Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Eastern Han Empire

EQ 2020  cn_eastern_han_dyn / CnEHan*

China’s Han dynasty is divided into two periods: Western Han or Former Han (202 BCE-9 CE), and Eastern Han or Later Han (25-220 CE). The period between the two Han dynasties was an interregnum ruled by Wang Mang who overthrow the Han and founded the short-lived Xin dynasty. [1] Rulers of the Western and Eastern Han are descended from Han founder Liu Bang. [1] The Han dynasty was reinstated when military troops revolted against Wang Mang and attacked the capital of Chang’an in 23 CE. [2] The first recognized Eastern Han emperor Emperor Guangwudi moved the capital to Luoyang in 25 CE. [2]
Buddhism spread into China during the Eastern Han period. The religion soon began to influence Chinese morals and ethics. [3] Han innovation continued into the Eastern Han period. The eunuch Cai Lun invented paper made from mulberry bark in 105 CE. [4]
The decline of the Eastern Han was marked by series of natural disasters including floods and plagues beginning in 168 CE. [5] The disasters were accompanied by two large peasant uprisings: the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice rebellion. [6] The Eastern Han also faced constant rebellions from Qiang ethnic minorities. [7] Provincial warlords aided the central government in suppressing these major rebellions. These warlords eventually became rulers of the provinces. [8] Warlord Dong Zhou seized Luoyang in 190 CE but was defeated by the warlord Cao Cao. [8] Eastern Han emperors stayed on the throne but the Han empire was split between three generals, ushering in the Three Kingdoms period. [9]
Eastern Han territory covered 6.5 million square kilometers in 100 CE, but only 2.5 million square kilometers by 200 CE. [10] At its peak, the Han dynasty encompassed modern China, northern Vietnam, Inner Mongolia, southern Manchuria, and parts of modern Korea. [6]
Population and political organization
The Eastern Han continued many of the administrative practices of the Western Han. [11] However, the dynasty was marked by bloody political infighting including succession conflicts, and attempts to grab power by consort clans and eunuch cliques. [8] Eunuchs had a strong influence in the Eastern Han government and competed with Confucian officials and the imperial clan. [12] The decline of the Eastern Han was marked by the rise of strong provincial rulers with independent armies, or warlords, and a weakening of the corrupt central government.
The population of the Eastern Han was between 48 and 50 million people in 140 CE. [13] . Luoyang was home to 420,000 people in 100 CE, but only 100,000 by 200 CE. [14] [10]

[1]: (San 2014, 98) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[2]: (San 2014, 100) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[3]: (San 2014, 103) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[4]: (Theobald, 2010b) Theobald, Ulrich, 2010. “Han Period Science, Technology, and Inventions.” Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han-tech.html Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RU33Q6WJ/

[5]: (Roberts 1999, 38) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9

[6]: -- “Han Dynasty.” Ancient History Encyclopedia.http://www.ancient.eu/Han_Dynasty/ Accessed June 12, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KVCUTKIW

[7]: (San 2014, 108) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[8]: (Theobald, 2010a) Theobald, Ulrich. 2010. “Han Dynasty 206 BCE-220 CE.” Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han.html Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GJNWHHCH

[9]: (Roberts 1999, 39) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9

[10]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[11]: (Roberts 1999, 37) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9

[12]: (San 2014, 117) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[13]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60) Roberts, J A G (2003) The Complete History of China, Sutton Publishing, Stroud. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ZZV3ITUI

[14]: (Modelski 2003, 44) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IVFNX9HJ

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
50 S  
Original Name:
Eastern Han  
Capital:
Chang'an  
Luoyang  
Alternative Name:
Later Han  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
88 CE  
Duration:
[25 CE ➜ 220 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Chinese  
Succeeding Entity:
Wei Dynasty  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Xin Dynasty  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Sino-Tibetan  
Language:
Chinese  
Religion
Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
420,000 people 100 CE
100,000 people 200 CE
Polity Territory:
6,500,000 km2 100 CE
5,344,000 km2 120 CE
4,633,000 km2 140 CE
3,922,000 km2 160 CE
3,211,000 km2 180 CE
2,500,000 km2 200 CE
Polity Population:
21,007,820 people 57 CE
34,125,021 people 75 CE
43,356,367 people 88 CE
53,256,219 people 105 CE
48,690,789 people 125 CE
[48,000,000 to 53,869,588] people 126 CE 141 CE
[49,150,220 to 49,730,550] people 142 CE 144 CE
47,556,772 people 146 CE
50,066,856 people 156 CE
56,486,856 people 157 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
7  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present 25 CE 150 CE
unknown 151 CE 199 CE
absent 200 CE 220 CE
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
inferred absent  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
inferred present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
7,200 km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred absent  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Eastern Han Empire (cn_eastern_han_dyn) was in:
 (25 CE 219 CE)   Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Chang'an

removed apostrophes and dates to make code machine readable. Precise dates vary.
Han capitals: Chang ’an 206 BCE - 23 CE; Luoyang 23-220 CE. [1]
Luoyang chosen as capital 25 CE. [2]
Chang ’an: 25 - 36 CE; Luoyang: 36 - 190 CE; Chang ’an: 190-220 CE

[1]: (Davidson 2012, 72-73)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)

Capital:
Luoyang

removed apostrophes and dates to make code machine readable. Precise dates vary.
Han capitals: Chang ’an 206 BCE - 23 CE; Luoyang 23-220 CE. [1]
Luoyang chosen as capital 25 CE. [2]
Chang ’an: 25 - 36 CE; Luoyang: 36 - 190 CE; Chang ’an: 190-220 CE

[1]: (Davidson 2012, 72-73)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
88 CE

"The first three reigns of the Eastern Han, from about 25 to 88, were a time of domestic stability and foreign expansion." [1]
Prosperity and security during reigns of Mingdi and Zhangdi. [2] Peak territorial extent 100 CE.
"only in the three decades after Han Guang Wudi (so AD 58-88) was the dynasty spared major regional or "religious" revolts lead by would-be emperors." In the second century CE, emperors "instead of managing their support, were more often being managed by it. ... the bureaucracy... senior posts were treated as sinecure, given as rewards, and by the late second century AD openly sold to the highest bidder." [3]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 116) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Keay 2009, 177)


Duration:
[25 CE ➜ 220 CE]

"The Eastern Han dynasty (25-220), also known as the Later Han, formerly began on August 5, AD 25 with the accession of Liu Xiu (5 BC-AD 57) as emperor. ... The Eastern Han lasted until November 24, 220, when the last Han emperor abdicated to Cao Pi (187-226), the founder of the Wei dynasty." [1]
"Historians conventionally treat the Eastern Han as a restoration, for it was not technically a new dynasty but the return of imperial authority to a member of the Liu clan, which had lost its claim to the throne during the Xin dynasty (9-23) of Wang Mang (45 BC - 23 AD)." [1]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 116) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Maintained alliance with the Xiongnu - or at least their allegiance as long as the Han paid a costly annual tribute. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)



Succeeding Entity:
Wei Dynasty

Eastern Han broken up into multiple small quasi-polities (Three Kingdoms period). "the last Han emperor abdicated to Cao Pi (187-226), the founder of the Wei dynasty." [1]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 116) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2

km.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"Historians conventionally treat the Eastern Han as a restoration, for it was not technically a new dynasty but the return of imperial authority to a member of the Liu clan, which had lost its claim to the throne during the Xin dynasty (9-23) of Wang Mang (45 BC - 23 AD)." [1]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 116) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Preceding Entity:
Xin Dynasty

"Historians conventionally treat the Eastern Han as a restoration, for it was not technically a new dynasty but the return of imperial authority to a member of the Liu clan, which had lost its claim to the throne during the Xin dynasty (9-23) of Wang Mang (45 BC - 23 AD)." [1]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 116) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

confederated state from 190 CE
190 CE Luoyang sacked. Emperor moves capital back to Chang ’an. Generals in 3 regions of Empire now hold the power. These regions become kingdoms. General Cao Cao’s son declares new dynasty, Wei, 220 CE. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003)

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

confederated state from 190 CE
190 CE Luoyang sacked. Emperor moves capital back to Chang ’an. Generals in 3 regions of Empire now hold the power. These regions become kingdoms. General Cao Cao’s son declares new dynasty, Wei, 220 CE. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003)


Religion


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
420,000 people
100 CE

People. Luoyang.
Luoyang 420,000 in 100 CE. [1] Luoyang 260,000 in 1 CE, 420,000 in 100 CE; 100,000 in 200 CE. [2]
Chang ’an 333,000 in 100 CE. [1] Chang ’an 420,000 in 1 CE; 100,000 in 100 CE. [2]
Soochow 245,000 in 100 CE. [1]
Maoling 180,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Lu 170,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Zhangling 165,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Yangling 160,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Nanking 158,000 in 100 CE. [1]
Wan 155,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Linzi 100,000 in 1 CE; 100,000 in 200 CE. [2]
Chengdu 70,000 in 100 CE. [1] Chengdu 250,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Wuchang 65,000 in 100 CE. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Modelski 2003, 44)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
100,000 people
200 CE

People. Luoyang.
Luoyang 420,000 in 100 CE. [1] Luoyang 260,000 in 1 CE, 420,000 in 100 CE; 100,000 in 200 CE. [2]
Chang ’an 333,000 in 100 CE. [1] Chang ’an 420,000 in 1 CE; 100,000 in 100 CE. [2]
Soochow 245,000 in 100 CE. [1]
Maoling 180,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Lu 170,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Zhangling 165,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Yangling 160,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Nanking 158,000 in 100 CE. [1]
Wan 155,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Linzi 100,000 in 1 CE; 100,000 in 200 CE. [2]
Chengdu 70,000 in 100 CE. [1] Chengdu 250,000 in 1 CE. [2]
Wuchang 65,000 in 100 CE. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Modelski 2003, 44)


Polity Territory:
6,500,000 km2
100 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
5,344,000 km2
120 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
4,633,000 km2
140 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
3,922,000 km2
160 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
3,211,000 km2
180 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
2,500,000 km2
200 CE

KM2. 5,500,000: 80 CE; 6,500,000: 100 CE; 5,344,000: 120 CE; 4,633,000: 140 CE; 3,922,000: 160 CE; 3,211,000: 180 CE; 2,500,000: 200 CE. Km2. Contains interpolated data. [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)


Polity Population:
21,007,820 people
57 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
34,125,021 people
75 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
43,356,367 people
88 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
53,256,219 people
105 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
48,690,789 people
125 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
[48,000,000 to 53,869,588] people
126 CE 141 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
[49,150,220 to 49,730,550] people
142 CE 144 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
47,556,772 people
146 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
50,066,856 people
156 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)

Polity Population:
56,486,856 people
157 CE

People.
57.7 million in census of 2 CE. 48,000,000 in census of 140 CE - however data from three commanderies were missing in this census. [1] Annual population register figures: 2 CE: 57.7m (76% in north). 140 CE: 48m (54% in north). [2]
"With the exception of Yuyang, where the resettlement of the Wuhuan and Xianbi led to a population increase, all commanderies show significant declines, many more than eighty or ninety percent...indicates a genuine decline in the Han population due to barbarian incursions." [3] Note: decline from Han leaving or being killed?
From Bielenstein (1987): "The following national totals have been preserved for the Han dynasty", but there is some margin of error as is natural with historical censuses.
2 CE- 59,594,978 individuals
57 CE- 21,007,820 individuals
75 CE- 34,125,021 individuals
88 CE- 43,356,367 individuals
105 CE- 53,256,219 individuals
125 CE- 48,690,789 individuals
126-144 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
136-141 CE- 53,869,588 individuals
140 CE- 49,150,220 individuals
144 CE- 49,730,550 individuals
146 CE- 47,556,772 individuals
156 CE- 50,066,856 individuals
157 CE- 56,486,856 individuals [4]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 240)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[3]: (Lewis 2000, 65) Lewis, Mark. 2000. The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service. in ed. Van de ven, Hans. Warfare in Chinese History. Brill. 33-76.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1987: 12) Bielenstein, Hans. 1987. "Chinese Historical Demography AD 2-1982." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Antiquities 59: 1-139)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

1. Capital city
2. Provincial capital
3. Tributary capital
4. County capital
5. Town
6. Village


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

Emperor was high priest. [1]
Eclectic mix of ancestor worship, sorcery, Daoism, polytheism, and later Buddhism from first century CE. [2]
"In the state cult of the Han dynasty, Heaven was the supreme deity, a deity which was believed to guide the fate of the world directly." Omens and portents were examined to assess whether the emperor possessed the Mandate of Heaven. [3]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 39)

[2]: (Theobald 2000f)

[3]: (Bielenstein 1986, 223)


Military Level:
7

This (from 2.) was the hierarchy used on field campaigns. After the campaign the militia was demobilized. [1]
1. Emperor
"After AD 89 the title of Ta Chiang-chun or ’Commander-in-Chief’ was a political appointment which carried the responsibilities of a regent." [2]
2. ying (division under a chiang-chun, or general) [1] "Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels... Above the hou kuan were the sector headquarters or tu-wei fu for garrison troops, and the division or ying, under a chiang-chun or general, the highest permanent position." [3]
Generals could lead campaigns on their own without the presence of the Emperor. e.g. 121-119 BCE campaigns which overthrew "five sub-ordinate Hsiung-nu kingdoms" [4]
"A field command was usually an ad hoc appointment for a specific purpose, often reflected in the title given to the recipient - such as ’General Charged With Crossing the Liao’ for a campaign in Korea." [3]
3. pu (regiment under a hsiao-wei, or colonel) [1] "... often translated as ’colonel’, was a lower rank used for temporary appointments
3. tu-wei fu (sector headquarters)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels... Above the hou kuan were the sector headquarters or tu-wei fu for garrison troops, and the division or ying, under a chiang-chun or general, the highest permanent position." [3]
4. hou kuan [3] or ch’u(company under a captain, chun-hou) [1] "Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [3]
5. hou [3] or t’un(platoon under a commander, t’un-chang) [1] "Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [3]
6. sui (section, lead by an officer)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [3]
7. Individual soldier"Conscripts served mainly as infantry; cavalry was provided by volunteers from noble families or by non-Chinese auxiliaries." [5]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 514)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 15)

[4]: (Peers 1995, 7)

[5]: (Peers 1995, 13)


Administrative Level:
7

"The most important source for the study of Later Han institutions is the "’Treatise on the hundred officials’ ... in the Hou-Han shu or Later Han history. This text is systematic, detailed, and much superior to its counterpart in the Han shu. Additional information is found in surviving fragments of once comprehensive accounts on bureaucracy by Han authors. The institutions of Later Han are therefore more fully known than those of Former Han, even though there can be no doubt the basic pattern was the same." [1] The number of levels, here, is equal to the number of levels comprising the central government, with the addition of the emperor, the inner/outer courts, and the grand tutor.
1. King/Emperor.
2. Inner and Outer Courts"In 107 CE, Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty (r. 106-25 CE) issued an edict that proclaimed, "I summon the excellencies and ministers, the officials of the Inner and Outer Courts..."" [2]
2. Grand tutor"An aged and respected man was normally selected for the position shortly after the enthronement of an emperor, but the grand tutors usually died after a few years, and the office was then left vacant for the remainder of the reign." [3]
"With the appointment of the third grand tutor in A.D. 75, the character of the office changed. He and his successors were given supervisory duties over the secretariat, (shang-shu; masters of writing) and from that time onwards came to head sizable ministries. [3]
_Central government_
Outer Court headed by Three Excellencies
3. Marshal of State to Supreme Commandersince 8 BCE "the three highest regularly appointed career officials had the same rank. These were the so-called three excellencies (san kung)". [3] the Supreme Commander "gradually became the most influential among the three." [3]
4. Chief Clerk (chang-shih)"All ministries of the three excellencies were organized in the same general way. Only that of the supreme commander is systematically described in the sources, but the organization undoubtedly varied little from one ministry to the other. Each of the three excellencies was assisted by one chief clerk (chang-shih)." [4]
4. Head of BureauThe ministries of the excellencies and the chief clerks "were divided into bureaus (ts’ao) and staffed with numerous clerks and attendants." [4]
5. Clerk
6. Assistant clerks (tso-shih)"the status of Han officials was defined by a scale beginning with those entitled to stipends equivalent to 10,000 bushels (shih) of grain at the top, and ending with assistant clerks (tso-shih) at the bottom. From 23 B.C. onward, the number of ranks was eighteen. The grand tutor (t’ai-fu) was above the scale." [1]
3. Grand Minister of Finance to Minister of Financesince 8 BCE "the three highest regularly appointed career officials had the same rank. These were the so-called three excellencies (san kung)" [3] 4. Chief Clerk
4. Head of Bureau5. Clerk6. Assistant clerks
3. Grand Minister of Works to Minister of Workssince 8 BCE "the three highest regularly appointed career officials had the same rank. These were the so-called three excellencies (san kung)" [3] 4. Chief Clerk
4. Head of Bureau (e.g. Directorate for imperial manufacturies [5] )5. Head of a sub-division within Bureau (e.g. type of manufacture e.g. paper-making)6. Worker in sub-division of Bureau e.g. researcher"In 105, while serving in the directorate for imperial manufacturies ... [Cai Lun (d.121] devised a process of making paper from hemp, mulberry bark, and fishing nets." [5]
7. Assistant clerks
3. Superintendent of ceremonial (one of the Nine Ministers chiu-ch’ing) [6] "They were not direct subordinates of the three excellencies, although these examined their performances." [4]
4. Directors e.g. for astrologythe Superintendent of ceremonial "had several senior aides" such as the directors for prayer, astrology, music, butchery, offerings and for specific shrines and a memorial park. The directors had "many attendants." Under the superintendent were also an Academician who was the head of the imperial academy and from 159 CE an inspector of the imperial library. [7]
5. Specialist astrologer inferred levelIn 115 CE polymath Zhang Heng (78-139 CE) "became a grand scribe responsible for observing astronomical phenomena, preparing calendars, and managing time devices." [8]
6. Assistant/Apprentice to astrologer inferred level7. Clerk/Secretary inferred level
3. Privy superintendent of the lesser treasury (one of the Nine Ministers chiu-ch’ing) [6] "He headed the largest ministry, but was one of the least influential of the nine." [9] the privy superintendent of the lesser treasury was "the nominal supervisor of certain attendants of the sovereign." [9]
4. Ministerial assistants (ch’eng)Number of ministerial assistants reduced from six to one during Later Han. [9]
4. Director of the secretariat and the supervisor of the secretariatDirector of the secretariat ran the secretariat. the supervisor of the secretariat is described as "his substitute" [9]
5. Assistant of the left and Assistant of the rightassistants assisted the director and the supervisor of the secretariat [9]
5. Member of the Secretariat head of bureauSecretariat was divided into bureaus. These came to number six in Later Han. A bureau for regular attendants, "Two bureaus for senior officials ... were in charge of correspondence with provincial inspectors and grand administrators", bureau for civil population, bureau for superintending guests of south and north [9]
6. Lesser staff"Each bureau was under one member of the Secretariat, who was aided by lesser staff, including government slaves." [9]
3. Superintendent of transport [6]
3. Superintendent of the palace [6]
3. Superintendent of the guard [6]
3. Superintendent of trials [6]
3. Superintendent of state visits [6]
3. Superintendent of the imperial clan [6]
3. Superintendent of agriculture [6]
3 Mayor of Luoyang (Lo-yang ling): Mayor controlled an imperial prison and oversaw candidates for office who had arrived in capital from the regions [10] [10]
_Provincial government_
2. Regions (chou) had Inspectors (or commissioners)35 CE number of regions (chou) reduced from 14 to 13. [10]
Inspectorates of the bureaucracy became permanently based in their own "provincial capitals" and had their own bureaucracy and - by 180 CE - military. [11]
3. Attendant clerk head of bureau"Their staffs were organized into bureaus, each under an attendant clerk (ts’ung-shih shih)." [12]
3. Duty attendant clerk (pieh-chia ts’ung-shih shih)"In addition, one attendant clerk was appointed to each commandery or kingdom of the region, and another acted as duty attendant clerk (pieh-chia ts’ung-shih shih). The latter had the responsibility of following the inspector (or commissioner) at public functions and of recording all matters, including conversations." [12]
3. Commanderies (chun) / Kingdom (wang-kuo) (under a governor / chancellor)"Each region included a varying number of commanderies (chun)." [12] "largely modelled on the centralised Ch’in system, with its north-western heartland divided into ’commanderies’ under governors appointed by the court." [13]  ::: In Former Han governor had a Commandant to organize the militia. This was position was rarely present in Later Han. [12]
4. Head of BureauStaff of the governor organized into bureaus. [14]
5. Clerks
4. Magistrates of Counties (hsien)All commanderies divided into counties. [14] Counties were "personally inspected" by the commandery governor. [12] Counties in militarily important regions known as Marches (tao). [14]
5. Head of Bureau"The county staff was organized into bureaus which imitated the commandery administration and undoubtedly also varied according to local conditions." [15]
6. Clerks
5. Districts (hsiang) under a moral elder (san-lao), a chief of police (yu-chiao), and a tax, law and labor official (yu-chih or se-fu if under 5,000 households)Territory of a county was divided into districts. [15]
6. Commune (t’ing) under a chief (t’ing-chang)Districts were divided into communes. [15]
7. Hamlet (li) under a headman (li-k’uei)Communes were divided into hamlets. [15]
Families grouped into units (of five and ten) "which had collective responsibility on one another’s conduct." [15]
_Southern Xiongnu tributary_
Maintained at cost to central government which was around 91 CE about 100 million cash per annum. Other tributary non-Han client populations included Wuhan (from 49 CE [16] ), Xianbei, and Qiang. Like the Southern Xiongnu, their allegiance had to be paid for by the central government. [17] Other frontier tribes received 74,800,000 cash per year from 73 CE. [16]
_Princely kingdoms_
"In 107 CE, Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty (r. 106-25 CE) issued an edict that proclaimed, "I summon the excellencies and ministers, the officials of the Inner and Outer Courts, the governors of commanderies, and chancellors of the princely kingdoms..."" [2]
"If charge of territory was granted to an imperial son and his heirs as a fief, it was referred to as a kingdom (wang-kuo), but this did not affect the way in which it was administered." [12]
"Whenever an area such as a county was granted as a fief to a marquis, it was referred to as a marquisate (huo-kuo)." [14]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 491)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 69) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Bielenstein 1986, 492)

[4]: (Bielenstein 1986, 493)

[5]: (Knechtges 2010, 117) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[6]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)

[7]: (Bielenstein 1986, 493-494)

[8]: (Yan 2007, 117-118) Yan, Hong-Sen. 2007. Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery. Springer Science & Business Media.

[9]: (Bielenstein 1986, 499)

[10]: (Bielenstein 1986, 506)

[11]: (Keay 2009, 177)

[12]: (Bielenstein 1986, 507)

[13]: (Peers 1995, 6)

[14]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)

[15]: (Bielenstein 1986, 509)

[16]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[17]: (Keay 2009, 171)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Western Han: Conscripts spent a year of service in training. [1] Trained for one year in their home commandery. [2] "The so-called Northern Army (Pei-chun) consisted of professional soldiers who were stationed at the capital for its defense." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 13)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 512)


Professional Priesthood:
absent

"... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Western Han: Conscripts spent a year of service in training. [1] Trained for one year in their home commandery. [2] "The so-called Northern Army (Pei-chun) consisted of professional soldiers who were stationed at the capital for its defense." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 13)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 512)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints. Offices of the bureaucracy. Educational academies.
Treasury, grain depots and storehouses. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 48)


Merit Promotion:
present
25 CE 150 CE

"In 107 CE, Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty (r. 106-25 CE) issued an edict that proclaimed, "I summon the excellencies and ministers, the officials of the Inner and Outer Courts, the governors of commanderies, and chancellors of the princely kingdoms to recommend one person in each of the following categories: those who are capable and good and sincere and upright, those with special powers and skills, those with political and administrative talents, those who understand the past and present, and those who are able to speak out frankly and admonish unflinchingly."" [1]
"Some high-level government branches also tried to recruit lower-leverl government officials in a similar manner (bi zhao)." [1]
By the late second century bureaucratic posts "openly sold to the highest bidder." [2]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 69) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Keay 2009, 177)

Merit Promotion:
unknown
151 CE 199 CE

"In 107 CE, Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty (r. 106-25 CE) issued an edict that proclaimed, "I summon the excellencies and ministers, the officials of the Inner and Outer Courts, the governors of commanderies, and chancellors of the princely kingdoms to recommend one person in each of the following categories: those who are capable and good and sincere and upright, those with special powers and skills, those with political and administrative talents, those who understand the past and present, and those who are able to speak out frankly and admonish unflinchingly."" [1]
"Some high-level government branches also tried to recruit lower-leverl government officials in a similar manner (bi zhao)." [1]
By the late second century bureaucratic posts "openly sold to the highest bidder." [2]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 69) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Keay 2009, 177)

Merit Promotion:
absent
200 CE 220 CE

"In 107 CE, Emperor An of the Eastern Han Dynasty (r. 106-25 CE) issued an edict that proclaimed, "I summon the excellencies and ministers, the officials of the Inner and Outer Courts, the governors of commanderies, and chancellors of the princely kingdoms to recommend one person in each of the following categories: those who are capable and good and sincere and upright, those with special powers and skills, those with political and administrative talents, those who understand the past and present, and those who are able to speak out frankly and admonish unflinchingly."" [1]
"Some high-level government branches also tried to recruit lower-leverl government officials in a similar manner (bi zhao)." [1]
By the late second century bureaucratic posts "openly sold to the highest bidder." [2]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 69) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Keay 2009, 177)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Bureaucracy of 120,285 officials in 2 CE. "Loewe speculates that this figure may not include the lower-level officials at the grass roots." [1]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 63) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


Examination System:
present

Crude examination system already existed in the Western Han. [1] However, "Before A.D. 132 the hsiao-lien did not have to undergo a written examination. It was decreed in that year that all must be examined..." [2] Also, "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [3]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 68) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 516)

[3]: (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Examination System:
absent

Crude examination system already existed in the Western Han. [1] However, "Before A.D. 132 the hsiao-lien did not have to undergo a written examination. It was decreed in that year that all must be examined..." [2] Also, "Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [3]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 68) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 516)

[3]: (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Lawyers are not mentioned in Loewe’s [1] detailed description of the legal process in Han times.
If there were no lawyers, what did the Superintendent of trials [2] and his departmental staff do? We can infer there were specialists working on law here.

[1]: (Loewe 1968, 67-68)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)


Judge:
present

The magistrate of the county enforced law and order and judged civil and criminal cases. [1] -- Is this magistrate a specialist in judging law?
There was an official at the district level responsible for law, tax and labour. At the commune level the chief maintained law and order. [2]
Commandery governor responsible for "the administration of civil and criminal law." [3]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 509)

[3]: (Bielenstein 1986, 507)


Formal Legal Code:
present

During Western Han Confucianism gradually replaced legalism. Qin legal code remained basically intact, some severe measures rescinded. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 48)


Court:
present

Courts are not mentioned in Loewe’s [1] detailed description of the legal process in Han times.
If there were no courts, what was the Superintendent of trials [2] concerned with? Where were trials held, if not in a place for trials, i.e. courts?

[1]: (Loewe 1968, 67-68)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Commandery governors had a bureau that dealt with markets. [1] Luoyang probably had one market. [2]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)


Irrigation System:
present

Extension of irrigation projects [1] Comprised a yanzhu, a reservoir, and fang, a dike. Water was channelled a sui at top of the field while a gui drained it away. [2]

[1]: (Roberts 2003)

[2]: (Higham 2009, 160)


Food Storage Site:
present

Great granary in Luoyang. [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 498)


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China’s ancient water civilization." [1] "The entire underground water supply pipeline system of Yangcheng [Warring States Period?] was discovered in archaeological excavations (Figure 8.2), providing important physical evidence of early water supply of cities in ancient China." [2] Emperor Wu ordered the Kunming Reservoir to provide water for Chang’an which was delivered to the city via "water-transfer channels." One channel provided water to canals other "specifically for supplying water within the city." [3] "Pumps and norias on the southern moat supplied the city with water." [4] -- is this drinking water?

[1]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 169) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[2]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 171) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[3]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 172) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[4]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)


Transport Infrastructure

Roads improved. [1] Commandery governers had bureaus that dealt with roads. [2]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)


Gangling and Qiantang.


Lu Bei, grand administrator, dug canals in Dong commandery. [1] Commandery governers had bureaus that dealt with canals. [2]

[1]: (Higham 2009, 160)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)


Bridge:
present

Commandery governers had bureaus that dealt with bridges. [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"Early in the Han and before, writing had been done on wood, bamboo and silk. Wood and bamboo were bulky and cumbersome, and silk was expensive. As papermaking technology improved, it proved to be the most economical and easiest medium on which to write." [1] However, older mediums, such as bamboo tablets, remained in use. [2]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 117) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Script:
present

"Early in the Han and before, writing had been done on wood, bamboo and silk. Wood and bamboo were bulky and cumbersome, and silk was expensive. As papermaking technology improved, it proved to be the most economical and easiest medium on which to write." [1] However, older mediums, such as bamboo tablets, remained in use. [2]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 117) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.



Nonwritten Record:
present

"Early in the Han and before, writing had been done on wood, bamboo and silk. Wood and bamboo were bulky and cumbersome, and silk was expensive. As papermaking technology improved, it proved to be the most economical and easiest medium on which to write." [1] However, older mediums, such as bamboo tablets, remained in use. [2]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 117) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.



Mnemonic Device:
present

The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [1]

[1]: Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471396710.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Physician Hua Tuo (c140-208 CE) used anaesthetic during surgery. [1] A director of astrology invented the seismograph in 132 CE [2] - this was Zhang Heng (78-139 CE) and the device was called the Di Dong Yi. [3] "...sulfur and saltpeter were recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the Divine Agriculturist compiled during the Han dynasty." [4] Medical prescriptions. [5] Zhang Heng (78-139 CE) was a polymath cartographer, mathematician, inventor (poet and painter) who was for a time a royal astronomer. [6]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 39)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494)

[3]: (Yan 2007, 118) Yan, Hong-Sen. 2007. Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery. Springer Science & Business Media.

[4]: (Lorge 2011, 33)

[5]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[6]: (Yan 2007, 117-118) Yan, Hong-Sen. 2007. Reconstruction Designs of Lost Ancient Chinese Machinery. Springer Science & Business Media.




Practical Literature:
present

There was a court architect who "directed the building and repair of imperial palaces, temples, and tombs, the construction of funerary parks, and the planting of trees." [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 504)


Philosophy:
present

Wang Fu (90-165 CE) wrote "Qianfu Lun". Contained chapter "On excessive luxury." [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Administrative documents. [1]

[1]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


History:
present

Historian and astronomer Liu Xin, Just prior to period (c50 BC - 23 CE) he is representative of intellectual life. Curator of the imperial library, he established a library classification system, and calculated pi(π) to 4 decimal places. [1] Female historian Ban Zhao. Completed the Hanshu after Ban Ghu executed, and wrote "Lessons for Women." [2] Pan Ku [3] (d.86 BCE) / Ban Gu (d.92 CE)

[1]: (wikipedia)

[2]: (Keay 2009, 178)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 5)


Fiction:
present

Yuan Kang, Eastern Han scholar, wrote Yue jue shu "a private history of the Spring and Autumn period ... often considered to be a precursor of fiction writing." [1] The imperial court produced poetic writing. [2] Not all writing composed within or presented to court. "Zhang Heng composed his famous "Fu on the Two Metropolises" as a private individual, and there is no evidence that he presented it to the court." [3]

[1]: (Ying Hu 2000, 225)

[2]: (Knechtges 2010, 118) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (Knechtges 2010, 119) Knechtges, David R. in Chang, Kang-i Sun. Ownen, Stephen. 2010. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.


Calendar:
present

There was a director of astrology under the superintendent of ceremonial who drew up the annual calendar. [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494)


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Continuation from Qin monetary system: bronze coins; gold and silver bullion used as store of wealth. [1] gold and silver bullion used as store of wealth. [2]

[1]: (Thierry 2003)

[2]: (Scheidel 2009)


Paper Currency:
absent

"The Song dynasty introduced paper money in 1024 because China did not have enough silver or copper for its growing commercial economy." [1]

[1]: (Headrick 2009, 85)


Indigenous Coin:
present

"The Qin ban liang gave way to the smaller wu zhu coin in the Han. This coin weighed five zhu (hence the name), about three grams, and it continued in use until the Tang dynasty (618-906 A.D.)." [1]

[1]: (Lewis 2009, 65)


Foreign Coin:
absent

Did Roman coinage reach China? Would it have been used as money?


Article:
present

The Han economy became fully monetized. Wages were paid in cash. Taxes could be paid in cash (rather than labor services). [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 56-60)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Commandery governors had a bureau that dealt with postal stations and couriers. [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)


General Postal Service:
present

claims of state-organized communication service by many kingdoms already in the Warring States period; infer that it was continued and expanded by the Qin Empire and adapted by the Han as well.


Courier:
present

Commandery governors had a bureau that dealt with postal stations and couriers. [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 508)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Photo of Han section of Great Wall built with loose stones. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2007, 20) Turnball, Stephen. 2007. The Great Wall of China 221 BC-AD 1644. Osprey Publishing.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Not mentioned by sources.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

The Great Wall as a defensive settlement [1]

[1]: (Encyclopedia Britannica 2015, "The Great Wall") "The Great Wall." 2015. Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/.



Luoyang had tamped earth walls and a moat [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)



Earth Rampart:
present

Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city. [1] Fortifications along frontier 1st century. [2] Walls of Luoyang constructed using tamped earth. [3]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Peers 1995, 11)

[3]: (Bielenstein 1986, 262)


Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Complex Fortification:
present

Inferred that consecutive rings of walls existed as they had done previously.



Military use of Metals

"During the Spring and Autumn period, China developed steel and iron-made weaponry, and as the raw iron castings technique was widely practiced - and the ‘folded hundred times steel’ casting method was on the rise, along with various polishing techniques for steel - Chinese steel weapons were very much on the ascendant." [1] First steel adapted by Chu in 5th century BCE [2] , likely spread quickly to other states "As the smiths in time learned the possibilities of their material, and began producing quench-hardened steel swords ... bronze swords could not longer compete and went out of use completely. This seems likely to have occurred all over China by the late third century B.C. at the latest." [3] "As early as the later Han dynasty and the early Jin dynasty, the Chinese were already capable of producing steel." [4] Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also." [5] First high-quality steel 450 CE.

[1]: Hangang, Cao. Undated. A Study of Chinese Weapons Cast During Pre-Qin and Han Periods in the Central Plains of China. Retrieved December 2015: http://www.arscives.com/historysteel/cn.article.htm

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 96)

[3]: (Wagner 1996, 197) Donald B Wagner. 1996. Iron and Steel in Ancient China. 2nd Edition. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[4]: (Lu 2015, 251) ed. Lu, Yongxiang. 2005. A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 3. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University Press.

[5]: (Needham 1962, 282) Joseph Needham. 1962. Science and Civilization in China. Volume IV. Physics and Physical Technology. Part 1: Physics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Iron-clad armor replaced copper. [1]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)



Bronze:
present

"Bronze weapons were still in widespread use at the beginning of the Han." [1] Bronze weapons, e.g. axe. [2] bronze sword [3]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 4)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 11)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 10)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"early versions of siege crossbows and traction trebuchets may be noted in the accounts of the wars of the Qin and Han dynasties, and appear in the early military writings associated with the name of Mo Zi." [1] "There were various grades of crossbow of different draw-weight. The heaviest required a pull of over 350lbs to cock them, and were suitable only for static positions, where they could be fixed on revolving mounts. Strong men capable of loading the larger weapons were known as chuch chang, and were highly valued specialists." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Sling Siege Engine:
present

arcuballiste and lever-operated stone-throwing catapults (trebuchets) approaches ..." from Warring States period, and "There was to be very little change in the Chinese art of siege warfare ... until the introduction of gunpowder" [1] "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders." [2] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [3]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 23)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 20)

[3]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

arcuballiste and lever-operated stone-throwing catapults (trebuchets) approaches ..." from Warring States period, and "There was to be very little change in the Chinese art of siege warfare ... until the introduction of gunpowder" [1] "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders." [2] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [3]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 23)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 20)

[3]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Unnecessary when peasants can be equipped with the easy-to-use crossbow.


Self Bow:
present

Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Javelin:
absent

Not mentioned by sources


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Gunpowder introduced in 900 CE [1]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 17) Graff, David. 2002. Medieval Chinese Warfare 300-900. London: Routledge.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Gunpowder introduced in 900 CE [1]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 17) Graff, David. 2002. Medieval Chinese Warfare 300-900. London: Routledge.


Crossbow:
present

"The crossbow is the most frequently mentioned weapon in the sources, and was often given credit for the Han army’s superiority over its enemies." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Composite Bow:
present

Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Atlatl:
absent

New world weapon, unlikely.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Not mentioned by sources. Existed earlier in chronology for this region so not a question of whether technology is present. Battle axes, a similar crushing weapon, are known, so it is likely metal war clubs could have been used, if they were deemed to have been useful.


Han infantry were equipped with swords. [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Han infantry were equipped with spears. [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Polearm:
present

"Halberd or dagger-axe blade, from a 1st century BC site at Liang-wang-shani in Yunnan (British Museum)." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 12)


Dagger:
present

"Bronze knife, Han period (British Museum)." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 17)


Battle Axe:
present

Bronze axe. [1] "Halberd or dagger-axe blade, from a 1st century BC site at Liang-wang-shani in Yunnan (British Museum)." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 11)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 12)


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry "recruited from among the Wu-huan and Hsiung-nu." [1]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 513)


Donkey:
present

Supply train: oxen, donkeys, horses, mules, camels. [1] Used as pack animals in warfare [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 12)

[2]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Supply train: oxen, donkeys, horses, mules, camels. [1] Used as pack animals in warfare [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 12)

[2]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

[1] "Infantry were often protected with leather or iron lamellar armour." [2]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Shield:
present

"In sieges, and occasionally in the field, missile troops were drawn up behind men carrying spears or shields, but separate deployment seems to be the norm." [1] "A relief from I-nan, possibly late Han, appears to show two cavalry figures with shields, but this was uncommon, perhaps because weapons such as halberds, bows and crossbows required the use of both hands." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 17)



Plate Armor:
present

Western Han reference to " "plates stitched together and divided into several section for the chest, shoulder and collar." [1]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)


Limb Protection:
present

Would have been needed as defence against projectile weapons.


Leather Cloth:
present

[1] "Infantry were often protected with leather or iron lamellar armour." [2]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Laminar Armor:
present

"Iron lamellar cuirass from Erh-shih-chia-tzu, Inner Mongolia. Han period." [1] "Infantry were often protected with leather or iron lamellar armour." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 10)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Helmet:
present

[1] Infantry "wore caps or iron helmets" [2]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)



Breastplate:
present

Western Han reference to " "plates stitched together and divided into several section for the chest, shoulder and collar." [1]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Warships which had sailors (lou-ch’uan-shih) [1] Engineers invented rudder and stern for steering ships which enabled ocean sailing. [2]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1986, 512)

[2]: (Kerr 2013, 39)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

In use since the Shang dynasty




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.