Home Region:  Mesopotamia (Southwest Asia)

Kassite Babylonia

D G SC WF EQ 2020  iq_babylonia_2 / IqBabKs

Preceding:
[elite migration; Sealand] [elite migration]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1153 BCE 1027 BCE Second Dynasty of Isin (iq_isin_dynasty2)    [None]
Add one more here.

The Kassites invaded Babylon from the north-west after the Hittites ended the First Empire. The Hittites did not establish their presence in Babylonia and, instead, the Kassites took the throne and ruled over Babylonia, although it was a smaller empire than the First Empire. [1] The Kassite Dynasty is notable for the unification of Sumer and Babylon to create the Empire. It was marked by large building projects, especially in old Sumerian cities such as Ur, Uruk and Eridu. [2] The Babylonian Empire was at this time secondary to the powerful surrounding states Egypt and Assyria. The Kassites had a reasonably good relationship with Egypt; there were several intermarriages and gifts were given and recieved. On the other side, they constantly fought with Assyria until the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I captured the Babylonian king, Kashtiliash IV and conquered Babylon. Assyrians ruled Babylon for seven years. Elam also started invading Babylonian territory in the latter Kassite Dynasty, eventually setting Kutir-Nahhunte on the throne in the north, leaving the Kassites surviving in power in the south. Not many years later Kuti-Nahhunte conquered the whole of Babylon, ended the rule of the Kassite Dynasty and took their god, Marduk, to Susa. [3]
The period was characterised by the overall population decline occurring across the Near East. Border towns and villages were abandoned and irrigation became less successful. Much of the administration was undertaken by or in the temples who effectively owned most of the land; however, another type of land ownership developed, which was the land gifted by the king to religious, military and administrative elites. The non-elites, on the other hand, suffered during this period, becoming markedly impoverished as they became unimportant in social government. [4]
In general, the Kassites made only limited changes to Babylonian culture, mostly assimilating into Babylonian society. As such, it can often be difficult to ascribe evidence to the Kassites specifically, as opposed to the ongoing Babylonian empire. [5]

[1]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66

[2]: Stein, D. L. 1997. Kassites. In Meyers, E. (ed.) The Oxford Encylopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.272

[3]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366

[4]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.366-7

[5]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.68

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
38 S  
Original Name:
Babylonian Empire  
Kassite Dynasty  
Capital:
Babylon  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,359 BCE ➜ 1,333 BCE]  
Duration:
[1,595 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
vassalage to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Mesopotamia  
Succeeding Entity:
Middle Elamite Kingdom  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[500,000 to 600,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [elite migration]  
Succeeding: Second Dynasty of Isin (iq_isin_dynasty2)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Mesopotamian Religions  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[200,000 to 250,000] km2  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Canal:
inferred present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
Handheld weapons
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
Armor
  Scaled Armor:
present  
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kassite Babylonia (iq_babylonia_2) was in:
 (1595 BCE 1154 BCE)   Southern Mesopotamia
Home NGA: Southern Mesopotamia

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Babylonian Empire
Original Name:
Kassite Dynasty


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,359 BCE ➜ 1,333 BCE]

These dates describe the reign of Burna-Buriash II. At this time "the Kassite dynasty ranked among the major powers of the Near East", the Amarna letters describe describe "diplomatics marriages and large scale trade" between the Kassites and Egypt, the super-power of the time. [1]

[1]: Stein, D. L. 1997. Kassites. In Meyers, E. M. (ed.) The Oxford Encylopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.271-272.


Duration:
[1,595 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]

1595 BCE - The date of the fall of the First Dynasty of Babylon to the Hittites. By default this is taken as the start of the Kassite Dynasty (as the next rulers of Babylon), although whether this reflects the true start of the Kassite dynasty in unknown. For example, there is a 200 year gap between the last cylinder seals of the First Dynasty and the first of the Kassite Dynasty. [1]
1150 BCE - The Elamites invaded Babylonia in 1154 BCE [2] and put their own king, Kutir-Nahunte, on the throne. Kutir-Nahunte soon conquered the whole of Babylon, defeated the Kassites and returned to Elam with some of their most precious icons, including the victory stele of Naram-Sin and the god statue of Marduk. [3]

[1]: Collon, D. 2007. Babylonian seals. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.107

[2]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.62

[3]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

none; vassalage (1243-1207 BCE)
During the Kassite period, Babylon was controlled for a period of time by the Assyrians. In the Amarna letters the Kassite king Burnaburiash II (1359-1333 BCE) described Assyria as his vassal. By the reign of the Assyrian king Tulki-Ninurta I (1243-1207 BCE), Assyria had grown powerful enough, in the vacuum created by the decline of the Mitanni, to invade Babylon. When Tulki-Ninurta I’s son overthrew him, the Kassites returned to claim the Babylonian throne again. [1]

[1]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.68-69

Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

none; vassalage (1243-1207 BCE)
During the Kassite period, Babylon was controlled for a period of time by the Assyrians. In the Amarna letters the Kassite king Burnaburiash II (1359-1333 BCE) described Assyria as his vassal. By the reign of the Assyrian king Tulki-Ninurta I (1243-1207 BCE), Assyria had grown powerful enough, in the vacuum created by the decline of the Mitanni, to invade Babylon. When Tulki-Ninurta I’s son overthrew him, the Kassites returned to claim the Babylonian throne again. [1]

[1]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.68-69


Supracultural Entity:
Mesopotamia

Succeeding Entity:
Middle Elamite Kingdom

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[500,000 to 600,000] km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

The Kassites invaded Babylon from the north-west after the Hittites ended the First Empire. The Hittites did not establish their presence in Babylonia and, instead, the Kassite elites took the throne and ruled over Babylonia. There was some migration of Kassite people, but mostly the elites gained control and assimilated into Babylonian society. [1]

[1]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66


Preceding Entity:
Sealand

The Kassites invaded Babylon from the north-west after the Hittites ended the First Empire. The Hittites did not establish their presence in Babylonia and, instead, the Kassite elites took the throne and ruled over Babylonia. There was some migration of Kassite people, but mostly the elites gained control and assimilated into Babylonian society. [1]

[1]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66

Preceding Entity:
IqBabKs [iq_babylonia_2] ---> Second Dynasty of Isin [iq_isin_dynasty2]

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

There was a large influx of foreigners and hill people in the Kassite period. Together with the tribes, which inhabited their own provinces, this caused a lack of centralisation in the Kassite period when Babylon was largely de-urbanised [1] and the more rural, tribal communities existed in a kind of feudal state. [2]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-366

[2]: Balkan, K. 1986. Studies in Babylonian Feudalism of the Kassite Period. Monographs on the Ancient Near East. Volume 2. Malibu: Undena Publications


Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Mesopotamian Religions


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[200,000 to 250,000] km2

in squared kilometers


Polity Population:
-

People. Unknown but, despite immigration into Babylon, population numbers suffered substantial decline and many settlements and much infrastructure was abandoned. [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.366


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels. (1) large cities, capital - Babylon (1) cities - provincial capitals (3)towns (4) villages [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-370


Religious Level:
[3 to 4]

levels. At least three: (1) Sanga/Shangum (2) Senior staff (diviners, exorcists, lamentation priests), (3) Snake charmers, acrobats, musicians, singers, barbers, chefs.
"The more important or specialist cultic officials (“priests,” although there was no blanket Mesopotamian term with this meaning), administrative staff, scribes, and artisans would have been permanent employees of the temple[...] At their head was the sanga / shangum (chief priest), whose role was as much administrative as religious. Others had a more exclusively ritual role, headed by the en priest or en / entum priestess, who was the spouse of the city deity: This post lapsed after the OB period, although it was revived by the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar II. Other cultic personnel included snake charmers, acrobats, musicians, and singers, and more senior staff included diviners, exorcists, and lamentation priests". [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Administrative Level:
3

levels. (1) king, (2) governor ( saknu ) - Babylon was split into 20 provinces in this period, each with a governor. Some were city provinces, others were a tribal group lands with the title ’House of____(ancestor)’. The governor of Nippur was uniquely called sandabakku (3) functionaries - a heirarchy of functionaries served under the governors. Due to the changing population (hill tribes, foreigners, newly dependant farmers, self-ruling family states) the administration of the empire was an increasing challenge. [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.364-370


Professions
Professional Priesthood:
present

"The more important or specialist cultic officials (“priests,” although there was no blanket Mesopotamian term with this meaning), administrative staff, scribes, and artisans would have been permanent employees of the temple[...] At their head was the sanga / shangum (chief priest), whose role was as much administrative as religious. Others had a more exclusively ritual role". [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Professional Military Officer:
present

"In the Kassite period, Babylonia also experienced the influence of new military techniques (chariots and horses). The latter benefited a small group of military professionals, who received generous land grants from the king." [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 367) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

Temples and palaces both doubled as administration buildings--inferred from knowledge of preceding and succeeding periods, as well the following quote: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations." [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.


Merit Promotion:
absent

Inferred continuity with preceding period: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions." [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"Kassite Babylonia was divided into provinces run by a hierarchical bureaucracy that undertook public works, collected taxes, and issued rations to state dependents such as temple staff, guards, and craftsmen." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 206) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Examination System:
absent

Inferred continuity with preceding period: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions." [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

Evidence for full-time professional lawyers is not mentioned by sources.


Judge:
present

"The judiciary operated at three levels. Local councils of elders representing a village or an urban ward dealt with everyday matters such as divorce applications, disputed paternity, and conflicts over inheritance. [...] If the council felt unable to deal with a case or one of the parties at law was dissatisfied with its outcome, the matter could be referred to a higher authority, a judge appointed by the king, or to the king himself, the highest authority. Some serious offenses, such as murder, known as din napishtim (“case of life”), were referred directly to the king as a matter of course[...]. The role of the judiciary was not only to resolve disputes and punish criminal behavior but also to administer and enforce government decrees and to witness and record legally binding agreements between individuals." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 158) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Formal Legal Code:
present

Inferred from long Mesopotamian/Babylonian legal tradition.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"It is true, as Karl Polányi has pointed out, that we have to distinguish between market-place and market: the former is securely attested (Akkadian mah˘ı¯rum) in Mesopotamia from the Old Babylonian period onwards". [1]

[1]: (Liverani 2014, 200) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.


Irrigation System:
present

"As in all other periods, Babylonia in the first millennium BC was a predominantly agrarian society dependent on irrigation agriculture" [1]

[1]: Jursa, M. 2007. The Babylonian economy in the first millennium BC. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.225


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Drain architecture is found throughout Ur, but it cannot be said what purpose the water served. [1] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.

[1]: Wooley, L. 1965. Ur Excavations. Volume III. The Kassite Period and the Period of the Assyrian Kings. London: The British Museum. p.42


Transport Infrastructure

"Paved roads were rare outside the cities; the major highways and many minor ways were, nevertheless, genuine roads, created by leveling and compacting the ground, and regularly repaired after damage by rain and other natural hazards. Army engineers preceded military expeditions to identify the most appropriate line of march, check and clear or repair existing roads, and, where necessary, construct new ones." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 189) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Canal:
present

"Rivers and canals were the main highways wherever possible since water transport, particularly of bulk goods, was easier than that over land." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 138) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Bridge:
present

"Routes were often dictated by the location of oases, mountain passes, and river crossings, by bridge, ford, or ferry."EXTERNAL_INLINE_REFERENCE: ;(McIntosh 2005: 139) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD .;


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Sacred Text:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Religious Literature:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Practical Literature:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Philosophy:
present

Wisdom literature. [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.373


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Administration tablets remarkable for their tabulated form [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.368


History:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Fiction:
present

"A growing body of literature, composed now in Akkadian instead of Sumerian, accumulated through the later second and first millennia. These included new versions of earlier stories, such as Ishtar in the Netherworld, and new stories, such as Enuma elish and The Story of Erra, as well as new compositions in old and new genres of religious literature and other branches of literary composition such as disputations, fables, and love poems, and the time-honored Sumerian lexical texts, now translated and greatly expanded and developed. Epic poems about historical monarchs began to appear, including fictive “autobiographies.” On the practical side, there was a growing body of “scientific” literature: compilations of omen and divination observations, treatments for illnesses, recipes and other treatises, as well as mathematical tables and exercises." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 291) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Calendar:
present

"The Babylonians used a calendar based on cycles of both the moon and the sun. Time was divided into solar days, lunar months, and luni-solar years. Days ran from sunset to sunset and were divided into four parts or into twelve “double-hours.” Astronomical texts such as Enuma Anu Enlil provided information on how to calculate the length of daylight at different times in the year." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 268) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Information / Money

"The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Precious Metal:
present

"The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Paper Currency:
absent

"The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

"The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Foreign Coin:
absent

"The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Article:
present

"Babylonian textiles, horses and chariots were sent west to Egypt with transhipped luxury items such as lapis lazuli in exchange for gold and precious stones." [1] "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service." [2]

[1]: Stein, D. L. 1997. Kassites. In Meyers, E. M. (ed.) The Oxford Encylopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.273

[2]: (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart". [1]

[1]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone." [1] Examples at Ur. [2]

[1]: The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.

[2]: Wooley, L. 1965. Ur Excavations. Volume III. The Kassite Period and the Period of the Assyrian Kings. London: The British Museum.


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone." [1]

[1]: The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown

e. g. Dur- Kurigalzu [1] "Kurigalzu I (1390 BC) built a defensive fortress near the confluence of the Tigris and the River Diyala" [2]

[1]: 348

[2]: Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.66



In the second millennium BCE, "Moats were becoming a common feature of city defenses". [1] e. g. at Kish [2]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 189) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.

[2]: Hamblin, W. J. 2006. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. New York: Routledge, 223



Earth Rampart:
present

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart". [1]

[1]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.




Military use of Metals
Projectiles

Arrowheads were found in Kassite burial at Ur. [1]

[1]: Wooley, L. 1965. Ur Excavations. Volume III. The Kassite Period and the Period of the Assyrian Kings. London: The British Museum. p.17


Composite Bow:
present

[1]

[1]: Moorey, P. R. S. 1986. The Emergence of the Light, Horse-Drawn Chariot in the Ancient Near East c. 2000-1500 BC, World Archaeology 18:2, 210


Handheld weapons

[1]

[1]: Akkermans, P.M.M.G. 1997. Seals and Seal Impressions from Middle Assyrian Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. In: M. Lebeau (ed.), About Subartu - Studies Devoted to Upper Mesopotamia, (Subartu 4), 246.


[1]

[1]: Curtis, J. E. 1983. Axe-Heads from Chagar Bazar and Nimrud, Iraq 45/1: 75.


[1]

[1]: Curtis, J. E. 1983. Axe-Heads from Chagar Bazar and Nimrud, Iraq 45/1: 75.


Battle Axe:
present

[1]

[1]: Curtis, J. E. 1983. Axe-Heads from Chagar Bazar and Nimrud, Iraq 45/1: 75.


Animals used in warfare

As far as the scribal sector of Mesopotamia was concerned, the only influence the Kassite rulers had on Mesopotamian culture was to introduce horses and cavalry, for which they had to invent new ways to describe in writing. [1]

[1]: Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.370


Armor
Scaled Armor:
present

present, but rather rare in use because of the price’ [1]

[1]: Moorey, P. R. S. 1986. The Emergence of the Light, Horse-Drawn Chariot in the Ancient Near East c. 2000-1500 BC, World Archaeology 18:2, 211


Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.