Home Region:  Polynesia (Oceania-Australia)

Hawaii II

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  us_hawaii_2 / Hawaii2

Preceding:
1000 CE 1200 CE Hawaii I (us_hawaii_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1580 CE 1778 CE Hawaii III (us_hawaii_3)    [None]
Add one more here.

Hawai’i, also known as the Big Island, is the largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. Our ’Hawaii 2’ refers to the period from 1200 to 1580 CE. 1200 marks the beginning of archaeologist Patrick Kirch’s ’expansion period’, [1] while 1580 is the approximate date of the formation of the first island-wide unitary kingdom. [2]
Population and political organization
According to reconstructions of Hawaiki, the ancestral Polynesian homeland, ancient Polynesians recognized the authority of the *ariki, that is, the head of a lineage, who had both secular and sacred authority and was in charge of most, if not all, rituals. [3] However, a few thousand years separate Ancestral Polynesians from the earliest Hawaiians, and it is not clear how much the latter retained of the former’s culture and sociopolitical organization. The earliest island-wide unitary kingdom on the Big Island emerged around 1580; [2] before then, the Big Island was probably divided into several small, independent polities. [4]
It is currently not possible to reconstruct the exact population of a typical Big Island community at this time. [5] No up-to-date estimates have been found in the literature. Scholars do, however, distinguish between distinct phases of demographic and agricultural development after the initial colonization period. From 1200 to 1400 CE, Hawaiians experienced significant population growth and adapted their technology and subsistence economy to local conditions while maintaining long-distance contact with Eastern Polynesia. From 1400 to 1580 CE, population growth peaked and began to stabilize, contact with Eastern Polynesia ceased, and large-scale dryland field systems were established across the Big Island. [6]

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 127-28) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[2]: (Kirch 2010, 174) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[3]: (Kirch 2012, 45) Patrick V. Kirch. 2012. A Shark Going Inland Is My Chief. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[4]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)

[5]: Kirch, personal communication

[6]: (Kirch 2010, 127-28) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
5 Q  
Original Name:
Hawaii II  
Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Alternative Name:
Big Island of Hawai’i  
Hawai’i Island  
Island of Hawai’i  
Big Island  
Owyhee  
Owhyhee  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,580 CE  
Duration:
[1,200 CE ➜ 1,580 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Hawaii III  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Hawaii I (us_hawaii_1)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Hawaii III (us_hawaii_3)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Austronesian  
Language:
Hawaiian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[1,500 to 3,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[3,500 to 7,000] people 1200 CE
[7,000 to 13,200] people 1300 CE
[13,200 to 22,000] people 1400 CE
[22,000 to 50,000] people 1500 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent 1200 CE 1500 CE
present 1500 CE 1580 CE
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
absent 1200 CE 1390 CE
present 1390 CE 1580 CE
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Port:
inferred absent  
Canal:
inferred absent  
Bridge:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
unknown  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
inferred absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Hawaii II (us_hawaii_2) was in:
 (1200 CE 1649 CE)   Big Island Hawaii
Home NGA: Big Island Hawaii

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Chiefs/kings had no true ’capital’. Although there were ’royal centers’, there were no true urban areas, nor was there any one place that a chief would spend most of his time.


Alternative Name:
Big Island of Hawai’i
Alternative Name:
Hawai’i Island
Alternative Name:
Island of Hawai’i
Alternative Name:
Big Island
Alternative Name:
Owyhee
Alternative Name:
Owhyhee

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,580 CE

Since this is the period during which social complexity, stratification, territorial unification, agricultural intensification, population, etc. were increasing (before they plateaued), it is safe to say that the ‘peak’ was at the end of the period.


Duration:
[1,200 CE ➜ 1,580 CE]

Justification for starting and ending dates: This is Kirch’s Expansion Period. The starting date is approximately when the population began to increase parabolically, and the ending date is when the population had plateaued [1] . AD: changed from end date of 1650 CE following an email from Patrick Kirch: "I would be inclined to put the division between Hawaii2 and Hawaii3 at around 1580 with the reign of ’Umi-a-Liloa who supposedly consolidated the entire island into one polity. Certainly, intensification of the great dryland field systems was also underway by this time. So, 1650 seems a bit late for these key transitions." [2]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 127.

[2]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]

Succeeding Entity:
Hawaii III

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Hawaii I [us_hawaii_1] ---> Hawaii II [us_hawaii_2]
Preceding Entity:
Hawaii II [us_hawaii_2] ---> Hawaii III [us_hawaii_3]

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

’Hawaii 1 is very difficult to say, but most likely to have been several independent polities - maybe as many as 5 or 6. ’Umi-a-Liloa is said to have been the first to consolidate all of these into one island-wide polity, and he is dated genealogical estimation to ca. AD 1570-1590, toward the end of your Hawaii 2 period’. [1]

[1]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Language
Linguistic Family:
Austronesian


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[1,500 to 3,000] km2

in square kilometers. During the reign of ‘Umi, the island had a single polity, so the area would be 10,432 (the entire Big Island) for the approximate period of his reign, 1550-1590 [1] . During the rest of this time period, there were two or three polities. Thus, polity territory fluctuated between one-third and all of island. "Hawaii 1 is very difficult to say, but most likely to have been several independent polities--maybe as many as 5 or 6.’Umi-a-Liloa is said to have been the first to consolidate all of these into one island-wide polity, and he is dated genealogical estimation to ca. AD 1570-1590, toward the end of your Hawaii2 period." [2] Between 3 and 6 polities for the revised Hawaii2 period finishing at 1580 CE? Fluctuating between 1/6 and 1/3 of the island? AD.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 92, 98.

[2]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Polity Population:
[3,500 to 7,000] people
1200 CE

The following may also be relevant: Kirch [1] has figures for the western region of the Big Island. See Kirch [1] . The western part of the Big Island was low in population from 800 to 1200, then 1200-1600 very fast growth, then some decline. Many new parts of the Big Island were inhabited for the first time between 1200-1300CE, e.g. Lapahiki, Kalāhuipua’a, and ‘Anaeho’omalu [2] . The rate of population increase in West Big Island was the greatest during 1100-1300CE. By 1650CE there were probably 200,000 or more people in the whole archipelago. In 1100CE there were probably 20,000 in the whole archipelago [2] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 288.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 304

Polity Population:
[7,000 to 13,200] people
1300 CE

The following may also be relevant: Kirch [1] has figures for the western region of the Big Island. See Kirch [1] . The western part of the Big Island was low in population from 800 to 1200, then 1200-1600 very fast growth, then some decline. Many new parts of the Big Island were inhabited for the first time between 1200-1300CE, e.g. Lapahiki, Kalāhuipua’a, and ‘Anaeho’omalu [2] . The rate of population increase in West Big Island was the greatest during 1100-1300CE. By 1650CE there were probably 200,000 or more people in the whole archipelago. In 1100CE there were probably 20,000 in the whole archipelago [2] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 288.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 304

Polity Population:
[13,200 to 22,000] people
1400 CE

The following may also be relevant: Kirch [1] has figures for the western region of the Big Island. See Kirch [1] . The western part of the Big Island was low in population from 800 to 1200, then 1200-1600 very fast growth, then some decline. Many new parts of the Big Island were inhabited for the first time between 1200-1300CE, e.g. Lapahiki, Kalāhuipua’a, and ‘Anaeho’omalu [2] . The rate of population increase in West Big Island was the greatest during 1100-1300CE. By 1650CE there were probably 200,000 or more people in the whole archipelago. In 1100CE there were probably 20,000 in the whole archipelago [2] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 288.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 304

Polity Population:
[22,000 to 50,000] people
1500 CE

The following may also be relevant: Kirch [1] has figures for the western region of the Big Island. See Kirch [1] . The western part of the Big Island was low in population from 800 to 1200, then 1200-1600 very fast growth, then some decline. Many new parts of the Big Island were inhabited for the first time between 1200-1300CE, e.g. Lapahiki, Kalāhuipua’a, and ‘Anaeho’omalu [2] . The rate of population increase in West Big Island was the greatest during 1100-1300CE. By 1650CE there were probably 200,000 or more people in the whole archipelago. In 1100CE there were probably 20,000 in the whole archipelago [2] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 288.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 304


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

Hamlets and Villages. Greater social complexity and stratification developed during this time [1] , though there were no urban areas.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 300-301.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Professional Priesthood:
absent
1200 CE 1500 CE

The development of protohistorical priestly categories appears to have begun in the sixteenth century [1] .

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 174-175)

Professional Priesthood:
present
1500 CE 1580 CE

The development of protohistorical priestly categories appears to have begun in the sixteenth century [1] .

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 174-175)


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Both before and after the sixteenth century, it appears that chiefs had military authority, not professional military officers [1] [2] .

[1]: (Kirch & Green 2001, 234)

[2]: (Kirch 2010, 48)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Examination System:
absent

Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent


Formal Legal Code:
absent

The first formal legal code dates to 1827: "These three laws were: first, against murder, ’the one who commits murder here shall die, by being hung’; second, against theft, ’the one who steals shall be put in irons’; third, against adultery, for which the penalty was imprisonment in irons. Three other proposed laws, against rum selling, prostitution, and gambling, were drawn up, to be explained and taught to the people before they should be adopted. It was agreed that the chiefs should meet six months later to continue their consultation upon the subject. The three laws adopted and the three proposed were printed together on one sheet, which bears the date December 8, 1827. On December 14, the people were assembled in a coconut grove near the fort; the three enacted laws were formally proclaimed, and the king, Kaahumanu, and Boki exhorted the people, both native and foreign, to obey the three laws which had been adopted and to give attention to the three which were not yet enacted." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 126)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
absent
1200 CE 1390 CE

This was the period during which intensive irrigation began. It continued to be expanded and intensified into the historical period [1] . However, for environmental reasons, the Big Island did not have as extensive irrigation as the other islands in the Hawaiian archipelago [2] . According to oral history, two men from a chiefly lineage were exiled from O’ahu and traveled to the Big Island, bringing with them their knowledge of irrigation. They used their knowledge to develop irrigation in the valley of Waipi’o, but their works were soon destroyed by a flood [3] . Oral history more generally states that irrigation began to intensify c. 1390CE, the end of the age of voyaging [4]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 223, 303.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2000. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands Before European Contact. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 295.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 85.

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 92.

Irrigation System:
present
1390 CE 1580 CE

This was the period during which intensive irrigation began. It continued to be expanded and intensified into the historical period [1] . However, for environmental reasons, the Big Island did not have as extensive irrigation as the other islands in the Hawaiian archipelago [2] . According to oral history, two men from a chiefly lineage were exiled from O’ahu and traveled to the Big Island, bringing with them their knowledge of irrigation. They used their knowledge to develop irrigation in the valley of Waipi’o, but their works were soon destroyed by a flood [3] . Oral history more generally states that irrigation began to intensify c. 1390CE, the end of the age of voyaging [4]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 223, 303.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2000. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands Before European Contact. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 295.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 85.

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 92.



Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Nonwritten Record:
present

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Sacred Text:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Religious Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Practical Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Philosophy:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


History:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Fiction:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Calendar:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Information / Money

Significant "wealth economy" in the form of precious feathered garments (cloaks, capes, helmets, lei) which was very important to the ruling elite (the ali’i). [1] This may be true of more recent periods, can it be extended backwards?

[1]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Paper Currency:
absent

’Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond’s words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai’i’. [1]

[1]: (Trask 1983, 99) Haunani-Kay Trask. 1983. ’Cultures in Collision: Hawai’i and England, 1778’. Pacific Studies 7 (1): 91-117.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

’Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond’s words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai’i’. [1]

[1]: (Trask 1983, 99) Haunani-Kay Trask. 1983. ’Cultures in Collision: Hawai’i and England, 1778’. Pacific Studies 7 (1): 91-117.


Foreign Coin:
absent

’Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond’s words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai’i’. [1]

[1]: (Trask 1983, 99) Haunani-Kay Trask. 1983. ’Cultures in Collision: Hawai’i and England, 1778’. Pacific Studies 7 (1): 91-117.


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1] . Nevertheless, there does appear to evidence for some stone walls, but I’m not sure if they are used in warfare. The “Great Wall” at Hōnaunau, built around 1600 CE, was over 300m long, 3m high and 5m wide [2] [3] . Lapakahi also had a “Great Wall”, which was built between about 1450 and 1500 CE [4] .

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 162-4

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 164.

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 178.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1] . Nevertheless, there does appear to evidence for some stone walls, but I’m not sure if they are used in warfare. The “Great Wall” at Hōnaunau, built around 1600 CE, was over 300m long, 3m high and 5m wide [2] [3] . Lapakahi also had a “Great Wall”, which was built between about 1450 and 1500 CE [4] .

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 162-4

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 164.

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 178.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "defenders more commonly established a fortress site known as a pali (cliff) or pā kauau (war enclosure), a “natural or artificial fortress, where they le their wives and children, and to which they fled if vanquished in the field.” One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches" Pg 35-36. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Inferred [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Fortified Camp:
absent

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fornications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Earth Rampart:
unknown

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches" Pg 35-36. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Complex Fortification:
absent

Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu’uhonua." Pg 4. [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Military use of Metals

[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


They may have had these, as they were present later in Hawaiian prehistory [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


It is unlikely these were used, as later in Hawaiian prehistory bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


Presumably they had these, as throwing spears were used later in Hawaiian prehistory, but evidence is needed. [1] . Similarly, if Polynesian ancestors had spears too this would be good converging evidence.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Composite Bow:
unknown

It is unlikely these were used, as later in Hawaiian prehistory bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war [1] . Moreover it is implausible that a weapon as complex as a compound bow would be invented but then abandoned, leaving no archaeological trace.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


Presumably they didn’t have these as they do not appear later in Hawaiian prehistory.


Handheld weapons

Presumably they had these, as they were appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. pg 515. [1]

[1]: Jolb, Michael, J. and Dixon, Boyd 2002. Landscape of war: Rules and conventions of conflict in ancient Hawai’i (and elsewhere). American Antiquity, 67, 514-534.


Lists of weapons at contact don’t mention swords. [1]

[1]: pg 517. Jolb, Michael, J. and Dixon, Boyd 2002. Landscape of war: Rules and conventions of conflict in ancient Hawai’i (and elsewhere). American Antiquity, 67, 514-534.


Presumably they had wooden spears, as they appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. [1]

[1]: pg 517. Jolb, Michael, J. and Dixon, Boyd 2002. Landscape of war: Rules and conventions of conflict in ancient Hawai’i (and elsewhere). American Antiquity, 67, 514-534.


Presumably they didn’t have these, as they didn’t appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. [1]

[1]: pg 517. Jolb, Michael, J. and Dixon, Boyd 2002. Landscape of war: Rules and conventions of conflict in ancient Hawai’i (and elsewhere). American Antiquity, 67, 514-534.


Presumably they had these, as wooden daggers appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. Wooden daggers. [1]

[1]: pg 517. Jolb, Michael, J. and Dixon, Boyd 2002. Landscape of war: Rules and conventions of conflict in ancient Hawai’i (and elsewhere). American Antiquity, 67, 514-534.


Battle Axe:
unknown

There are some almost axe-like weapons at contact, but they should probably be treated as clubs.


Animals used in warfare

No horses in Hawaii at this time.


No elephants in Hawaii at this time.


No donkeys in Hawaii at this time.


Hawaiians had dogs, but I have found no references to their use in war.


No camels in Hawaii at this time.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Scaled Armor:
absent

No metals at this time.


Plate Armor:
absent

No metals at this time.


Limb Protection:
unknown

No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Leather Cloth:
unknown

No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Laminar Armor:
absent

No metals at this time.


No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


No metals at this time.


Breastplate:
unknown

No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [1] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Fortifications


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Canoes were present at contact and being used for war and must have been present during earlier periods to reach Hawaii, so we can assume that they were at this time too.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions