Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - Dynasty II

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  eg_dynasty_2 / EgDyn2*

Preceding:
3100 BCE 2900 BCE Egypt - Dynasty I (eg_dynasty_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
2650 BCE 2350 BCE Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom (eg_old_k_1)    [None]
Add one more here.

The Second Dynasty of Egypt (c. 2900‒2687 BCE) was a relatively geographically constricted state, centred near the Nile delta of Egypt and extending as far south as Aswan and the First Cataract of the Nile. Founded by Hotepsekhemwy, the kings of the Second Dynasty initially ruled over a centralized state, but as the period progressed they had to contend with disorder and civil war that lasted until the last ruler, Khasekhemwy (c. 2714‒2687 BCE). [1] [2] The restoration of central authority after this period ushered in the classic Old Kingdom period, widely considered a high point of ancient civilization.
Population and political organization
Controlled by a god-king who presided over an administration with specialized overseers, [3] Memphis is considered the main administrative centre of the Early Dynastic period because tombs of administrative officials are located nearby. [4] Also known as the White Walls, [5] apparently after the colour of the palace enclosure walls, [6] Memphis probably had at least 6,000 residents at a population density of 193 per hectare. [7] The government of the Early Dynasties is thought to have developed significant divisions of labour and a more hierarchical structure under King Djer, who introduced permanent institutions, [8] although Egyptologist Hratch Papazian stresses that a true hierarchical bureaucracy emerged ’only during the latter parts of the Old Kingdom’. [9] Writing in this period was now well established; it had been present since the late Predynastic period (’Dynasty 0’), [10] when hieroglyphs were used for labels such as those found in the tomb of U-j at Abydos, dating to around 3150 BCE. [11]
Regional centres of the Second Dynasty included Hierakonpolis, Abydos, and minor centres further south at Naga-el-Deir and Aswan. Evidence for a system of territorial organization comes from thousands of seal stamps discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy, the last king of the dynasty; they mention some historical provinces along with ’administrative titles and the names of the king’. [12] However, Second-Dynasty Egypt was likely not yet divided into the clearly demarcated provinces, controlled by local governors, that we find in later periods. [13] Abydos appears to have been the most significant cult centre. Its royal cemetery reveals the increasing elaboration of the ideology of kingship through the mortuary cult, and its monumental architecture has been interpreted as the expression of a ’state religion’ on a grander scale than in previous periods. [14]
The Egyptian population during the Early Dynastic period is difficult to determine, but the archaeologist Bruce Trigger estimated that there could have been over 2 million people living in the Nile Valley at this time. [15]

[1]: (El-Shahawy 2005, 31) A El-Shahawy. 2005. The Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

[2]: (Dodson 2016, 9) Aidan Dodson. 2016. ’Go West: On the Ancient Means of Approach to the Saqqara Necropolis’, in Mummies, Magic and Medicine in Ancient Egypt: Multidisciplinary Essays for Rosalie David, edited by Campbell Price, Roger Forshaw, Andrew Chamberlain and Paul Nicholson, 3-18. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

[3]: (Moreno García 2014) Juan Carlos Moreno García. 2014. ’Invaders or Just Herders? Libyans in Egypt in the Third and Second Millennia BCE’. World Archaeology 46: 610-23.

[4]: (Bard 2000, 64-65) Kathryn A. Bard. 2000. ’The Emergence of the Egyptian State (c. 3200-2686 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 57-82. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5]: (Malek 2000, 104) Jaromir Malek. 2000. ’The Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2160 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 83-107. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[6]: (Thompson 2012, 1) Dorothy J. Thompson. 2012. Memphis under the Ptolemies. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[7]: (Mumford 2010, 331) Gregory D. Mumford. 2010. ’Settlements - Distribution, Structure, Architecture: Pharaonic’, in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B Lloyd, 326-49. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

[8]: (Engel 2013, 20-38) Eva-Maria Engel. 2013. ’The Organisation of a Nascent State: Egypt until the Beginning of the 4th Dynasty’, in Ancient Egyptian Administration, edited by Juan Carlos Moreno García, 19-40. Leiden: Brill.

[9]: (Papazian 2013, 67-68) Hratch Papazian. 2013. ’Departments, Treasuries, Granaries and Work Centers’, in Ancient Egyptian Administration, edited by Juan Carlos Moreno García, 41-83. Leiden: Brill.

[10]: (Bard 2000, 75) Kathryn A. Bard. 2000. ’The Emergence of the Egyptian State (c. 3200-2686 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 57-82. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[11]: (Bard 2000, 60) Kathryn A. Bard. 2000. ’The Emergence of the Egyptian State (c. 3200-2686 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 57-82. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[12]: (Moreno García 2013, 190) Juan Carlos Moreno García. 2013. ’Building the Pharaonic State: Territory, Elite, and Power in Ancient Egypt during the 3rd Millennium BCE’, in Experiencing Power - Generating Authority: Cosmos and Politics in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, edited by J. A. Hill, Ph. H. Jones, A. J. Morales, 185-217. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

[13]: (Moreno Garcia 2013, 190-192) Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia. ’Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, elite, and power in ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE’ in Ancient Egyptian Administration edited by Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia. Leiden: Brill.

[14]: (Bard 2000, 66-67) Kathryn A. Bard. 2000. ’The Emergence of the Egyptian State (c. 3200-2686 BC)’, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 57-82. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[15]: (Trigger 1983, 51) Bruce G. Trigger. 1983. ’The Rise of Egyptian Civilization’, in Ancient Egypt: A Social History edited by Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O’Connor and Alan B Lloyd, 1-70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 R  
Original Name:
Egypt - Dynasty II  
Capital:
Memphis  
Alternative Name:
Pre-dynastic Egypt  
2nd Dynasty  
Dynasty II  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[2,900 BCE ➜ 2,687 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Egypt - Dynasty I (eg_dynasty_1)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom (eg_old_k_1)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[6,000 to 20,000] people  
Polity Territory:
100,000 km2 2900 BCE 2801 BCE
267,000 km2 2800 BCE 2701 BCE
300,000 km2 2700 BCE 2687 BCE
Polity Population:
[1,100,000 to 1,200,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
4  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
absent  
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
inferred absent  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
inferred absent  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - Dynasty II (eg_dynasty_2) was in:
 (2900 BCE 2651 BCE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - Dynasty II

Capital:
Memphis

The "early Egyptian state was a centrally controlled polity ruled by a (god-)king from the Memphis region." One reason Memphis is considered the likely main administrative centre is the large number of tombs of administrative officials located in the region. [1]
Founded at the beginning of the 1st Dynasty. [2] Known as White Wall [2] (Ineb=hedj(w) = "white wall(s), i.e the royal palace enclosure walls) or Memphis (Greek Memphis < Egyptian Mn-nfr, an abbreviation of the longer name for the funerary complex of king Pepi I.) [3]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64-65)

[2]: (Malek 2000, 104)

[3]: (Thompson 2012, 1)


Alternative Name:
Pre-dynastic Egypt
Alternative Name:
2nd Dynasty
Alternative Name:
Dynasty II

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[2,900 BCE ➜ 2,687 BCE]

Founded by Hotepsekhemwy and ended in the disorder and civil war that lasted until the last ruler of the 2nd Dynasty, Khasekhemwy (c2714-2687 BCE [1] ).

[1]: (El-Shahawy 2005, 31)


Political and Cultural Relations

Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Dynasty I [eg_dynasty_1] ---> Egypt - Dynasty II [eg_dynasty_2]
Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Dynasty II [eg_dynasty_2] ---> Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom [eg_old_k_1]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

The "early Egyptian state was a centrally controlled polity ruled by a (god-)king from the Memphis region. [1]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 65)


Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Ancient Egyptian? "nothing is really known about the spoken language." [1]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[6,000 to 20,000] people

Estimate from the two sources below:
EWA
Memphis. No figures.
Estimated 30,000 to 50,000 for the Memphite region in 2500 BCE (if included migrant population of 10,000 to 20,000). [1]
Mumford:"Early Dynastic to Old Kingdom (c. 3000-2125 BCE): Memphis. 31 hectares. 6,000 people estimated population. 193 per hectare." [2]

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 28)

[2]: (Mumford 2010, 331)


Polity Territory:
100,000 km2
2900 BCE 2801 BCE

100,000: 2900 BCE; 250,000: 2850 BCE; 267,000: 2800 BCE; 283,000: 2750 BCE; 300,000: 2700 BCE; 317,000: 2650 BCE [1]
This includes only habitable area. we will have another that includes the desert (John Baines)JGM: We should bring up, somewhere, theories on the rise of the first state in Egypt in relations to the oases, western desert. Lots of archaeology has occurred, and there is a clear relationship between the desert hinterlands in southern Egypt and the rise of the state in the Nile valley.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
267,000 km2
2800 BCE 2701 BCE

100,000: 2900 BCE; 250,000: 2850 BCE; 267,000: 2800 BCE; 283,000: 2750 BCE; 300,000: 2700 BCE; 317,000: 2650 BCE [1]
This includes only habitable area. we will have another that includes the desert (John Baines)JGM: We should bring up, somewhere, theories on the rise of the first state in Egypt in relations to the oases, western desert. Lots of archaeology has occurred, and there is a clear relationship between the desert hinterlands in southern Egypt and the rise of the state in the Nile valley.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
300,000 km2
2700 BCE 2687 BCE

100,000: 2900 BCE; 250,000: 2850 BCE; 267,000: 2800 BCE; 283,000: 2750 BCE; 300,000: 2700 BCE; 317,000: 2650 BCE [1]
This includes only habitable area. we will have another that includes the desert (John Baines)JGM: We should bring up, somewhere, theories on the rise of the first state in Egypt in relations to the oases, western desert. Lots of archaeology has occurred, and there is a clear relationship between the desert hinterlands in southern Egypt and the rise of the state in the Nile valley.

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)


Polity Population:
[1,100,000 to 1,200,000] people

1 million, 3000 BCE. [1]
From about 200,000 3500 BCE to over 1 million c3100 BCE.ref: Butzer

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]

EWA: 4 Memphis, 3 regional centres like Hierakonpolies and Abidos, 2 minor centre like Aswan/Naga-el-Deir, 1 villages. ref. Bard 2014, 2nd edition.
1. Memphis
2. Regional centres like Hierakonpolis and Abydos3. Minor centres like Aswan and Naga-el-Deir4. Villages(5. Hamlets)
EWA final: this variable for early dynastic to Hyksos should be 4 to 5. The reason is that we can infer the existince of hamlets at the bottom end of the scale. This should be implemented for all the intermediate polities.


Religious Level:
3


_ Abydos cult centre _
Abydos was the most significant cult centre. Kings of the 1st Dynasty were buried in the royal cemetery in the Umm el-Qa’ab area. There were funerary enclosures and a mortuary cult that supported an ideology of divine kingship. In the funerary enclosures priests and other personnel practiced king-cults. [1]
1. King.
2. Priests
3. Other
_Town cult complex_
In the 1st Dynasty there were probably cult temple compounds within towns which "served a different function from those associated with the funerary complexes, which were located outside the towns." [2]
1.
2.
3.

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64-69)

[2]: (Bard 2000, 78)


Military Level:
3

1.King
2. nobles3. officers.
Throughout Egyptian history, the army was a multi-purpose organization which was engaged for civil works labour projects, defence and campaigns.
Soldiers were responsible for transportation of monuments and quarried stone, large irrigation works and land reclamation. The dual purpose of the army was reflected in the hierarchy with the high "brass" as likely to be administrators as fighters. [1]

[1]: (Gnirs 2001)


Administrative Level:
4

1. King
"We can infer that the territorial authority of the pharaoh during the early phases of the Old Kingdom existed as a combination of a network of local centers founded at strategic points and of local authorities tied to the monarchy in a more or less informal way, not necessarily designated by the rank and function titles so typical of the central royal administration, and with titles referring only rarely to activities carried out in a given, precise area." [1]
_ Administration at Memphis _
2. Overseers [2] Early use of writing suggests administration system from Dynasty 0. [3]
Djer introduced permanent institutions, royal domain got a name different from the king, division of labour and hierarchy increased. [4]

3. Overseers "whose activities took place only in Lower Egypt""Early Dynastic period, administrative seals and labels mention royal agricultural domains put under the authority of a very particular category of overseers whose activities took place only in Lower Egypt." [2]

4. Scribes [5]
_ Provincial administration _
2. Royal centers [6] "territorial organization based more on a network of royal centers scattered all over the country than on a structure of provinces clearly marked out and controlled by local governors." [6]
"The discovery of thousands of seal stamps in the tomb of Khasekhemwy, the last king of the Second Dynasty, reveals the early existence of some kind of territorial organization, since some historical provinces are mentioned together with administrative titles and the names of the king (Engel 2006)." [7]
"Ink inscriptions on vessels from the funerary complex of Pharaoh Djoser (about 2686-2667 BCE) and seal stamps from Elephantine dating from Dynasty III, reveal the existence of a network of royal agricultural centers(the Hwt-aAt being the most frequently attested whereas the Hwt are also mentioned) which coexisted with the pr “domains” of some individuals." [7]
"The ink texts from another enormous set of vessels, recovered at Abydos and dating from the Second Dynasty, confirm this model as they mention institutions named after the element Hwt, like the Hwt-nbw or the Hwt-wr(t) (Regulski 2004). It seems that the territorial organization of the kingdom consisted of a duality of agricultural centers belonging to the crown. The first of these were the Hwt-aAt and Hwt, which were administered by royal officials called HoA Hwt-aAt and HoA Hwt. The second were the pr domains administered by individuals whose links to the royal administration are poorly understood, since it is impossible to determine if they were local magnates who exercised a personal control over the territorial units called pr or if they were royal agents in charge of the administration of these circumscriptions." [7]
"Another problem is our ignorance of the exact geographical distribution of these centers and circumscriptions: were they evenly scattered over the country or were they only prevalent in specific regions because of their strategic and/or economic importance? As regards this important question, our understanding of the role of provincial governors or of specific nome leaders is rather limited. Only the sSm tA played an active role as can be inferred from their frequent mention in the ink inscriptions, but it is impossible to ascertain the geographical extent of their authority or the scope of their activities (Moreno García 1999:233-38)." [7]
"Other towns must have developed or been founded as administrative centres of the state throughout Egypt. ... At Hierakonpolis, an elaborately niched mud-brick facade within the town (Kom el-Ahmar) has been interpreted as the gateway to a ’palace,’ possibly an administrative centre of the early state." [8]
Reign of Den: "Settlements concentrated in areas where irrigation was easily manageable, and those were the districts that seem to have been organized as nomes first. ... The single institutions (domain, : hw.t pj-hr.w-msn.w) are more and more subdivided into several departments, and during the 2nd Dynasty villages are attached." [4]
3. Managers of workshops within royal centers"some of the institutions whose name is composed with the element Hwt were perhaps some kind of specialized royal workshop like the Hwt-mHa, Hwt-THnt, or Hwt-Smaw known from later inscriptions." [9]
4. Specialist workers within workshops inferred

[1]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García 2013, Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, elite, and power in ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE, 194)

[2]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Invaders or just herders? Libyans in Egypt in the third and second millennia BCE, 3)

[3]: (Bard 2000, 75)

[4]: (Engel 2013, 20-38)

[5]: (Bard 2000, 74)

[6]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García 2013, Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, elite, and power in ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE, 190-192)

[7]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García 2013, Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, elite, and power in ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE, 190)

[8]: (Bard 2000, 65)

[9]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García 2013, Building the Pharaonic state: Territory, elite, and power in ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BCE, 191)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

unknown


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Priests worked rotating shifts. Not full-time professional until the New Kingdom. [1]
EWA: changed the code (to absent)

[1]: (Doxey 2001)


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

pr-nzw is royal household and office and administration building. [1] Djer introduced permanent institutions, royal domain got a name different from the king, division of labour and hierarchy increased. [1]

[1]: (Engel 2013, 20-38)


Merit Promotion:
absent

Some later Old Kingdom tomb biographies suggest at least an informal promotional system. e.g. Biography of Weni, Dynasty 6, from Abydos. [1] . However there was probably no regular, institutionalized procedure for promotion based on performance.

[1]: (Lichtheim 1975, 18-23)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Djer introduced permanent institutions, royal domain got a name different from the king, division of labour and hierarchy increased. [1]

[1]: (Engel 2013, 20-38)


Examination System:
absent

Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

unknown


unknown pr.w nzw "fulfilled a certain judicial function." [1] was this a specialised position?

[1]: (Engel 2013, 20-38)


Formal Legal Code:
absent

No evidence for formal criminal code during Old Kingdom. [1]

[1]: (McDowell 2001)


unknown pr.w nzw "fulfilled a certain judicial function." [1]

[1]: (Engel 2013, 20-38)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
present

Menes began construction of basins to retain flood waters, dug canals and irrigation ditches to reclaim marshland. [1] "By the Early Dynastic Period, simple basin irrigation may have been practised, thus extending the amount of land under cultivation and producing increased yields." [2]

[1]: (Angelakis et al. 2012, 128-130)

[2]: (Bard 2000, 65)


Food Storage Site:
present

Regional and local officials responsible for hoarding and distribution of grain. [1] This was true in Old Kingdom, very likely true in the early period. "A Third-Fourth dynasty complex found at Elkab consisted of storage facilities, silos, and sites where agricultural produce was transformed (Hendrickx and Eyckerman 2009)" [2]

[1]: ([1])

[2]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 15)


Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Earliest wells date to the el Napta/Al Jerar Early Neolithic (c6000-5250 BC) at Napta Playa in the Western Desert. There is written evidence for wells from 4th dynasty Old Kingdom. "Most of the inscriptions seem to be connected to mining or quarrying activities in the Eastern Desert or travel routes from the Nile Valley towards the Red Sea." "The basic techniques involved in well-building, such as sinking shafts and building casings of solid stones, must be considered to have existed in Egypt at least since the early Old Kingdom and probably even earlier." [1] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.

[1]: (Franzmeier 2007)


Transport Infrastructure

Road network emerged with development of irrigation systems. Excavated soil was piled by the side of ditches, these formed embankments which were used as paths and roads. Generally not paved. [1]

[1]: (Partridge 2010)


Used to acquire timber from Lebanon and other foreign products.


[1] Menes diverted the Nile to build Memphis where it had run. [2]

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 26)

[2]: (Angelakis et al. 2012, 130)


Bridge:
present

Earliest reference to small bridge is for the new kingdom. Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown. [1] However, it is highly probable that small bridges were necessary before this time and Egyptians would have been more than capable of building and maintaining them.

[1]: (Arnold 2003, 37)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

there is an oblique reference to mining in the predynastic on the Naqada IA-IIB polity sheet. [1]

[1]: Franzmeier, F. 2007. "Wells and Cisterns in Pharaonic Egypt: The Development of a Technology as a progress of Adaptation to Environmental Situations and Consumers’ Demands".[in:] Griffin, K. [ed.]. Current Research in Egyptology 2007. Oxford: Oxbow Books. pg: 40, 48.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"early writing preserves specialized information that is of a very cursory nature at this point in cultural development." [1] "by Dynasty 0, writing was used by scribes and artisans of the Egyptian state." [2]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)

[2]: (Bard 2000, 74)


Script:
present

Earliest known hieroglyphs are the apparent inscriptions on labels found in the tomb U-j which dates to c.3150 BCE. [1] ).

[1]: (Bard 2000, 60)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. [1]

[1]: Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World’s Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287-290.


Nonwritten Record:
present

"early writing preserves specialized information that is of a very cursory nature at this point in cultural development." [1] "by Dynasty 0, writing was used by scribes and artisans of the Egyptian state." [2]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)

[2]: (Bard 2000, 74)


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

hieroglyphs


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"early writing preserves specialized information that is of a very cursory nature at this point in cultural development." [1] the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE): "attempting to salvage content from an older script dating back to 3000 B.C." [2]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)

[2]: (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.

Scientific Literature:
absent

"early writing preserves specialized information that is of a very cursory nature at this point in cultural development." [1] the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE): "attempting to salvage content from an older script dating back to 3000 B.C." [2]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)

[2]: (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.



Religious Literature:
present

On the walls of King Unas’s (2375-2345 BCE) burial chamber: "The Pyramid Texts represent the earliest large religious composition known from ancient Egypt; some of their elements were created well before the reign of Unas and map out the development of Egyptian religious thought from Predynastic times." [1]

[1]: (Malek 2000, 102)


Practical Literature:
present

Instructional literature. "as early as 3000 BCE official reference standards of length, volume, and weight were being maintained in temples and royal palaces in Egypt" [1]

[1]: (Willard 2008, 2244)


Philosophy:
absent

"early writing preserves specialized information that is of a very cursory nature at this point in cultural development." [1]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 64)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

used by the state.



Calendar:
present

they possessed a lunar calendar and the hieroglyphs with which they could write it down


Information / Money





Article:
present

Payment in agricultural goods. [1]

[1]: (Chadwick 2005, 138-139)


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent

Courier:
present

[1]

[1]: (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Invaders or just herders? Libyans in Egypt in the third and second millennia BCE, 8)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Walled towns present prior to 3100 BCE.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Walled towns present prior to 3100 BCE.

Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Walled towns present prior to 3100 BCE.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Fortified cities in north and south of Palestine. [1]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 73)




Fortified Camp:
present

Fortified cities in north and south of Palestine. [1]

[1]: (Bard 2000, 73)




Complex Fortification:
present

Not mentioned for this period in Shaw’s (1991, 15-24) discussion of Egyptian fortifications. [1] According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [2] 1st Dynasty fortress built "on the highest point of the shore on Elephantine Island." [3]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 15-24) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)

[3]: (Bard 2000, 64)



Military use of Metals


Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Adam 1981, 235) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.


Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [1] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, later replaced by bronze. [2]

[1]: (Adam 1981, 235) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.

[2]: (Gnirs 2001)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

not yet developed


[1] [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001)

[2]: J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford. Have been able to discover there is a ’slings and stones’ section in volume P-Z 2: 409-10


"By the Dynastic Period, archers were most commonly depicted using a ’self’ (or simple) bow" [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 37) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 31) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

not yet developed


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

not yet developed


not yet developed


Composite Bow:
absent

"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE." [1] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE." [2]

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[2]: (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

"The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 31) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"the weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 37) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"One of the most important sources for the study of Egyptian weapons in the early Middle Kingdom is a pair of painted wooden models (Cairo, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb of Mesehti, a provincial governor at Asyut in the Eleventh Dynasty (figure 22). Forty Egyptian spearmen and forty Nubian archers are reproduced in faithful detail, showing the typical costume and arms of the common soldier." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"Whereas the conventional spear was intended to be thrown at the enemy, there was also a form of halberd (figure 25c), which was effectively a spear shaft fitted with an axe blade and used for cutting and slashing." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 36) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)." [1] used in earlier time in this region [2]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 31) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.

[2]: Gilbert, G. P. 2004. Weapons, Warriors and Warfare in Early Egypt. BAR International Series 1208: Oxford. pg: 34-70, 166-183


Battle Axe:
present

"Throughout the Dynastic Period of the most commonly used weapon was the axe. In the Old and Middle Kingdoms the conventional axe usually consisted of a semicircular copper head (see figures 23a and 24) tied to a wooden handle by cords, threaded through perforations in the copper and wrapped around lugs. At this stage there was little difference between the battleaxe and the woodworker’s axe. In the Middle Kingdom, however, some battleaxes had longer blades with concave sides narrowing down to a curved edge (figure 23b)" [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 36) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Animals used in warfare

Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [1]

[1]: (Partridge 2010, 384)


"During the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians depended upon the donkey’s back for land transport. ... Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads." [1] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass ’in more than one place’ but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. [2]

[1]: (Drews 2017, 34) Robert Drews. 2017. Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Cowhides probably most common material. [1] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001)

[2]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Scaled Armor:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Plate Armor:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Limb Protection:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Leather Cloth:
present

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Laminar Armor:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [1] "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [2]

[1]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Breastplate:
absent

"The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers’ only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.