Home Region:  Mesopotamia (Southwest Asia)

Ubaid

EQ 2020  iq_ubaid / IqUbaid

The name of ’Ubaid polity’ derives from the archaeological site - Tell al-Ubaid located about six km west of Ur along the Euphrates River in Southern Iraq. This socio-cultural entity is characterized by homogeneous material culture, mainly pottery (’black-on-buff pottery’). However the Ubaid is defined and perceived in various ways, e.gas archaeological culture, chronological period, cultural phenomenon, pottery style, ’oikumene’ or interaction sphere. Among other elements of material culture typical for the Ubaid, the researchers mention usually the usage of flanged disc (’labrets’), clay nails and bent clay mullers, ’ophidian’ figurines, stone mace-heads, tripartite architecture, niches-and-butressed public building as well as communal cemeteries with standardized grave goods. This period is often perceived as a first stage of development through complex urban society and the processes such as gradually urbanization of the settlement, social stratification as well as appearance of simple specialized manufacturing (especially agricultural, pottery making, weaving and wool production). [1] . Nowadays most of the researchers accepted the hypothesis regarding existence of elite class from at least the Late Ubaid period. It is embedded on five main arguments: usage of seals (called sometimes ’administrative tools’), erection of public buildings such as temples, two-tiered settlement pattern, mass production of some type of vessels (e. g. crude bowls), and production of high class of painted pottery used as a luxury goods. They believed that the system of increasing power of some group was intentionally masked by elite, therefore the presence of prestige objects or luxury goods is rather infrequent. There is presumed that the Ubaid depended rather on staple finance instead of wealth finance. Hence, there are very little traces of use of prestige goods or luxury items. [2] , [3] , [4] , [5] , [6] However there are also some rare voices opting for egalitarian system of the Ubaid society, e. g. Akkermans, Forest, Hole. [7] , [8] , [9]

[1]: Yamazaki 2010, 326

[2]: Kennedy 2012, 130

[3]: Özbal 2010b, 43-44

[4]: Stein 1994

[5]: Frangipane 2007, 151-176

[6]: Stein 1994, 41

[7]: Akkermans 1989, 339-367

[8]: Hole 1983, 315-334

[9]: Oates et al. 2007, 585-600.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
38 S  
Original Name:
Ubaid  
Capital:
suspected unknown  
Alternative Name:
Obeid  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[5,000 BCE ➜ 4,000 BCE]  
Duration:
[5,500 BCE ➜ 4,000 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Uruk culture  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Preceding Entity:
Samarra and Halaf culture  
Degree of Centralization:
unknown  
Language
Linguistic Family:
suspected unknown  
Language:
suspected unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[750 to 1,250] people  
Polity Territory:
-  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Administrative Level:
2  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred absent  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
inferred absent  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
inferred absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred absent  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred absent  
  Sword:
inferred absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
inferred absent  
  Dagger:
inferred absent  
  Battle Axe:
inferred absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred absent  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
inferred absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
inferred absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Ubaid (iq_ubaid) was in:
 (5500 BCE 4201 BCE)   Southern Mesopotamia
Home NGA: Southern Mesopotamia

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[5,000 BCE ➜ 4,000 BCE]

During the period of Ubaid 3-4, there was noticed both geographical and cultural expansion of the Ubaid polity. [1]

[1]: Peasnal 2001, 372


Duration:
[5,500 BCE ➜ 4,000 BCE]

5500-4000 BCE [1] The chronology of Ubaid period is one of the most problematic issue and there is no agreement between researchers regarding the duration of this polity. However, there is commonly accepted that Ubaid culture appeared much early in the southern Mesopotamia (around 6500 or 6300 BCE) and later spread toward northern regions. The earliest evidences of presence Ubaid culture in the northern Mesopotamia are dated to 5300 or 5200 BCE. The researchers distinguished 5 different phases of Ubaid period: Ubaid 0 (called also Oueili period; c. 6200-5550 BCE), Ubaid 1 (c. 5550- 5250 BCE), Ubaid 2 (c. 5250-5050 BCE), Ubaid 3 (5050- 4550 BCE), Ubaid 4 (4550- 4050 BCE, Late Ubaid) and Ubaid 5 (Terminal Ubaid, 4050-3800 BCE). [2] [3] [4] [5]

[1]: Pers. comm Mark Altaweel, Dec. 2021

[2]: Carter and Phillip 2010, 2

[3]: Carter 2007, 132-133

[4]: Peasnal 2001, 372

[5]: Oates 1987, 473-82


Political and Cultural Relations


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

The relationship between the Ubaid and the Halaf and the Samarra is difficult to establish and characterized. There are some conceptions which suggest that the important impact of forming the Ubaid in Mesopotamia had processes of acculturation and peaceful migration of small Ubaid group from north to south Mesopotamia. However, the researchers based mainly on ceramic and architectural evidences trying to reconstruct the origin of the Ubaid. Recently, new type of records have been included - aDNA analysis from site - Tell Kurdu (SE Anatolia) which showed that there is a clear genetic connections of these two Ubaid and Halaf populations (the examined individuals from both communities came from the same matriline). [1] [2]

[1]: Özbal 2010b, 49

[2]: Campbell & Fletcher 2010, 69-84


Preceding Entity:
Samarra and Halaf culture

The Halaf and/ or Samarra tradition had significant contribution in foundation new Ubaid identity and culture, especially in northern and central Mesopotamia. [1] [2] [3] [4]

[1]: Stein 2010, 36-37

[2]: Karsgaard 2010, 51-60

[3]: Özbal 2010b, 49

[4]: Roux 1998, 61



Language


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[750 to 1,250] people

Inhabitants. Adams (1981) estimates that the Ubaid populations at Uruk and other large settlements ~1000 in the early Ubaid and ranged from 2000-3000 in the Middle/Late Ubaid. Perhaps 1000-3000 would be a good range to capture the whole period. [1] NOTE: pers. comm. with Selin Nugent, but could not find exact page reference.

[1]: (Adams 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MAIAZJ3K.


Polity Territory:
-

in squared kilometers The Ubaid territory is here understood as area sharing number of cultural, material, economic and social features, which are not only restricted to the presence of particular type of Ubaid pottery. The Ubaid reached its greatest extent probably during Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 4 phase and it encompasses regions as follows: southern Mesopotamia (’heartland’), central Mesopotamia, northern Mesopotamia, northwestern Syria, southeastern Anatolia, western Iran and the western littoral of the Persian Gulf. [1]

[1]: Carter & Phillip 2010, 1-3


Polity Population:
-

People. The researchers deeply believed that the north Ubaid was more populated than southern regions of Ubaid. [1] [2] There are known some calculation regarding the size of populations inhabited some particular sites such as Tell al-Hawa (1500-4000 people, area of the site - 15-20 ha), Site 118 (500-1200 people; area of the site- 5-6 ha) and Khanijdal East (100-200 people, area of the site- 1ha). There are based on a range of on-site population densities of 100 to 200 people per ha. [3]

[1]: Wilkinson 2000, 244.

[2]: Carter & Philip 2010, 8.

[3]: Wilkinson et al. 1996, 21


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

levels. The analysis of settlement pattern confirmed the existence of two-tiered settlement system, which consist of few smaller hamlets or villages (ar. 1 ha) neighbouring the central bigger village. However there is possible to notice some differences between southern and northern regions of the Ubaid. In the northern regions the central villages were bigger (even 10-12 ha) and probably denser populated comparing to the southern regions such as e. g. the Hamrin. Stein believed that the settlement system in the northern Ubaid was even more complex, but there is impossible to establish the exact levels of complexity. [1] [2]

[1]: Stein 2010, 25

[2]: Stein 1994, 38


Administrative Level:
2

levels.The researchers assumed that the more complex level of social and administrative organization must have existed in the Ubaid. The differences in size and form of houses in the villages as well as their equipment, use of various type of stamp seals and erecting monumental temples suggest the higher level of social organization and system of social and political control and appearance of elite group, probably related at least partially to ceremonial structures and controlling the surplus of food. However, there is almost completely lack of any prestige or luxury or exotic goods which will support the hypothesis of social stratification among the Ubaid community. [1]

[1]: Stein 2010, Sieverstsen 2010, 201-203


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

There is no information regarding the presence of any army or soldiers, etc. in the Ubaid.


Professional Priesthood:
unknown

It seems that the beginning of forming the elite dedicated to religious practices has started in the Ubaid period, however there is impossible to say whether they have been already full-time specialists or rather semi-time priest which were also responsible for many other work. Probably, the existence of elite in Ubaid is strongly connected with religious and the temples. However, there are know depictions of ’priests’ (so called ’namash’) on the seals from Tepe Gawra (level XIII and level XII - Late Ubaid) and Susa, but their interpretation is highly subjective. [1]

[1]: Hole 2010,


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

There is no information regarding the presence of any army or soldiers, etc. in the Ubaid.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

"Building A at Abada, located in the center of the settlement (figure 4), is the largest house at the site, more than three times the size of the smallest houses. This house shows evidence for unique burial practices, high concentrations of stone artifacts such as maceheads, carved gypsum vessels, and stone palettes, and most significantly, administrative artifacts such as tokens and clay ’proto-tablets’ which are also only found in this structure (figure 5), (Jasmin 1985: 174)." [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 38) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

[1]

[1]: Stein 2012, 312



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown

Is there a piped network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements?


Irrigation System:
present

[1]

[1]: Charvat 2008, 69-70


Food Storage Site:
present

Communal granaries were uncovered e. g. in Oueilli (level I), Eridu, Tell Kurdu. These structures were often located near the temples. [1]

[1]: Özbal 2010, 45-46


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"By far the most culturally informative site is the small Ubaid village of Tell Abada in the Hamrin, excavated by Sabah Abboud Jasim. The latest level (1) is especially interesting for its evidence of a community water supply. Remains of a lengthy system of terracotta water pipes was traced over half a kilometer to the north, leading apparently from a large wadi to a stone - lined basin (2.5 × 1.5 meters and c.1 meter deep). Further water pipes led from another source to the west." [1]

[1]: (Oates 2012: 478) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ETRKJE35.


Transport Infrastructure

Due the fact of long distance trade practices as well as sea sailing, the presence of harbours cannot be excluded. However the change of water level in Persian Gulf and the modification of littoral zones might have caused that the potential remains of ancient ports have not been discovered yet. [1]

[1]: Carter 2006, 52-63




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

There is no information regarding the mines or quarries in the Ubaid, however many various (local and non-local) sources of obsidian and flint were exploited, but there is no data regarding the character of this activity [1]

[1]: Healey 2010, 188-191


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

There are no evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

There are no evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Nonwritten records are seen here as a some kind of symbolic language which is also expressed by depictions on stamp seals, decoration pottery etc. Some researchers made an attempt to interpret some particular symbols and suggest the meaning of some motifs or decorative elements, but their conceptions are highly subjective. For example Morgan and Pottier has tried to associate some particular symbols which appear on ceramic vessels with Mesopotamian mythology or cuneiform signs. [1]

[1]: Hole 1983, 319



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Sacred Text:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Religious Literature:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Practical Literature:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Philosophy:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

There are not any evidence suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


History:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Fiction:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Calendar:
absent

There are lack of evidences suggesting that the writing system has been already invented.


Information / Money

e. g. cache in Tell Abada [1]

[1]: Forest 1989, 199-226


Precious Metal:
present

Copper as well as obsidian were important and value materials, however there is no proof, that they were used in they same way on the whole Ubaid territory. The most problematic is to establish the significance of copper which is relatively rare in the Ubaid and the richest deposits of cooper artifacts came from cemetery at Susa. [1]

[1]: Hole 1983, 318


Paper Currency:
absent

Monetary system did not exist in the Ubaid.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

Monetary system did not exist in the Ubaid.


Foreign Coin:
absent

Monetary system did not exist in the Ubaid.



Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

There are some houses or temples located higher than usually on the top of mudbrick platform or acropolis. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 40



The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


Fortified Camp:
absent

Do we even have any evidence for Ubaid armies going on long marches?


Earth Rampart:
absent

The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39


Complex Fortification:
absent

The remains of any fortifications have not been yet discovered. [1]

[1]: Stein 1994, 39



Military use of Metals

Iron was not used during this period, especially for production of armor.


Iron was not used during this period, especially for production of armor.


Copper:
present

"A copper spearhead, the oldest yet discovered, was found in Mesopotamia dating to the early fifth millennium". [1]

[1]: (Hamblin 2006: 34) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4WM3RBTD.


Bronze:
absent

Bronze was not used during this period, especially for production of armor.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

There are no archaeological records regarding the invention of this machine before 4th century BC [1] This type of engine is known from ancient time, and the first evidence came from 4th century BC. [2] < The sling siege engine our variable refers to is the gravity powered one probably first used in the Middle Ages so I guess this quote belongs here instead.

[1]: Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.

[2]: Campbel 2003,3, 8.



"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.


Self Bow:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1] There were found arrowheads at many sites, but there is impossible to discern between their military usage and hunting. [2]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.

[2]: Healey 2010, 186


Javelin:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

The first very simple firearms came from China and are dated to 13th century AD [1]

[1]: Ho Peng Yoke 1997, 389.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

The gunpowder was invented around 9th century AD, but the gunpowder artillery was in use since Middle Age. [1]

[1]: Needham 1987, 266.


Crossbow:
absent

It is well documented that crossbow has not been in use before 5th century BCE. [1]

[1]: Needham 2003, 135


Composite Bow:
absent

"The later third-millennium development of the composite bow revolutionized warfare." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 188) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1] There were discovered some mace-heads and stone axes, but their function is not clear. They could have been used either as a prestige object or symbol of power or as a weapon. There are found both in domestic and ceremonial contexts (temples - e. g. in Telul eth Thalathat. [2] [3]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.

[2]: Sievertsen 2010, 206

[3]: Carter and Phillip 2010, 25


"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.


"It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2005: 190) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.


Polearm:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.


Dagger:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1] There have been already found both daggers and knives in the Ubaid, but they exact purpose is unknown. [2]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.

[2]: Heatley 2010, 184-186


Battle Axe:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1] There were discovered some mace-heads and stone axes, but their function is not clear. They could have been used either as a prestige object or symbol of power or as a weapon. There are found both in domestic and ceremonial contexts (temples - e. g. in Telul eth Thalathat. [2]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.

[2]: Sievertsen 2010, 206


Animals used in warfare

"In Iraq and Syria domesticated donkey appeared during the Late Uruk period (ca. 3600-3100 BCE) at Uruk (Boessneck et al., p. 166), Tell Rubeidheh (Payne, pp. 99-100), and Habuba Kabira (Strommenger and Bollweg, pp. 354-55)". [1]

[1]: (Potts 2012) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DWHJQHHJ.


Elephant:
absent

"In Iraq and Syria domesticated donkey appeared during the Late Uruk period (ca. 3600-3100 BCE) at Uruk (Boessneck et al., p. 166), Tell Rubeidheh (Payne, pp. 99-100), and Habuba Kabira (Strommenger and Bollweg, pp. 354-55)". [1]

[1]: (Potts 2012) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DWHJQHHJ.


"In Iraq and Syria domesticated donkey appeared during the Late Uruk period (ca. 3600-3100 BCE) at Uruk (Boessneck et al., p. 166), Tell Rubeidheh (Payne, pp. 99-100), and Habuba Kabira (Strommenger and Bollweg, pp. 354-55)". [1]

[1]: (Potts 2012) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DWHJQHHJ.


The use of dog in warfare cannot be completely excluded, due the fact of keeping this animal by the Ubaid communities. Two dogs were depicted on one of the seals from Tepe Gawra [1] , but the remains of dog were also found inside children grave at Eridu. [2]

[1]: Hole 2010, 234

[2]: Daems 2010, 154.


"In Iraq and Syria domesticated donkey appeared during the Late Uruk period (ca. 3600-3100 BCE) at Uruk (Boessneck et al., p. 166), Tell Rubeidheh (Payne, pp. 99-100), and Habuba Kabira (Strommenger and Bollweg, pp. 354-55)". [1]

[1]: (Potts 2012) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DWHJQHHJ.


Armor

Shield:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.




Limb Protection:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.




Helmet:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.



Breastplate:
absent

"We have no evidence for warfare. In contrast with later periods, ’Ubaid seals show no depictions of weapons, prisoners, or combat scenes". [1]

[1]: (Stein 1994: 39) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/V94SXJRJ.


Naval technology

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

There are known the model of boats from Eridu, Tell Awayli, H3 as well as fragment of ceramic with painted boat, but there are no information regarding the use of boat in war. [1] [2] Moreover, the remains of boats were discovered as well. [3]

[1]: Chavrat 2008, 86-87

[2]: Carter 2006, 53-54

[3]: Carter 2012, 348-9




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
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