Empire tr_east_roman_emp TrERom* 395 CE 631 CE
  Byzantine Empire I tr_byzantine_emp_1 TrByzM1 632 CE 866 CE
  Byzantine Empire II tr_byzantine_emp_2 TrByzM2 867 CE 1072 CE
  Kingdom of Georgia II ge_georgia_k_2 GeGeoK2 975 CE 1243 CE
  Byzantine Empire III tr_byzantine_emp_3 TrByzM3 1073 CE 1204 CE
  Rum Sultanate tr_rum_sultanate TrRum** 1077 CE 1307 CE
  Empire of Trebizond tr_trebizond_emp 1204 CE 1461 CE
  Latin Empire tr_latin_emp 1204 CE 1261 CE
  Beylik of Karaman tr_karaman_bey 1250 CE 1487 CE
  Beylik of Candar tr_candar_bey 1291 CE 1461 CE
  Ottoman Emirate tr_ottoman_emirate TrOttm1 1299 CE 1402 CE
  Kingdom of Georgia III ge_georgia_k_3 1329 CE 1463 CE
  Qara Qoyunlu tr_qara_qoyunlu 1375 CE 1468 CE
  Ramadanid Emirate tr_ramadanid_emirate 1397 CE 1517 CE
  Ottoman Empire I tr_ottoman_emp_1 TrOttm2 1402 CE 1517 CE
  Ottoman Empire II tr_ottoman_emp_2 TrOttm3 1517 CE 1683 CE
  Ottoman Empire III tr_ottoman_emp_3 TrOttm4 1683 CE 1839 CE
  Ottoman Empire IV tr_ottoman_emp_4 TrOttm5 1839 CE 1922 CE
  Ottoman Empire Late Period tr_ottoman_emp_4_copy YeOttoL 1873 CE 1920 CE
  Republic of Turkey tr_turkey_rep 1923 CE 2020 CE

Levant (Southwest Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Canaan il_canaan IlCanaa 2000 BCE 1175 BCE
  Mitanni Kingdom sy_mitanni_k SyMitan 1475 BCE 1275 BCE
  Phoenician Empire lb_phoenician_emp LbAcPho 1200 BCE 332 BCE
  Yisrael il_yisrael IlYisrl 1030 BCE 722 BCE
  Nabataean Kingdom jo_nabataean_k JoNabat 312 BCE 106 CE
  Yehuda il_judea IlJudea 141 BCE 63 BCE
  Ghassanid Kingdom jo_ghassanid_k JoGhass 500 CE 636 CE
  Umayyad Caliphate sy_umayyad_cal SyCalUm 661 CE 750 CE

Mesopotamia (Southwest Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Southern Mesopotamia Neolithic iq_so_mesopotamia_nl IqSoNeo 9000 BCE 5501 BCE
  Ubaid iq_ubaid IqUbaid 5500 BCE 4201 BCE
  Uruk iq_uruk IqUruk* 4000 BCE 2900 BCE
  Early Dynastic iq_early_dynastic IqEDyn* 2900 BCE 2500 BCE
  Akkadian Empire iq_akkad_emp IqAkkad 2270 BCE 2083 BCE
  Ur - Dynasty III iq_ur_dyn_3 IqUrIII 2112 BCE 2004 BCE
  Isin-Larsa iq_isin_larsa IqIsinL 2004 BCE 1763 BCE
  Amorite Babylonia iq_babylonia_1 IqBabAm 2000 BCE 1600 BCE
  Kassite Babylonia iq_babylonia_2 IqBabKs 1595 BCE 1150 BCE
  Second Dynasty of Isin iq_isin_dynasty2 IqIsin2 1153 BCE 1027 BCE
  Bazi Dynasty iq_bazi_dyn IqBazi* 1005 BCE 986 BCE
  Dynasty of E iq_dynasty_e IqDynE* 979 BCE 732 BCE
  Neo-Assyrian Empire iq_neo_assyrian_emp IqNAssr 911 BCE 612 BCE
  Neo-Babylonian Empire iq_neo_babylonian_emp IqNeoBb 626 BCE 539 BCE
  Abbasid Caliphate I iq_abbasid_cal_1 IqAbbs1 750 CE 946 CE
  Abbasid Caliphate II iq_abbasid_cal_2 IqAbbs2 1191 CE 1258 CE
  Republic of Iraq iq_iraq_rep 1959 CE 2020 CE

Arabia (Southwest Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Neolithic Yemen ye_yemen_lnl YeNeoL* 3500 BCE 1201 BCE
  Yemen - Late Bronze Age ye_yemen_lba YeLBA** 1200 BCE 801 BCE
  Sabaean Commonwealth ye_sabaean_commonwealth YeSabaC 800 BCE 451 BCE
  Qatabanian Commonwealth ye_qatabanian_commonwealth YeQatab 450 BCE 111 BCE
  Kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raydan ye_saba_k YeSaRay 110 BCE 149 CE
  Himyar I ye_himyar_1 YeHmyr1 270 CE 340 CE
  Himyar II ye_himyar_2 YeHmyr2 378 CE 525 CE
  Lakhmid Kigdom iq_lakhmid_k IqLakhm 400 CE 611 CE
  Yemen Hijaz sa_rashidun_dyn SaRashd 632 CE 661 CE
  Omani Azd Tribe om_azd OmAzd 632 CE 702 CE
  Yemen Ziyad Dynasty ye_ziyad_dyn YeZiyad 822 CE 1037 CE
  Yemen - Era of Warlords ye_warlords YeWarLd 1038 CE 1174 CE
  Oman Imamate om_nabhani_imamate OmImamat 1160 CE 1660 CE
  Oman Imamate Yaruba Period om_yaruba_imamate 1160 CE 1660 CE
  Rasulid Dynasty ye_resulid_dyn YeRasul 1229 CE 1453 CE
  Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty ye_tahirid_dyn YeTahir 1454 CE 1517 CE
  Qasimid Dynasty XXXXXXX ye_qasimid_dyn_222222 1637 CE 1805 CE
  Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty ye_qasimid_dyn YeQasmi 1637 CE 1805 CE
  Imamate of Oman and Muscat om_busaidi_imamate_1 1749 CE 1895 CE

Iran (Southwest Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Pre-Ceramic Period ir_susiana_pre_ceramic IrPrCer 7800 BCE 7200 BCE
  Formative Period ir_susiana_formative IrForma 7200 BCE 7000 BCE
  Susiana - Muhammad Jaffar ir_susiana_archaic IrArcha 7000 BCE 6000 BCE
  Susiana A ir_susiana_a IrKhzE* 6000 BCE 5700 BCE
  Susiana B ir_susiana_b IrKhzEM 5700 BCE 5100 BCE
  Susiana - Early Ubaid ir_susiana_ubaid_1 IrKhzM* 5100 BCE 4700 BCE
  Susiana - Late Ubaid ir_susiana_ubaid_2 IrKhzL* 4700 BCE 4300 BCE
  Susa I ir_susa_1 IrSusa1 4300 BCE 3800 BCE
  Susa II ir_susa_2 IrSusa2 3800 BCE 3100 BCE
  Susa III ir_susa_3 IrSusa3 3100 BCE 2675 BCE
  Elam - Awan Dynasty I ir_elam_1 IrAwanE 2675 BCE 2100 BCE
  Elam - Shimashki Period ir_elam_2 IrShima 2028 BCE 1940 BCE
  Elam - Early Sukkalmah ir_elam_3 IrSukkE 1900 BCE 1701 BCE
  Elam - Late Sukkalmah ir_elam_4 IrSukkL 1700 BCE 1500 BCE
  Elam - Kidinuid Period ir_elam_5 IrMElm1 1500 BCE 1400 BCE
  Elam - Igihalkid Period ir_elam_6 IrMElm2 1399 BCE 1200 BCE
  Elam - Shutrukid Period ir_elam_7 IrMElm3 1199 BCE 1100 BCE
  Elam - Crisis Period ir_elam_8 IrElmCP 1100 BCE 900 BCE
  Elam I ir_neo_elam_1 IrNElm1 900 BCE 744 BCE
  Elam II ir_neo_elam_2 IrNElm2 743 BCE 647 BCE
  Median Persian Empire ir_median_emp IrMedes 715 BCE 550 BCE
  Elam III ir_neo_elam_3 IrNElm3 612 BCE 539 BCE
  Achaemenid Empire ir_achaemenid_emp IrAchae 550 BCE 331 BCE
  Atropatene Kingdom ir_atropatene_k IrAtrop 323 BCE 200 CE
  Seleucids ir_seleucid_emp IrSeleu 312 BCE 63 BCE
  Parthian Empire I ir_parthian_emp_1 IrPart1 247 BCE 40 CE
  Elymais II ir_elymais_2 IrElym2 25 CE 215 CE
  Parthian Empire II iq_parthian_emp_2 IrPart2 41 CE 226 CE
  Sasanid Empire I ir_sassanid_emp_1 IrSasn1 205 CE 487 CE
  Sasanid Empire II ir_sassanid_emp_2 IrSasn2 488 CE 642 CE
  Saffarid Caliphate ir_saffarid_emp IrSaffr 861 CE 1003 CE
  Buyid Confederation ir_buyid_confederation IrBuyid 932 CE 1062 CE
  Seljuk Sultanate ir_seljuk_sultanate IrSeljq 1037 CE 1157 CE
  Ilkhanate ir_il_khanate IrIlkhn 1256 CE 1339 CE
  Jayarid Khanate ir_jayarid_khanate IrJalay 1336 CE 1393 CE
  Ak Koyunlu ir_ak_koynlu IrAkKoy 1339 CE 1501 CE
  Ak Koyunlu ir_ak_koyunlu IrAkkoy 1378 CE 1501 CE
  Safavid Empire ir_safavid_emp IrSafvd 1501 CE 1722 CE
  Qajar ir_qajar_dyn IrQajar 1794 CE 1925 CE
  Iran Pahlavi Dynasty ir_pahlavi_dyn 1926 CE 1979 CE

Central and Northern Eurasia

Pontic-Caspian (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Khazar Empire ru_khazar_emp RuKhazar 626 CE 965 CE
  Golden Horde ru_golden_horde 1240 CE 1440 CE
  Kazan Khanate ru_kazan_khanate RuKazan 1438 CE 1552 CE
  Crimean Khanate ru_crimean_khanate RuCrKha 1440 CE 1783 CE
  Astrakhan Khanate ru_astrakhan_khanate RuAstrakh 1466 CE 1556 CE

Turkestan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Sarazm tj_sarasm TjSaraz 3500 BCE 2000 BCE
  Andronovo kz_andronovo KzAndro 1800 BCE 1200 BCE
  Koktepe I uz_koktepe_1 UzKok01 1400 BCE 1000 BCE
  Ancient Khwarazm uz_khwarasm_1 UzKhw01 1000 BCE 521 BCE
  Koktepe II uz_koktepe_2 UzKok02 750 BCE 550 BCE
  Kangju uz_kangju UzKangj 150 BCE 350 CE
  Chionites kz_chionite KzChion 300 CE 388 CE
  Yueban kz_yueban KzYueba 350 CE 450 CE
  Western Turk Khaganate kg_western_turk_khaganate KgWTurk 582 CE 630 CE
  Sogdiana - City-States Period uz_sogdiana_city_states UzSogdi 604 CE 711 CE
  Samanid Empire uz_samanid_emp UzSamnd 819 CE 999 CE
  Kara-Khanids kg_kara_khanid_dyn KgKarKh 950 CE 1212 CE
  Kara Khitai Khanate tm_kara_khitai_khanate TmKarKh 1137 CE 1218 CE
  Khwarezmid Empire tm_khwarezmid_emp TmKhwrz 1157 CE 1231 CE
  Chagatai Khanate uz_chagatai_khanate UzChagt 1263 CE 1402 CE
  Oirats kz_oirat KzOirat 1368 CE 1630 CE
  Timurid Empire uz_timurid_emp UzTimur 1370 CE 1526 CE
  Shaybanid Kingdom uz_shaybanid_k UzShayb 1500 CE 1598 CE
  Khanate of Bukhara uz_janid_dyn UzJanid 1599 CE 1747 CE

Afghanistan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Greco-Bactrian Kingdom af_greco_bactrian_k AfGrBct 256 BCE 125 BCE
  Tocharians af_tocharian AfTochr 129 BCE 29 CE
  Kushan Empire af_kushan_emp AfKushn 35 CE 319 CE
  Kidarite Kingdom af_kidarite_k AfKidar 388 CE 477 CE
  Hephthalites af_hephthalite_emp AfHepht 408 CE 561 CE
  Ghaznavid Empire af_ghaznavid_emp AfGhazn 998 CE 1040 CE
  Ghur Principality af_ghur_principality AfGhurd 1025 CE 1215 CE
  Durrani Empire af_durrani_emp AfDurrn 1747 CE 1826 CE
  Kingdom of Afghanistan af_afghanistan_k 1927 CE 1973 CE
  Republic of Afghanistan af_afghanistan_rep 1974 CE 2020 CE

Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Early Xiongnu mn_hunnu_early MnXngnE 1400 BCE 300 BCE
  Xiongnu Imperial Confederation mn_hunnu_emp MnXngnM 209 BCE 60 BCE
  Late Xiongnu mn_hunnu_late MnXngnL 60 BCE 100 CE
  Loulan-Shanshan kingdom cn_loulan_shanshan_k CnLouIn 25 CE 330 CE
  Xianbei Confederation mn_xianbei MnXianb 100 CE 250 CE
  Rouran Khaganate mn_rouran_khaganate MnRourn 300 CE 555 CE
  Tuyuhun cn_tuyuhun CnTuyhn 300 CE 663 CE
  Eastern Turk Khaganate mn_turk_khaganate_1 MnETurk 583 CE 630 CE
  Shiwei mn_shiwei MnShiwe 600 CE 1000 CE
  Second Turk Khaganate mn_turk_khaganate_2 MnTurk2 682 CE 744 CE
  Uigur Khaganate mn_uygur_khaganate MnUigur 745 CE 840 CE
  Khitan I mn_khitan_1 MnKhitn 907 CE 1125 CE
  Early Mongols mn_mongol_early MnMongE 1000 CE 1206 CE
  Xixia cn_xixia CnXixia 1032 CE 1227 CE
  Mongol Empire mn_mongol_emp MnMngKh 1206 CE 1368 CE
  Late Mongols mn_mongol_late MnMongL 1368 CE 1690 CE
  Zungharian Empire mn_zungharian_emp MnZungh 1670 CE 1757 CE
  Mongolian People's Republic mn_mongolia_peoples_rep 1920 CE 1992 CE

Siberia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Sakha - Early ru_sakha_early RuYakuE 1400 CE 1632 CE
  Sibir Khanate ru_sibir_khanate RuSibir 1490 CE 1598 CE
  Sakha - Late ru_sakha_late RuYakuL 1632 CE 1900 CE

Tibet (Central and Northern Eurasia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Tibet Kingdom cn_tibet_k CnTibet 620 CE 846 CE

East Asia

Northeast Asia (East Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Japan - Incipient Jomon jp_jomon_1 JpJomo1 13600 BCE 9200 BCE
  Japan - Initial Jomon jp_jomon_2 JpJomo2 9200 BCE 5300 BCE
  Japan - Early Jomon jp_jomon_3 JpJomo3 5300 BCE 3500 BCE
  Japan - Middle Jomon jp_jomon_4 JpJomo4 3500 BCE 2500 BCE
  Japan - Late Jomon jp_jomon_5 JpJomo5 2500 BCE 1200 BCE
  Japan - Final Jomon jp_jomon_6 JpJomo6 1200 BCE 300 BCE
  Kansai - Yayoi Period jp_yayoi JpYayoi 300 BCE 250 CE
  Goguryeo Kingdom kr_goguryeo_k KrGogur 37 BCE 668 CE
  Kansai - Kofun Period jp_kofun JpKofun 250 CE 537 CE
  Asuka jp_asuka JpAsuka 538 CE 710 CE
  Balhae Kingdom kr_balhae_k KrBalha 698 CE 926 CE
  Nara Kingdom jp_nara JpNara* 710 CE 794 CE
  Heian jp_heian JpHeian 794 CE 1185 CE
  Goryeo Kingdom kr_goryeo_k KrGorye 936 CE 1258 CE
  Kamakura Shogunate jp_kamakura JpKamak 1185 CE 1333 CE
  Ashikaga Shogunate jp_ashikaga JpAshik 1336 CE 1467 CE
  Joseon Dynasty kr_joseon KrJoseon 1392 CE 1567 CE
  Warring States Japan jp_sengoku_jidai JpSengk 1467 CE 1568 CE
  Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama jp_azuchi_momoyama JpAzMom 1568 CE 1603 CE
  Tokugawa Shogunate jp_tokugawa_shogunate JpTokgw 1603 CE 1868 CE
  Empire of Japan jp_japanese_emp 1869 CE 1945 CE
  Democratic People's Republic of Korea ko_korean_democratic_peoples_rep 1948 CE 2020 CE
  Republic of Korea ko_korean_rep 1948 CE 2020 CE
  Japan jp_japan_contemporary 1952 CE 2020 CE

North China (East Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Peiligang cn_peiligang CnPeili 7000 BCE 5001 BCE
  Yangshao cn_yangshao CnYngsh 5000 BCE 3000 BCE
  Longshan cn_longshan CnLngsh 3000 BCE 1900 BCE
  Erlitou cn_erlitou CnErlit 1850 BCE 1600 BCE
  Erligang cn_erligang CnErlig 1650 BCE 1250 BCE
  Late Shang cn_late_shang_dyn CnShang 1250 BCE 1045 BCE
  Western Zhou cn_western_zhou_dyn CnWZhou 1122 BCE 771 BCE
  Eastern Zhou cn_eastern_zhou_warring_states CnZhuWS 475 BCE 256 BCE
  Early Wei Dynasty cn_wei_dyn_warring_states CnWeiWS 445 BCE 225 BCE
  Qin Empire cn_qin_emp CnImQin 338 BCE 207 BCE
  Western Han Empire cn_western_han_dyn CnWHan* 202 BCE 9 CE
  Eastern Han Empire cn_eastern_han_dyn CnEHan* 25 CE 220 CE
  Wei Kingdom cn_wei_k CnWei3* 220 CE 265 CE
  Western Jin cn_western_jin_dyn CnErJin 265 CE 317 CE
  Eastern Jin Dynasty cn_eastern_jin_dyn 317 CE 420 CE
  Later Yan Kingdom cn_later_yan_dyn CnLrYan 385 CE 409 CE
  Later Qin Kingdom cn_later_qin_dyn CnLrQin 386 CE 417 CE
  Northern Wei cn_northern_wei_dyn CnNWei* 386 CE 534 CE
  Sui Dynasty cn_sui_dyn CnSui** 581 CE 618 CE
  Tang Dynasty I cn_tang_dyn_1 CnTangE 617 CE 763 CE
  Tang Dynasty II cn_tang_dyn_2 CnTangL 763 CE 907 CE
  Five Dynasties Period cn_five_dyn Cn5Dyna 906 CE 970 CE
  Northern Song cn_northern_song_dyn CnNSong 960 CE 1127 CE
  Jin Dynasty cn_later_great_jin CnLrJin 1115 CE 1234 CE
  Great Yuan cn_yuan_dyn CnYuan* 1271 CE 1368 CE
  Great Ming cn_ming_dyn CnMing* 1368 CE 1644 CE
  Early Qing cn_qing_dyn_1 CnQingE 1644 CE 1796 CE
  Late Qing cn_qing_dyn_2 CnQingL 1796 CE 1912 CE
  Republic of China cn_chinese_rep 1913 CE 1949 CE
  People's Republic of China cn_chinese_peoples_rep 1950 CE 2020 CE

South China (East Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Jin cn_jin_spring_and_autumn CnJinSA 780 BCE 404 BCE
  Chu Kingdom - Spring Autumn Period cn_chu_dyn_spring_and_autumn CnChuSA 740 BCE 489 BCE
  Wu Confederacy cn_wu_confederacy CnWuCfd 585 BCE 477 BCE
  Yue Kingdom cn_yue_dyn CnYueKg 510 BCE 334 BCE
  Chu Kingdom - Warring States Period cn_chu_k_warring_states CnChuWS 488 BCE 223 BCE
  Southern Qi State cn_souther_qi_dyn CnSouQi 479 CE 502 CE
  Southern Song cn_southern_song_dyn CnSSong 1127 CE 1279 CE
  Hmong - Late Qing cn_hmong_1 CnHQngL 1701 CE 1895 CE
  Hmong - Early Chinese cn_hmong_2 CnHChin 1895 CE 1941 CE

South Asia

Pakistan (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic pk_kachi_enl PkAcerN 7500 BCE 5500 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic pk_kachi_lnl PkCeraN 5500 BCE 4000 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic pk_kachi_ca PkChalc 4000 BCE 3200 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period pk_kachi_pre_urban PkPreUr 3200 BCE 2500 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Urban Period I pk_kachi_urban_1 PkUrbn1 2500 BCE 2100 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Urban Period II pk_kachi_urban_2 PkUrbn2 2100 BCE 1800 CE
  Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period pk_kachi_post_urban PkPostU 1800 BCE 1300 BCE
  Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period pk_kachi_proto_historic PkProto 1300 BCE 500 BCE
  Indo-Greek Kingdom pk_indo_greek_k PkIndGr 180 BCE 10 BCE
  Indo-Parthian Kingdom pk_indo_parthian_k PkIndPR 12 BCE 100 CE
  Western Satraps pk_western_satraps PkWSatrp 35 CE 405 CE
  Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period pk_sind_abbasid_fatimid PkSind1 854 CE 1193 CE
  Sind - Samma Dynasty pk_samma_dyn PkSind2 1335 CE 1521 CE
  Islamic Republic of Pakistan pk_pakistan_islamic_rep 1947 CE 2020 CE

North India (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Gangaridai in_gangaridai 300 BCE 100 BCE
  Kanva Dynasty in_kanva_dyn 75 CE 300 CE
  Yaudheya Republic in_yaudheya_rep InYaudh 300 CE 375 CE
  Vanga Dynasty in_vanga_k 550 CE 600 CE
  Karkota Dynasty in_karkota_dyn InKarkt 625 CE 1339 CE
  Utpala Dynasty in_utpala_dyn InUtpal 855 CE 1003 CE
  Solankis in_solanki_dyn InSolan 941 CE 1245 CE
  Chauhana Dynasty in_chauhana_dyn InChauh 973 CE 1192 CE
  Lohara Dynasty in_lohara_dyn InLohar 1003 CE 1255 CE
  Kashmiri Sultanate in_kashmiri_sultanate InKashm 1346 CE 1580 CE
  Sur Empire in_sur_emp 1540 CE 1556 CE

Eastern India (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Deva Dynasty bd_deva_dyn BdDeva 10000 BCE 2000 CE
  Nanda Dynasty in_nanda_dyn BdNanda 413 BCE 322 BCE
  Kamarupa Kingdom in_kamarupa_k InKamar 350 CE 1130 CE
  Gauda Kingdom in_gauda_k BdGauda 600 CE 750 CE
  Khadga Dynasty bd_khadga_dyn 650 CE 700 CE
  Chandra Dynasty bd_chandra_dyn BdChandra 900 CE 1050 CE
  Varman Dynasty bd_varman_dyn 1080 CE 1150 CE
  Sena Dynasty bd_sena_dyn 1095 CE 1245 CE
  Kakatiya Dynasty in_kakatiya_dyn InKakat 1175 CE 1324 CE
  Bengal Sultanate bd_bengal_sultanate BdBengl 1338 CE 1538 CE
  Twelve Bhuyans bd_twelve_bhuyans BdBhuyans 1538 CE 1612 CE
  Nawabs of Bengal bd_nawabs_of_bengal BdNawabs 1717 CE 1757 CE
  British East India Company in_east_india_co BdEastIndiaCompany 1757 CE 1858 CE
  Early Garo in_achik_1 InGaroE 1775 CE 1867 CE
  Late Garo in_achik_2 InGaroL 1867 CE 1956 CE

Central India (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Deccan - Neolithic in_deccan_nl InDecNL 2700 BCE 1200 BCE
  Deccan - Iron Age in_deccan_ia InDecIA 1200 BCE 300 BCE
  Post-Mauryan Kingdoms in_post_mauryan_k InDecKg 205 BCE 101 BCE
  Satavahana Empire in_satavahana_emp InSataL 100 BCE 203 CE
  Vakataka Kingdom in_vakataka_k InVakat 255 CE 550 CE
  Kadamba Empire in_kadamba_emp InKadam 345 CE 550 CE
  Chalukyas of Badami in_badami_chalukya_emp InChaBd 543 CE 753 CE
  Maukhari Dynasty in_maukhari_dyn InMaukh 550 CE 605 CE
  Rashtrakuta Empire in_rashtrakuta_emp InRasht 753 CE 973 CE
  Chandela Kingdom in_chandela_k InChandel 950 CE 1308 CE
  Chalukyas of Kalyani in_kalyani_chalukya_emp InChaKl 973 CE 1191 CE
  Paramara Dynasty in_paramara_dyn InParam 974 CE 1235 CE
  Hoysala Kingdom in_hoysala_k InHoysa 1108 CE 1346 CE
  Yadava Dynasty in_yadava_dyn InYadav 1187 CE 1318 CE
  Kampili Kingdom in_kampili_k InKampi 1280 CE 1327 CE
  Vijayanagara Empire in_vijayanagara_emp InVijay 1336 CE 1646 CE

Southern South Asia (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Neolithic Middle Ganga in_ganga_nl InGangN 7000 BCE 3001 BCE
  Chalcolithic Middle Ganga in_ganga_ca InGangC 3000 BCE 601 BCE
  Mahajanapada era in_mahajanapada InMahaJ 600 BCE 324 BCE
  Early Cholas in_cholas_1 600 BCE 300 CE
  Early Pandyas in_pandya_emp_1 600 BCE 300 CE
  Maurya Empire in_mauryan_emp InMaury 324 BCE 187 BCE
  Anurādhapura I sl_anuradhapura_1 300 BCE 70 CE
  Sunga Empire in_sunga_emp InSunga 187 BCE 65 BCE
  Kingdom of Ayodhya in_ayodhya_k InAyodE 64 BCE 34 CE
  Anurādhapura II sl_anuradhapura_2 70 CE 428 CE
  Kalabhra Dynasty in_kalabhra_dyn 200 CE 600 CE
  Late Pallava Empire in_pallava_emp_2 300 CE 890 CE
  Gupta Dynasty in_gupta_emp InGupta 320 CE 515 CE
  Anurādhapura III sl_anuradhapura_3 428 CE 614 CE
  Magadha in_magadha_k InMagad 450 CE 605 CE
  Pandya Dynasty in_pandya_emp_2 590 CE 915 CE
  Anurādhapura IV sl_anuradhapura_4 614 CE 1017 CE
  Kanauj in_kanauj InKanau 650 CE 780 CE
  Gurjar in_gurjar InGurjr 810 CE 1030 CE
  Polonnaruwa sl_polonnaruva 1070 CE 1255 CE
  Gahadavala Dynasty in_gahadavala_dyn InGhdvl 1085 CE 1193 CE
  Delhi Sultanate in_delhi_sultanate InDelh* 1206 CE 1526 CE
  Dambadaneiya sl_dambadeniya 1232 CE 1293 CE
  Pandya Empire in_pandya_emp_222 1250 CE 1323 CE
  Jaffna sl_jaffa_k 1310 CE 1591 CE
  Mughal Empire in_mughal_emp InMugl* 1526 CE 1858 CE
  Nayaks of Madurai in_madurai_nayaks 1529 CE 1736 CE
  Nayaks of Thanjavur in_thanjavur_nayaks 1532 CE 1676 CE
  Dutch Empire nl_dutch_emp_1 1648 CE 1795 CE
  Thanjavur Maratha Kingdom in_thanjavur_maratha_k 1675 CE 1799 CE
  Carnatic Sultanate in_carnatic_sul 1710 CE 1801 CE
  Sri Lanka sl_sri_lanka 1948 CE 2020 CE

Somewhere (South Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Maitraka Dynasty EDIT in_maitraka_dyn InMaitr 470 CE 790 CE
  Gurjara-Pratihara Kingdom EDIT in_gurjara_pratihara_k InGurPr 550 CE 850 CE
  Pala Empire EDIT in_pala_emp InPala 750 CE 1174 CE
  Chola Empire EDIT in_chola_emp InChol* 849 CE 1280 CE
  Ganga Kingdom EDIT in_ganga_k InGanga 1028 CE 1435 CE
  Kalachuri Empire EDIT in_kalachuri_emp InKalch 1157 CE 1184 CE
  Bahmani Sultanate EDIT in_bahmani_sultanate InBahma 1347 CE 1518 CE
  Sharqi EDIT in_sharqi_dyn InSharq 1394 CE 1479 CE
  Bijapur Sultanate EDIT in_bijapur_sultanate InBijap 1470 CE 1686 CE

Southeast Asia

Mainland (Southeast Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Bronze Age Cambodia kh_cambodia_ba KhMekBA 1200 BCE 501 BCE
  Bronze Age Cambodia kh_cambodia_ia KhMekIA 500 BCE 224 CE
  Viet Baiyu Kingdom cn_viet_baiyu_k CnBaiyu 332 BCE 109 BCE
  Funan I kh_funan_1 KhFunaE 225 CE 540 CE
  Funan II kh_funan_2 KhFunaL 540 CE 640 CE
  Chenla kh_chenla KhChenl 550 CE 825 CE
  Nanzhao Kingdom cn_nanzhao_k CnNanzh 800 CE 900 CE
  Early Angkor kh_angkor_1 KhAngkE 802 CE 1100 CE
  Dali Kingdom cn_dali_k CnDali 937 CE 1253 CE
  Bagan mm_bagan MmPagan 1044 CE 1287 CE
  Classical Angkor kh_angkor_2 KhAngkC 1100 CE 1220 CE
  Late Angkor kh_angkor_3 KhAngkL 1220 CE 1432 CE
  Sukhotai th_sukhotai ThSukho 1238 CE 1419 CE
  Lan Xang Kingdom la_lan_xang_k LaLanXang 1354 CE 1707 CE
  Ava Kingdom mm_ava_k MmAva 1364 CE 1527 CE
  Khmer Kingdom kh_khmer_k KhCambd 1432 CE 1594 CE
  Ayutthaya th_ayutthaya ThAyuth 1593 CE 1767 CE
  Rattanakosin th_rattanakosin ThRattn 1782 CE 1873 CE
  Nguyen Dynasty vt_nguyen_dyn 1802 CE 1887 CE
  Thailand Reform Period th_reform_period_thailand 1887 CE 1932 CE
  Democratic Republic of Vietnam vt_vietnam_democratic_rep 1954 CE 1975 CE
  Republic of Vietnam vt_vietnam_rep 1955 CE 1975 CE
  Socialist Republic of Vietnam vt_vietnam_socialist_rep 1975 CE 2020 CE

Archipelago (Southeast Asia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Java - Buni Culture id_buni IdCJBun 400 BCE 500 CE
  Kalingga Kingdom id_kalingga_k IdKalin 500 CE 732 CE
  Medang Kingdom id_medang_k IdMedng 732 CE 1019 CE
  Srivijaya Empire id_srivijaya_emp IdSrivi 852 CE 1200 CE
  Kediri Kingdom id_kediri_k IdKedir 1049 CE 1222 CE
  Malacca Sultanate my_malacca_sultanate SoIfatS 1270 CE 1415 CE
  Majapahit Kingdom id_majapahit_k IdMajap 1292 CE 1518 CE
  Malacca Sultanate my_malacca_sultanate_copy MySultM 1396 CE 1511 CE
  Mataram Sultanate id_mataram_k IdMatrm 1568 CE 1703 CE
  Iban - Pre-Brooke id_iban_1 IdBrokE 1650 CE 1841 CE
  Iban - Brooke Raj and Colonial id_iban_2 IdBrokL 1841 CE 1987 CE
  Republic of the Philippines pi_phililippines_rep 1946 CE 2020 CE
  Republic of Indonesia id_indonesian_rep 1949 CE 2020 CE

Oceania-Australia

Australia (Oceania-Australia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Australia Colonial Period as_australia_colonial 1803 CE 1901 CE

New Guinea (Oceania-Australia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Orokaiva - Pre-Colonial pg_orokaiva_pre_colonial PgOrokE 1734 CE 1883 CE
  Orokaiva - Colonial pg_orokaiva_colonial PgOrokL 1884 CE 1942 CE

Polynesia (Oceania-Australia)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Hawaii I us_hawaii_1 Hawaii1 1000 CE 1200 CE
  Hawaii II us_hawaii_2 Hawaii2 1200 CE 1580 CE
  Hawaii III us_hawaii_3 Hawaii3 1580 CE 1778 CE
  Chuuk - Early Truk fm_truk_1 FmTrukE 1775 CE 1886 CE
  Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period us_kamehameha_k USKameh 1778 CE 1819 CE
  Kingdom of Hawaii - Post-Kamehameha Period us_hawaii_k USHawai 1820 CE 1898 CE
  Chuuk - Late Truk fm_truk_2 FmTrukL 1886 CE 1948 CE

North America

Arctic America (North America)

There are no Polities in the Database for this region.

Western North America (North America)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Hohokam Culture us_hohokam_culture 300 CE 1500 CE
  Chaco Canyon - Early Bonito phase us_chaco_bonito_1 850 CE 1040 CE
  Chaco Canyon - Classic Bonito phase us_chaco_bonito_2 1041 CE 1100 CE
  Chaco Canyon - Late Bonito phase us_chaco_bonito_3 1101 CE 1140 CE
  Chaco Canyon - McElmo phase us_chaco_mcelmo 1141 CE 1200 CE
  Chaco Canyon - Mesa Verde phase us_chaco_mesa_verde 1201 CE 1300 CE

Great Plains (North America)

There are no Polities in the Database for this region.

Mississippi Basin (North America)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Cahokia - Early Woodland us_woodland_1 USMisEW 600 BCE 150 BCE
  Cahokia - Middle Woodland us_woodland_2 USMisMW 150 BCE 300 CE
  Cahokia - Late Woodland I us_woodland_3 USMisRo 300 CE 450 CE
  Cahokia - Late Woodland II us_woodland_4 USMisMu 450 CE 600 CE
  Cahokia - Late Woodland III us_woodland_5 USMisPa 600 CE 750 CE
  Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian I us_emergent_mississippian_1 USMisSp 750 CE 900 CE
  Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian II us_emergent_mississippian_2 USMisME 900 CE 1049 CE
  Cahokia - Lohman-Stirling us_cahokia_1 USCahoE 1055 CE 1199 CE
  Cahokia - Moorehead us_cahokia_2 USCahoL 1200 CE 1274 CE
  Cahokia - Sand Prairie us_cahokia_3 USMisSd 1275 CE 1400 CE
  Oneota us_oneota USOneot 1400 CE 1650 CE
  Early Illinois Confederation us_early_illinois_confederation USIllin 1640 CE 1717 CE
  Late Illinois Confederation us_late_illinois_confederation USIllinL 1718 CE 1778 CE

East Coast (North America)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Proto-Haudenosaunee Confederacy us_proto_haudenosaunee UsIroqP 1300 CE 1565 CE
  Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Early us_haudenosaunee_1 UsIroqE 1566 CE 1713 CE
  Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Late us_haudenosaunee_2 UsIroqL 1714 CE 1848 CE
  Antebellum US us_antebellum 1776 CE 1865 CE
  Us Reconstruction-Progressive us_united_states_of_america_reconstruction 1866 CE 1933 CE
  Dominion of Canada ca_canada_dominion 1867 CE 2020 CE
  United States of America - Contemporary us_united_states_of_america_contemporary 1934 CE 2020 CE

Mexico (North America)

  Polity Name  Polity ID   Year Range
  Archaic Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_1 MxArch* 6000 BCE 2001 BCE
  Initial Formative Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_2 MxInitl 2000 BCE 1201 BCE
  Oaxaca - Tierras Largas mx_tierras_largas MxTieLa 1400 BCE 1150 BCE
  Early Formative Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_3 MxFormE 1200 BCE 801 BCE
  Oaxaca - San Jose mx_san_jose MxSanGu 1150 BCE 700 BCE
  Middle Formative Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_4 MxFormM 800 BCE 401 BCE
  Oaxaca - Rosario mx_rosario MxRosar 700 BCE 500 BCE
  Early Monte Alban I mx_monte_alban_1_early MxAlb1E 500 BCE 300 BCE
  Late Formative Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_5 MxFormL 400 BCE 101 BCE
  Monte Alban Late I mx_monte_alban_1_late MxAlb1L 300 BCE 100 BCE
  Terminal Formative Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_6 MxFormT 100 BCE 99 CE
  Monte Alban II mx_monte_alban_2 MxAlb2* 100 BCE 200 CE
  Classic Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_7 MxClass 100 CE 649 CE
  Monte Alban III mx_monte_alban_3_a MxAlb3A 200 CE 500 CE
  Early Classic Tikal gt_tikal_early_classic 250 CE 554 CE
  Monte Alban IIIB and IV mx_monte_alban_3_b_4 MxAlb3B 500 CE 900 CE
  Classic Maya mx_maya_classic 550 CE 950 CE
  Late Classic Tikal gt_tikal_late_classic 555 CE 869 CE
  Epiclassic Basin of Mexico mx_basin_of_mexico_8 MxEpicl 650 CE 899 CE
  Terminal Classic Tikal gt_tikal_terminal_classic 870 CE 950 CE
  Toltecs mx_toltec MxToltc 900 CE 1199 CE
  Monte Alban V mx_monte_alban_5 MxAlb5* 900 CE 1520 CE