Home Region:  Arabia (Southwest Asia)

Yemen Ziyad Dynasty

EQ 2020  ye_ziyad_dyn / YeZiyad

The Ziyadid dynasty occupied and ruled southern Tihama coastal plains between 822 CE and 1037 CE from the city of Zabid in the Red Sea coastal desert. In 893 CE, Al-Hadi ila al-Haqq (al-Hadi) founds the Zaydi imamate based on the Zaydi Shii teachings, which popularized throughout at least part of North Yemen until the 1962 Revolution. [1] In 1007 CE, Yu’frid prince ‘Abdullah ibn Qahtan ruled Sanaa and “made a successful foray against the stronghold of Sunnism.” [2]
No population estimates could be found in the consulted literature; however, the polity territory is estimated to be around 100,000 square kilometers. [3]
Moreover, the Ziyadid dynasty had a loose political organization under the control of a sultan at Aden, who held less authority over the highlands. The settlement hierarchy is three-tiered, while administrative levels are four-tiered. The Abbasid court sent governors to Sanaa with lower hierarchy levels governed by rulers of petty states and tribal chiefs. [4]

[1]: (Burrows 2010, xxiv) Robert D Burrows. 2010. Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[4]: (Stookey 1978, 50-54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
38 P  
Original Name:
Banu Ziyad  
Capital:
Zabid  
Alternative Name:
Ziyadid Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,000 CE  
Duration:
[822 CE ➜ 1,037 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
YeWarLd  
Preceding Entity:
IqAbbs1  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
Language
Religion
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Islam  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
100,000 km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
inferred present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred present  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Yemen Ziyad Dynasty (ye_ziyad_dyn) was in:
 (869 CE 1037 CE)   Yemeni Coastal Plain
Home NGA: Yemeni Coastal Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Banu Ziyad

"Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin ’Ubaidallah bin Ziyad, appointed in 822 by Ma’mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph’s name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital." [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


"Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin ’Ubaidallah bin Ziyad,appointed in 822 by Ma’mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph’s name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital." [1]
Language

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,000 CE

"In 1007 a Yu’firid prince of the Ismaili persuasion, ’Abdullah ibn Qahtan, suceeded to the rule of Sanaa, and even made a successful foray against that stronghold of Sunnism, the Ziyad state in the Tihama, now in its decline." [1]
A Zaidi chronicler reported that "From [1014-1056] ruin prevailed in Sanaa and elsewhere in the country of Yemen by reason of the prevalence of disputes, rivalries, and disunity within this single nation. Darkness fell over Yemen, its desolation became universal, and public order disappeared. Sanaa and its suburbs became as if they had burned down. Every year, even every month, some new sultan seized power; the inhabitants became so extenuated that they dispersed in all directions. The city fell into ruin. Construction declined to the point where there were only a thousand houses, whereas in the time of al-Rashid there had been one hundred thousand. However, Sanaa recovered somewhat in the time of the Sulayhids, who gathered the lords of Yemen around themselves." [1]
"The mid-to-late-800s is a period of struggle between the Banu Ziyad of the Tihama and the Yufirids of the highlands, as well as intense Ismaili (Fatimid) missionary efforts in Yemen." [2]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Burrows 2010, xxiv) Robert D Burrows. 2010. Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.


Duration:
[822 CE ➜ 1,037 CE]

"Effective Abbasid rule in Yemen ended when Muhammad bin ’Ubaidallah bin Ziyad, appointed in 822 by Ma’mum to govern the Tihama, threw off all pretense of obedience of Baghdad beyond causing the Friday prayers to be said in the caliph’s name, and founded the Banu Ziyad state, laying out and building the city of Zabid as its capital." [1]
"In A.D. 822, in Yemen, Muhammad ibn Ziyad founds the Banu Ziyad dynasty in the new city of Zabid in the Red Sea coastal desert". [2]
"In 1037, Ali al-Sulayhid, acting for the Ismaili Fatimid caliphate in Cairo, founds the Sulayhid dynasty, which based itself in Sanaa and then Jibla, lasts for a century, and concludes with the long rule of fabled Queen Arwa." [2]
"Following the end of the Ziyadid dynasty in the early 11th century, two former slaves of the kingdom founded the Najahid dynasty. Control of the Tihama swayed back and forth between the Najahid rulers and the Sulayhid power of the highlands." [3]
Ziyadid dynasty ruled southern Tihama 819-1012 CE, then by the Najahids. [4]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Burrows 2010, xxiv) Robert D Burrows. 2010. Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.

[3]: (McLaughlin 2007, 159) Daniel McLaughlin. 2007. Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. Chalfont St Peter

[4]: (Starkey 2008, 655) Janet Starkey. Tihama. Ian Richard Netton ed. 2008. Encyclopedia of Islam. Routledge. Abingdon.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

"The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa. By 845 the Abbasid’s authority was effectively disputed by Yu’fir bin ’Abd al-Rahman al-Huwali, a descendant of the pre-Islamic Himyarite kings. He expelled the Abbasid governor, Himyar ibn al-Harith, in 861, and ruled an area from Sanaa south to Janad, while acknowledging Abbasid symbolic sovereighty and paying tribute to the Ziyadi state. Yu’fir’s son Mhuammad, whose influence extended over Hadramaut, was formally invested with the rule of Sanaa by the Abbasid caliph al Mu’tamid about 872." [1]
"In 1007 a Yu’firid prince of the Ismaili persuasion, ’Abdullah ibn Qahtan, suceeded to the rule of Sanaa, and even made a successful foray against that stronghold of Sunnism, the Ziyad state in the Tihama, now in its decline." [2]
"For a century and a half no central power of consequence existed in the Yemen inland from the Tihama. Most of the local rulers invoked the Abbasid caliph in the Friday prayers; they repressed overt manifestations of Ismaili sentiment, but offered no persuaive ideological alternative." [2]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.




Degree of Centralization:
loose

"The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands." [1]
Tihama = coastal plain.
"For a century and a half no central power of consequence existed in the Yemen inland from the Tihama. Most of the local rulers invoked the Abbasid caliph in the Friday prayers; they repressed overt manifestations of Ismaili sentiment, but offered no persuaive ideological alternative." [2]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Language

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
100,000 km2

in squared kilometers. Based on the following quotes, it seems that this polity was roughly equivalent to the coastal region of modern Yemen. "The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands." [1] "Ephemerally, the Banu Ziyad reunited nearly in its entirety the South Arabian state of the Himyarites. They were unable to hold the hinterland, however, against the many separatist movements which arose." [2] The Zaydi Imamate formed one of the borders of this polity: "In 893, Al-Hadi ila al-Haqq (al-Hadi), invited to the North Yemeni town of Saada to mediate local disputes, proceeds to found there the Zaydi imamate that, based on Zaydi Shii teachings, was to hold sway over at least part of North Yemen nearly continuously until the 1962 Revolution." [3]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Burrows 2010, xxiv) Robert D Burrows. 2010. Historical Dictionary of Yemen. Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Capital
2.3. Village"Northerners are grouped into broad confederations - Hashid, Bakil, Madhij, Himyar, Quda’a - all united ultimately by a remote common ancestor, Qahtan." [1] "Among the people of the southern Yemen highlands, social solidarity beyond the extended family rests mainly on common residence in a town or village ... no firm social basis exists for the formation of powerful coalitions to challenge or sustain a ruler." [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 50) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Administrative Level:
[3 to 4]

levels.
1.
"The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa." [1]
2. Court-based administrator?In the ninth century "the livelihood of the people was not particularly dependent upon efficient, centralized government, the attachment was strong to small social units which central control was likely to threaten." [2]
3.
2. Ruler of a petty state.In the ninth century attempts were made to unify Yemenis under Islamic rule but there was no agreement on any one person having an "exclusive right to rule" and "central authority tended to be fragile and weak. The region was in fact fragmented into several petty states, each enfeebled by domestic disaffection and the hostility of its neighbours." [3]
"The Ziyadi state was firmly entrenched in the Tinhama, and enjoyed loose suzerainty over a sultan at Aden, whose authority extended eastward along the coast. The Banu Ziyad, on the other hand, had no influence in the highlands. The Abbasid court continued to send governors to Sanaa." [1]
3. Tribal chiefsTribal chiefs: "The ruler’s authority inevitably impinged upon the freedom of action of the tribal chiefs, whose loyalty was intermittent and often a matter of expediency." [4]
"In the tenth century as in the twentieth, detailed knowledge of tribal interrelationships, and accommodation to their sensibilities, were necessary elements of effective government in northern Yemen." [2]
"The Himyarites asserted their autonomy in the central highlands, at times acknowledging a vague Ziyadi suzerainty, and invoking the Abbasid caliph in public prayers. The tribes in the north, between Nejran and Sa’da, refused any outside control or interference in their mutual quarrels until they themselves called in the first Zaidi imam as umpire. In the southern and west-central mountains, the continuing development of Shi’a sentiment provided opportunity for founding the first Fatimid regimes in Yemen. At the beginning of the tenth century, thus, Yemen was divided among four essentially independent entities." [5]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 54) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 50) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[3]: (Stookey 1978, 50-51) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[4]: (Stookey 1978, 46) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.

[5]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

This time was part of an "era of the ’war lords’" which existed "until Rasulid times." [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 45) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Professional Priesthood:
present

The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Andrey Korotayev told us that specialized government buildings, separate from the ruler’s residence, were present in the Ziyad state. [1]

[1]: Andrey Korotayev, pers. comm., February 2018.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Andrey Korotayev told us that full-time specialist bureaucrats were present in the Ziyad state. [1]
In the ninth century "the livelihood of the people was not particularly dependent upon efficient, centralized government, the attachment was strong to small social units which central control was likely to threaten." [2]

[1]: Andrey Korotayev, pers. comm., February 2018.

[2]: (Stookey 1978, 50) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Law
Judge:
present

Qadis. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Formal Legal Code:
present

Islamic law. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

The Ziyad state, ruled by a Sunni dynasty, was a breakaway state from the Abbasid Empire and so retained the tradition of Arabic literacy. [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 45, 57) Stookey, Robert W. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Boulder: Westview Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GIDWD7R3.



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Arabic.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

Koran. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Religious Literature:
present

Islamic writings. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Calendar:
present

Islamic calendar. The Ziyad state in the Tihama was a "stronghold of Sunnism". [1]

[1]: (Stookey 1978, 57) Robert W Stookey. 1978. Yemen: The Politics of the Yemen Arab Republic. Westview Press. Boulder.


Information / Money

Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy



Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy



Earth Rampart:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Ditch:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy




Military use of Metals
Steel:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Torsion engines in use in Arabic warfare in this period. [1] [2]

[1]: (Kennedy 2001, 184

[2]: Kelly DeVries, ’siege engines’ in The Oxford Companion to Military History, Eds. Holmes, Singleton, and Jones Oxford University Press: 2001)


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1] Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similar to the Western Trebuchet. [2] but the Manjaniq was man-powered not gravity powered. [3]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Kennedy 2001, 184) Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy

[3]: (Nicolle 2003, 14) Nicolle, David. 2003. Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526. Osprey Publishing.


Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Self Bow:
unknown

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.


Javelin:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not in use until the 15th century. [1]

[1]: (Wood 2001) Stephen Wood. Matchlock. Richard Holmes. Hew Strachan. Chris Bellamy. Hugh Bicheno. eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not in use until the 14th century. [1]

[1]: (Baily 2001) Jonathan B A Bailey. Canon. Richard Holmes. Hew Strachan. Chris Bellamy. Hugh Bicheno. eds. 2001. The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press.


Crossbow:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Composite Bow:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Sword:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.



Polearm:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.


Dagger:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.



Animals used in warfare
Horse:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy



Donkey:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Camel:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Shield:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Scaled Armor:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Plate Armor:
absent

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Limb Protection:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Leather Cloth:
present

Used for shields. Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Laminar Armor:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Helmet:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Chainmail:
present

"The early Islamic sources treat the coast of mail as a standard piece of military equipment." Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Breastplate:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: Hugh N Kennedy. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/SGPPFNAZ/q/kennedy


Naval technology

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE.

[1]: (Gabrieli 1964, 57-65) Francesco Gabrieli. 1964. Greeks and Arabs in the Central Mediterranean Area. Papers 18. Dumbarton Oaks.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

Code inferred from Abbasid Caliphate [1] which occupied Yemen between 751-868 CE. Greek fire was being used: "by the year 850 even crew members of Arab trading vessels in the Indian Ocean would use it to protect their ships against pirates". [2]

[1]: (Gabrieli 1964, 57-65) Francesco Gabrieli. 1964. Greeks and Arabs in the Central Mediterranean Area. Papers 18. Dumbarton Oaks.

[2]: Z Bilkadi. 1984. Bitumen: A History. Saudi Aramco World. November/December. pp 2-9. https://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198406/bitumen.-.a.history.htm



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.