Home Region:  Turkestan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Samanid Empire

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  uz_samanid_emp / UzSamnd

Preceding:
750 CE 946 CE Abbasid Caliphate I (iq_abbasid_cal_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
950 CE 1212 CE Kara-Khanids (kg_kara_khanid_dyn)    [elite migration]
Add one more here.

The Samanids were a Persian-Sassanid family who had converted to Islam after the Umayyad conquests. During the caliphate of the Abbasid ruler al-Ma’mun (813-833 CE) they were perceived to be loyal enough to be named hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat [1] where they were able to mint bronze coins in their own names, raise armies and campaign against neighbouring powers. [2]
The structure of the Samanid state "was in reality a conglomeration of great urban complexes, each with its own local dynasty, traditional elite, and economic and cultural particularities" [3] but this should not disguise the importance of the strong central government institutions which grew in step with the increasing urbanization of the region. [4] The Population of the largest cities, such as Nishapur, at this time may have exceeded 100,000 people.
The Samanid system of government was modelled on the caliph’s court in Baghdad with central and provincial divisions. [5] The head of state, Amir, was assisted by a vizier and many heads of departments who included a vazir (Prime Minister, not to be confused with the vizier), treasurer, chiefs of police and justice, postmaster, among others. [6] The "central bureaucracy was matched by a similar organization in the provincial capitals, but on a smaller scale" which reported to the central authorities. [6] The Samanid Amir appointed local governors or maintained relations with local hereditary rulers. [5]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 99) Lapidus, Ira M. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[3]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[4]: (Frye 1975, 153) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[5]: (Frye 1975, 143) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[6]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 T  
Original Name:
Samanid Empire  
Capital:
Bukhara  
Alternative Name:
Saminid Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
942 CE  
Duration:
[819 CE ➜ 999 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Perso-Islamic  
Succeeding Entity:
Kara-Khanids  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
2,750,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Abbasid Caliphate I (iq_abbasid_cal_1)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Kara-Khanids (kg_kara_khanid_dyn)    [elite migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Indo-European  
Language:
Arabic  
Persian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
130,000 people 900 CE
Polity Territory:
600,000 km2 900 CE
2,500,000 km2 930 CE
Polity Population:
6,000,000 people 900 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
[6 to 7]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present 819 CE 942 CE
absent 943 CE 999 CE
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred absent  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Samanid Empire (uz_samanid_emp) was in:
 (876 CE 990 CE)   Sogdiana
Home NGA: Sogdiana

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Samanid Empire

Capital:
Bukhara

Bukhara. [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Alternative Name:
Saminid Dynasty

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
942 CE

"power declined sharply" between 944-977 CE. [1] "after the reign of Nasr II (913-942), the Samani power was weakened." [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Hodgson 1977, 33) Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1977. The Venture of Islam. Volume II. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.


Duration:
[819 CE ➜ 999 CE]

"The Samanid brothers, while initially subject to the Tahirids, were largely autonomousrulers in their own territories, minted bronze coins in their own names, and mustered militias and mounted campaigns against surrounding provinces." [1]
Ismail Ibn Ahmad Samani (849-907 CE) "Founder of the Samanid state." [2] -- referring to institutions of central government. [3]
"The Samanids had been a local ruling family since Sasanian times, but in the wake of the incorporation of Transoxania into the Islamic empire, they converted to Islam. During the caliphate of al-Ma’mun (813-33), the ruling members of the family were named hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat - without further supervision." [4]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[2]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[3]: (Negmatov 1997, 85) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[4]: (Lapidus 2012, 99) Lapidus, Ira M. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

Nominal
"The Samanid brothers, while initially subject to the Tahirids, were largely autonomous
rulers in their own territories, minted bronze coins in their own names, and mustered mili-tias and mounted campaigns against surrounding provinces." [1]
Nominal
"As was almost universal in the Islamic world at this time, society was hierarchical, with the caliph-imams being, in theory at least, the delegators of all authority, so that the Samanid amirs were their lieutenants. In practice, the amirs enjoyed virtual independence, but were careful to pay lip-service to the caliphal ideal." [2]
Alliance
Allied with Ziyarids of Tabaristan. [3]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 87) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[3]: (Frye 1975, 151) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Nominal
"The Samanid brothers, while initially subject to the Tahirids, were largely autonomous
rulers in their own territories, minted bronze coins in their own names, and mustered mili-tias and mounted campaigns against surrounding provinces." [1]
Nominal
"As was almost universal in the Islamic world at this time, society was hierarchical, with the caliph-imams being, in theory at least, the delegators of all authority, so that the Samanid amirs were their lieutenants. In practice, the amirs enjoyed virtual independence, but were careful to pay lip-service to the caliphal ideal." [2]
Alliance
Allied with Ziyarids of Tabaristan. [3]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 87) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[3]: (Frye 1975, 151) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Supracultural Entity:
Perso-Islamic

"Indeed, in many ways the Samanids were compared with the Sasanids. The union of diverse elements in Transoxiana by the Samanids into one state seemed to many almost miraculous, as though the unity of Iran and its culture had been accomplished in Central Asia and not in Iran. Furthermore, this unity was based upon Islam, and the Samanids had shown how ancient Iranian culture could be compatible with Islam. This was the great contribution of the Samanids to the world of Islam, and of course, to Iran." [1] Samanids made ancient Iranian culture compatible with Islam: this sounds like the "Perso-Islamic tradition" referred to by Peacock of the later Buyids and Seljuks, which had begun under the Abbasids: "the synthesis that had been developed since the early Abbasid period, bringing ancient Iranian, pre-Islamic ideas of kingship into an Islamic context. The tenth century had witnessed the heyday of this synthesis, as under ethnically Iranian dynasties like the Buyids ancient titles like shahanshah (king of kings) were revived." [2]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 160) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Peacock 2015, 134-135) Peacock, A C S. 2015. The Great Seljuk Empire. Edinburgh University Press.


Succeeding Entity:
Kara-Khanids

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
2,750,000 km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Abbasid Caliphate I [iq_abbasid_cal_1] ---> Samanid Empire [uz_samanid_emp]

Settlements of the estate of Saman "in the provinces of Balkh, Samarkand and Tirmidh (Termez)." [1]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

Preceding Entity:
Samanid Empire [uz_samanid_emp] ---> Kara-Khanids [kg_kara_khanid_dyn]

(Relationship): "The immigrant Karakhanid population was not large, its leadership was divided, and the Karakhanids’ control always tenuous." [1]
(Entity): "probable that the dynasty came from the Yaghma or Chigil tribes" of the Kara-Khanids. [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Davidovich 1997, 127) Davidovich, E A. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

"Compared to the Tahirids, the Samanids were a very centralized dynasty, and the growth of the bureaucracy paralleled a growth of cities." [1]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 153) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Arabic

After the Arab conquest of Central Asia in the eighth century Arabic became the "new language for official communication and intellectual interchange". [1] However, the local groups - Sogdians, Khwarazmians, Khurasanis, Pamiris, Baktrians, or Tokharians - spoke Iranian languages. [1] "I suggest that much of the bureaucracy of the court of Bukhara was conducted in written Persian, while Persian was the "official" spoken language and Arabic was also used for more formal, for religious and for caliphal matters. In effect the Samanid bureaucracy was bilingual." [2] "By the tenth century, the majority of the various Iranian peoples of Khurasan, Transoxania and Khwarazm - Persians, Bactrians, Sogdians, Khwarazmians and others - were using the New Persian (Farsi-Dari) language as their spoken and written form of communication, although such Middle Iranian languages as Khwarazmian and Sogdian were still in use in certain regions - in the case of the former, for some four centuries subsequently." [3] "Ahmad b. Ismail (907-14), portrayed in the sources as a devout Muslim. He reinstated Arabic as the language of administration in place of Persian and favoured officials who knew Arabic" [4]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 145) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Negmatov 1997, 83) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[4]: (Negmatov 1997, 85) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

Language:
Persian

After the Arab conquest of Central Asia in the eighth century Arabic became the "new language for official communication and intellectual interchange". [1] However, the local groups - Sogdians, Khwarazmians, Khurasanis, Pamiris, Baktrians, or Tokharians - spoke Iranian languages. [1] "I suggest that much of the bureaucracy of the court of Bukhara was conducted in written Persian, while Persian was the "official" spoken language and Arabic was also used for more formal, for religious and for caliphal matters. In effect the Samanid bureaucracy was bilingual." [2] "By the tenth century, the majority of the various Iranian peoples of Khurasan, Transoxania and Khwarazm - Persians, Bactrians, Sogdians, Khwarazmians and others - were using the New Persian (Farsi-Dari) language as their spoken and written form of communication, although such Middle Iranian languages as Khwarazmian and Sogdian were still in use in certain regions - in the case of the former, for some four centuries subsequently." [3] "Ahmad b. Ismail (907-14), portrayed in the sources as a devout Muslim. He reinstated Arabic as the language of administration in place of Persian and favoured officials who knew Arabic" [4]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 145) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Negmatov 1997, 83) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[4]: (Negmatov 1997, 85) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
130,000 people
900 CE

Inhabitants.
Nishapur 130,000: 900 CE (Modelski) [1]
"Bukhara, Samarqand, but especially Nishapur, and other cities of Khurasan increased greatly in size and complexity. For example, the oasis of Bukhara ... under the later Samanids became a metropolis - Bukhara, with villages which were almost suburbs, rather than a succession of towns. The wall was neglected, as was agriculture in general, as the sands encroached on the settled areas. Archaeology confirms the sources which indicate that the dihqans and peasants flocked to the cities in the second half of the 4th/10th century." [2]
"Central Asian cities were densely populated - one expert estimates that 230-270 persons per acre was typical - and the footprint of four-fifths of the houses was as small as 380 square feet, even though they typically housed up to six people on two or three floors." [3] Expert cited: K. M. Baybakov (1986). Also recommends "O. G. Bolshakov’s estimates of population densities in Merv, Bukhara, Termez, etc." [4] [5]
Balkh: urban walls enclosed 1000 acres. [3] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)
Afrasiab: "Afrasiab, the predecessor to Samarkand ... covered over five hundred densely built acres." [3] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)
Termez: "the river port of Tirmidh (Termez), which covered a thousand acres on the Uzbek side of the Amu Darya". [3] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)
Merv: "an enormous urban complex." [3] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 55) Modelski, George. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. Faros2000. Washington DC.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 153) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[4]: K. M. Baybakov, Srednevekovaia gorodskaia kultura iuzhnogo Kazakhstana i Semirechia (Moscow, 1986), 88

[5]: O. G. Bolshakov, Goroda iuzhnogo Kazakhstana i Semirechiia (vi-xiii v.) (Alma Ata, 1973), 256-68.


Polity Territory:
600,000 km2
900 CE

in squared kilometers.
900 CE: 600,000.
Greatest extent c930 CE: 2,500,000.

Polity Territory:
2,500,000 km2
930 CE

in squared kilometers.
900 CE: 600,000.
Greatest extent c930 CE: 2,500,000.


Polity Population:
6,000,000 people
900 CE

People.
900 CE in McEvedy and Jones (1978) [1]
Afghanistan 2.30m
Russian Turkestan 2.25m
Khoresan part of Iran. Iran total: 4.25m. Khoresan region perhaps a third? 1.4m

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]

levels.
1. Capital
2 Metropolitan centre3. Town4. Village
"Satellite towns and villages like those that surrounded Merv were to be found at all the other metropolitan centers." [1]
5. Hamlets?Were rural caravanserei settled by caravanseri workers?

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Religious Level:
3

levels.
3 was the code for Abbasid Caliphate. Samanids were loyal to the Caliph. [1]
1. Caliph as head of the Sunni Muslim umma.
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.
3. The Umma, i.e all Muslims.

[1]: (Hodgson 1977, 33) Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1977. The Venture of Islam. Volume II. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.


Military Level:
6

levels.
"Turkish slave soldiers were the most important body of troops in the Samanid army". [1]
"The organization of the Samanid state was modelled after the caliph’s court in Baghdad with its central and provincial divisions." [2]
Abbasid forces had slave soldiers
1. Amir

2. sipah-salarThe governor of Khurasan province "was usually the sipah-salar (Arabic: sahib al-juyush) or commander of the principal army." [2]
[the following infer continuity with Abbasid hierarchy)
3. Qa-id (military officer)
4. Arif (leader of a militay unit of ten to fifteen soldiers)
5. Muquatila(Muslim soldiers paid a salary); Malwa(rank and file Turkish soldier)
6. Arrarun (irregular volunteers) [3]

[1]: (Darling) Darling, Linda T. 2013. A History of Social Justice and Political Power in the Middle East: The Circle of Justice from Mesopotamia to Globalization. Routledge.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 143) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphate pp. 209-210


Administrative Level:
[6 to 7]

levels.
"Samanid state organization provided a model for the Saljuqs and later states." [1] Book of Government by Nizam al-Mulk is therefore an essential source for this code and the codes for the Kara-Khanids and the Seljuks.
1. Amir
Head of state was the amir. [2]
2. hajib of the dargah (royal court)"division of political functions between the court (dargah) and the chancery (divan) mirrored similar conditions at Baghdad." [3]
"Theoretically the vizier was the head of the divan, the bureaucracy, and thus was the counterpart in the bureaucratic institution of the head of the court, the chamberlain (hajib)." [3]
3. Officer in Turkish palace guardhajib had authority over the Turkish palace guard [4]
_Central government_

2. Vizier (head of divan)."The Samanid rulers followed the ancient Persian custom, recently copied by the Abbasids in Baghdad, of entrusting the management of official life to competent and loyal chief ministers or viziers." [5]
Reporting to the viziers were some ten agencies that functioned like ministries, each with central offices situated around a single square in Bukhara, and each with local representatives in every province. Together these offices managed all aspects of civic life except religion." [5]
3. Prime Minister (vazir) (-- not the same as vizier) [4]
3. The treasurer (mustaufi) [4]
3. Correspondence (amid al-mulk) [4]
3. Captain of the guard (sahib shurat) [4]
3. Postmaster (sahib barid) [4] 4. Postal station head inferred5. Courier inferred
3. Inspector, fiscal as well as general (mushrif) [4]
3. Private domains of the ruler [4]
3. Chief of Police (muhtasib) [4]
3. Religious endowments (auqaf) [4]
3. Justice (qada) [4]
Centralized control over "the distribution of landed estates ... and the revenues of crown estates." [6]
_Provincial government_
"The Samanid state, like all its predecessors in Central Asia, was in reality a conglomeration of great urban complexes, each with its own local dynasty, traditional elite, and economic and cultural particularities." [5] "the ruler appointed local governors, or loca ldynasts functioned as governors although they were actually vassals of the Samanid amir." [3]
2. Vassal princes e.g. Khwarazmian dynasty [7] , Khurasan and Tukharistan. [8] "It is not known when the various parts of Transoxiana submitted to the Samanids, but some of them remained under the control of their local rulers, for example in Khwarazm where the country became a part of the Samanid state after Isma’il’s defeat of ’Amr b. Laith, but the local Khwarazmian dynasty continued to flourish until 385/995 in the south of the country, while a governor of the Samanids ruled in the north with his capital at Gurganj." [7]
2. Governor of provinces e.g. at Gurganj [7] "The primary duty of both governors and local potentates was to collect taxes and provide troops if needed." [3]
3. Vizier equivalent in the provincesThe "central bureaucracy was matched by a similar organization in the provincial capitals, but on a smaller scale" [4]
Representative of the central government (Ten Agencies) in the provinces --- assumed to be different from Governor
4. Head of section under vizier equivalent in the provinces [4] "The local organs of all the diwans, apart from the postal administration, were responsible both to the central authority and to the local provincial rulers." [2]
5. Staff of section e.g. scribe6. Staff of section e.g. doorkeeper, lesser scribe.

[1]: (Frye 1975, 145) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 86) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[3]: (Frye 1975, 143) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[5]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[6]: (Lapidus 2012, 228) Lapidus, Ira M. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[7]: (Frye 1975, 138) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[8]: (Davidovich 1997, 129) Davidovich, E A. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

" Middle-and lower-ranking members of the military and official class and simple soldiers received fixed payments in cash from the treasury." [1]
"Available information indicates that the over-all budget of the Samanid state amounted to some 45 million dirhams, of which about 20 million dirhams were spent on maintaining the army and state officials." [2]

[1]: (Davidovich 1997, 144) Davidovich, E A. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 87) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Professional Military Officer:
present

"Over the years, Turkic junior officers who had proven themselves at the platoon and squadron levels rose in the ranks, until by the time of Nasr II they dominated the officer corps." [1]
Iqtas
"Bukhara was held by the latter as an iqta ... as a conditional reward for services rendered in the capacity of governor with the right to levy for his own benefit a part of the income of Bukhara and, later, the entire income from the town. It is also clear from the legends on Samanid coins that Bukhara, Akhsikath, Kuba, Nasrabad and other towns and regions were held as iqtas for various periods of time by members of the dynasty and by senior military and civilian officials as rewards for their services. These grants were neither lifelong nor hereditary, although attempts were made to move in that direction and were resisted by the central government." [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Davidovich 1997, 143) Davidovich, E A. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints in Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, and Balkh. [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Merit Promotion:
present
819 CE 942 CE

"The most effective of these were talented local men who rose through the ranks." [1] "Slaves, just as in Baghdad, could rise to high positions of authority, and the palace school for court slaves is described in detail by Nizam al-Mulk in his Siydsat-ndma." [2] However, later on the government was a Turkish military ruling class. [3]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 143) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.

Merit Promotion:
absent
943 CE 999 CE

"The most effective of these were talented local men who rose through the ranks." [1] "Slaves, just as in Baghdad, could rise to high positions of authority, and the palace school for court slaves is described in detail by Nizam al-Mulk in his Siydsat-ndma." [2] However, later on the government was a Turkish military ruling class. [3]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Frye 1975, 143) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Negmatov 1997, 84) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"The Samanid rulers followed the ancient Persian custom, recently copied by the Abbasids in Baghdad, of entrusting the management of official life to competent and loyal chief ministers or viziers." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Examination System:
absent

"The most effective of these were talented local men who rose through the ranks." [1] Not present for the Abbsaids on which the bureaucratic system was based.

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Samanid state had a department of justice. [1]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Samanid state had a department of justice. [1]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Formal Legal Code:
present

Samanid state had a department of justice. [1]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Samanid state had a department of justice. [1]

[1]: (Frye 1975, 144) Frye, Richard Nelson. 1975. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Bazaars were the local markets. [1] "Markets, weights and measures and trade generally, and, later, public morals, were controlled by the diwan of the muhtasib." [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 86) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Irrigation System:
present

Present in Central Asia from about 800 BCE - 1200 CE: "the major Central Asian hydraulic systems appear to have been maintained with few serious interruptions for over two millenniums, extending down to the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Food Storage Site:
present

Caravansereis had storerooms. [1]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 92) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Residents of Central Asian cities "including slaves, had good access to running water" [1] "Within the cities the maze of underground pipes of baked clay that served public baths and private homes became yet more complex, for they included valves, catch basins, and access points for cleaning, as well as exceedingly complex changes of gradients. ... intricate underground pipe systems that provided urban dwellings with potable water." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Transport Infrastructure

"Even though there were a few broad, paved streets, Bukhara, in the tenth century as today, was a warren of winding lanes and alley." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Caspia Sea port?


Bukhara had canals. [1] "New canals were ... dug from the Hari Rud and Helmand rivers." [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Negmatov 1997, 88) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Bridge:
present

Samanid bridge over the Shahrud. [1]

[1]: (Gangler, Gaube, Petruccioli 2004, 104) Gangler, Anette. Gaube, Heinz. Petruccioli, Attilio. 2004. Bukhara, the Eastern Dome of Islam: Urban Development, Urban Space, Architecture and Population. Edition Axel Menges.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

" In Badakhshan, Darvaz, Rushan and Shughnan, rubies, lapis lazuli and silver were mined; in Tukharistan, lead, sulphur and other metals and minerals; in the upper Zarafshan valley, iron, gold, silver and vitriol; in Usrushana, large quantities of iron; and in Asbara (Isfara), coal was reportedly to be found. Many minerals were mined in Ferghana: iron, tin, silver, mercury, copper, lead, tar, asbestos, turquoise, sal ammoniac and, apparently, petroleum oil. Ilaq (the Ahangaran valley) was known as a major centre for the processing of silver and lead ore. In Ilaq, and in the Kashka Darya basin, salt was mined. Minerals were processed in Khurasan: turquoise (in the district of Rivand, near Nishapur), marble (in the district of Bayhaq), fine stone for craft working (in the Tus region), gold and iron (in Gharchistan), iron (in the Nishapur district), copper (in the Merv district), vitriol, sulphur, lead, arsenic (in the Balkh district), jet, clay for pottery, and so on. The mountains of Jurjan produced gold, silver, iron, copper and various kinds of vitriol; silver came from Parwan and Panjshir, and marble from Bayhaq." [1]

[1]: (Negmatov 1997, 89) Negmatov, N N. in Asimov, M S and Bosworth, C E eds. 1997. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part I. UNESCO.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"Highly literate and given to careful record-keeping" [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"Highly literate and given to careful record-keeping" [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Abul-Wafa Buzjani (940-998 CE): "Afghan-born pioneering researcher at Baghdad and Gurganj. His method of developing sine and tangent tables produced results accurate to the eighth decimal point. By applying sine theorems to spherical triangles, Buzjani opened the way to new methods of navigating on open water." [1] Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE): "Philosopher, theologian, polymath, and author of the Canon of Medicine, which remained for half a millennium the classic medical text throughout the Muslim world and Europe." [1] Abu Mahmud Khujandi (945-1000 CE): " A native of Khujand, Tajikistan, and designer of astronomical instruments" [1] Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925 CE): "From Rayy near modern Tehran, but educated in Merv by Central Asian teachers ... the first true experimentalist in medicine and the most learned medical practitioner before Ibn Sina." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Sacred Text:
present

Koran.


Religious Literature:
present

Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853-944 CE): "influential defender of literalist and traditionalist Islam from Samarkand, author of many combative “Refutations” of rationalism and other errors." [1] Abu Hasan Ahmad Ibn al-Rawandi (820-911 CE): "Prolific thinker from Afghanistan who abandoned Judaism and Islam to become a thorough-going atheist and champion of unfettered reason." [1] Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925 CE): "From Rayy near modern Tehran, but educated in Merv by Central Asian teachers ... was a thoroughgoing skeptic in religion." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Practical Literature:
present

"One of these proud professionals even wrote a treatise on management, in which he included details of the various registers in which state salaries and financial transactions should be recorded and a glossary of the most frequently used technical terms in the fields of public administration and finance." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Philosophy:
present

Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (870-950 CE). "A native of Otrar in modern Kazakhstan ... revered in the East as “The Second Teacher,” after Aristotle. A great expounder of logic, Farabi set out the foundations of every sphere of knowledge." [1] -- move, based in Baghdad

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Encyclopedias. Registers. Glossaries of terms. [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


History:
present

E.g. in encyclopedias. [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Fiction:
present

Abolqasem Ferdowsi (c.934-1020 CE): "Author from Tus in Khurasan (now Iran) who toiled for thirty years - happily under the patronage of the Samanids of Bukhara and unhappily under the patronage of Mahmud of Ghazni - to produce the Persian epic Shahnameh." [1] Rabia Balkhi: "A tenth-century poetess and friend of Rudaki from Balkh". [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Calendar:
present

"what do the highly sophisticated calendar systems that were in use in Khwarazm, Bactria, Parthia, Tokharistan, and Sogdiana tell us about the state of Central Asian science in the pre-Islamic centuries? It is surely worth noting that Biruni’s research on calendar systems, which he undertook in the early years of the eleventh century, took as its point of departure the Khwarazian calendar." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

Great trading location.


Paper Currency:
absent

Had paper. need to check whether paper formed the basis of any financial instruments within the banking system that could be called money.


Indigenous Coin:
present

"Samanid culture rested on solid monetary policy, as reflected in its gold dinars ... and silver dirhams, which served as a reserve currency from India to Scandinavia" and "... at the bazaar level, either a more debased coin of the same size or small coins of bronze." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Foreign Coin:
present

Central Asia was "the major center of banking and finance for trade between China, India, and the Middle East." [1] coded present for the Abbasid Caliphate.

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

"with the reign of Nasr II (r.914-43) the administrative bureaus of the Samanid state reached a level of complexity that could support an independent Barid system." [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 126-127) Silverstein, Adam J. 2007. Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


General Postal Service:
absent

need to check whether postal station network was used only by government officials


Courier:
present

"with the reign of Nasr II (r.914-43) the administrative bureaus of the Samanid state reached a level of complexity that could support an independent Barid system." [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 126-127) Silverstein, Adam J. 2007. Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Walls of Central Asian cities generally constructed with "sun-dried bricks faced with fired bricks". [1] [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Nicolle 2012, 45) Nicolle, David. 2012. Saracen Strongholds AD 630-1050: The Middle East and Central Asia. Osprey Publishing.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown


"This five-walled and triple-moated kilometer-square city is, in fact, correctly named Shahr-i-Gholghola, and is located in the sand sea of several hundred square kilometers properly bearing the name Sar-o-Tar." [1] Located in the Samanid region of control. I don’t know when the city was established/gained its moat. It was destroyed in the Mongol conquest.

[1]: (? 1986, 61) ?. ?. Albrecht Wezler Ernst Hammerschmidt. 1992. Proceedings of the (XXXII) International Congress for Asian and North African Studies.: Hamburg 25th-30th August 1986. F Steiner.



Earth Rampart:
present

Earthern ramparts around Samarkand. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2012, 45) Nicolle, David. 2012. Saracen Strongholds AD 630-1050: The Middle East and Central Asia. Osprey Publishing.


"The geographers of the 10th century describe Fulanj as a town half the size of Herat, with a citadel protected by a ditch and rampart, and as having three gates, leading to Nisapur, Qohestan, and Herat". [1]

[1]: (Yarshater 2001, 230) Yarshater, Ehsan. 2001. Encylopaedia Iranica. Routledge & Kegan Paul.


Complex Fortification:
present

"Unlike Chinese cities, Central Asian cities had several rings of walls, the outermost to keep out invading nomads and the encroaching sand. At the Merv oasis the outermost rampart ran for more than 155 miles, three times the length of Hadrian’s Wall separating England from Scotland." [1] "Qala’i-i Kahkakha itself was a small citadel attached to the curtain wall of the fortified Central Asian city of Bunjikath. Its lower part was made of large stone blocks forming a sloping plinth or talus, while the stone wall above was integral with the circuit-wall of the town. The upper part of the citadel was constructed of brick covered with stucco plaster and topped by a row of crenellations." [2]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

[2]: (Nicolle 2012) Nicolle, David. 2012. Saracen Strongholds AD 630-1050: The Middle East and Central Asia. Osprey Publishing.


Military use of Metals

Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.” [1] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators." [2] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century." [3] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India." [4] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.” [1] Steel swords produced by Iranians from Indian wootz ingots. [5]

[1]: (Hill 2000, 270) D R Hill. Physics and mechanics. Civil and hydraulic engineering. Industrial processes and manufacturing, and craft activities. C E Bosworth. M S Asimov. eds. 2000. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. UNESCO. Paris.

[2]: (Wagner and Needham 2008, 265) Donald B Wagner. Joseph Needham. 2008. Science and Civilisation in China. Volume V. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Clarke 2006, 22) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[4]: (Clarke 2006, 21) John Clarke. A History of Ironworking in Tibet: Centers of Production, Styles, and Techniques. Donald J LaRocca. ed. 2006. Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet. Yale University Press. New Haven.

[5]: (Khorasani) Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh. Terminology of Arms and Armor used in the Shahname: a Comparative Analysis "Swords and Maces"


’The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC’. [1]

[1]: Kuzmina, Elena Efimovna. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. p. 426


’The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC’. [1]

[1]: Kuzmina, Elena Efimovna. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. p. 426


’The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC’. [1]

[1]: Kuzmina, Elena Efimovna. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. p. 426


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"A fragment of a wall painting depicting the use of a traction trebuchet at the siege of Penjikent (700-725) in modern Tajikistan. This unique painting is contemporary with Tang China, displaying how the traction trebuchet was used along the Silk Road." [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.



Inferred absent due to use of the more powerful composite bow.


Under the Seljuks, later period, ghulams or mamluks had javelins. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

absent before the gunpowder era


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

absent before the gunpowder era


"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Composite Bow:
present

"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] In the Sassanid period a cavalryman used the reflex bow. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.


Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be used here


Handheld weapons

"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanids had war clubs [2] including a "mace" (clibanarius). [3]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.

[3]: (Wilcox 1986, Plate E) Wilcox, P. 1986. Rome’s Enemies (3): Parthians and Sassanid Persians. Osprey Publishing.


"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] Samanid period bowl shows mounted warrior wielding straight sword. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Khorasani 2014) Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh. 2014. The Development of Persian Armour from the Sassanian to the Qajar Period. Harnischtreffen 26-28 September 2014.


"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] Lances were used by Sassanian cavalrymen. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.


"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] Not mentioned in the sources so far consulted.

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Battle Axe:
present

"In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanids had battleaxe. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry. "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [1] Mounted warriors. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Khorasani 2014) Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh. 2014. The Development of Persian Armour from the Sassanian to the Qajar Period. Harnischtreffen 26-28 September 2014.



"Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [1]

[1]: R K Koslowsky. 2004. A World Perspective through 21st Century Eyes. Trafford. Victoria.




Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [1] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Scaled Armor:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanid Persians had scale armour. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Farrokh 2012, 16) Farrokh, Kaveh. 2012. Sassanian Elite Cavalry AD 224-642. Osprey Publishing.


Plate Armor:
unknown

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Limb Protection:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanids had limb protection. [2] Samanid period bowls show mounted warriors wearing lamellar armor - do they also show leg protection? [3]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.

[3]: (Khorasani 2014) Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh. 2014. The Development of Persian Armour from the Sassanian to the Qajar Period. Harnischtreffen 26-28 September 2014. https://www.academia.edu/8561475/Moshtagh_Khorasani_Manouchehr_2014_._The_Development_of_Persian_Armour_from_the_Sassanid_to_the_Qajar_Period


Leather Cloth:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [1] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Laminar Armor:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] Samanid period bowls show mounted warriors wearing lamellar armor. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Khorasani 2014) Khorasani, Manouchehr Moshtagh. 2014. The Development of Persian Armour from the Sassanian to the Qajar Period. Harnischtreffen 26-28 September 2014.


"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanids wore helmets. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.


Chainmail:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanid Persians had mail armour. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Farrokh 2012, 16) Farrokh, Kaveh. 2012. Sassanian Elite Cavalry AD 224-642. Osprey Publishing.


Breastplate:
present

"The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change." [1] The Sassanid cavarlyman a wore breastplate. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Mitterauer 2010, 106) Mitterauer, M. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Samanids did not have a lengthy period when they had a coastline so unlikely to have developed a naval tradition.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

"Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.