Home Region:  Southern Europe (Europe)

Republic of Venice IV

G SC WF PT
EQ 2020  it_venetian_rep_4 / ItVenR4

No General Descriptions provided.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
33 T  
Original Name:
Venetian Republic  
Capital:
Venice  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,565 CE  
Duration:
[1,565 CE ➜ 1,797 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Italian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
170,000 people 1565 CE
Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 2,500,000] people 1565 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
5  
Military Level:
11  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
inferred present  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
Handheld weapons
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Republic of Venice IV (it_venetian_rep_4) was in:
 (1564 CE 1669 CE)   Crete
Home NGA: Crete

General Variables
Temporal Bounds

Duration:
[1,565 CE ➜ 1,797 CE]

Part Two on The Imperial Expansion begins with the election of Pietro as the Doge of Venice in 1205 CE. Part Three on A Power in Europe ends in 1530 CE with the Coronation of Charles V by the Pope as Holy Roman Emperor. [1] In 1530 CE "The peninsula was at peace - at least by Italian standards, and though the peace had been bought about by imperial-papal agency and all Italy still lay under the shadow of the Eagle’s wing, Venice had managed to safeguard not only her political independence but even the integrity of her mainland dominians." [2] Part Four is on Decline and Fall, last date 1797 CE. [3]
"Its republican constitution, which took shape in the late thirteenth century ... stood for five hundred years, until its fall to Napoleon on 12 May 1797." [4]

[1]: (Norwich 2003, vii-viii) John Julius Norwich. 2003. A History of Venice. Penguin Books. London.

[2]: (Norwich 2003, 449) John Julius Norwich. 2003. A History of Venice. Penguin Books. London.

[3]: (Norwich 2003, viii) John Julius Norwich. 2003. A History of Venice. Penguin Books. London.

[4]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Political and Cultural Relations

Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
170,000 people
1565 CE

Inhabitants. Venice.
"At the height of its power in the sixteenth century, the city of Venice counted nearly 170,000 souls, with a population of more than two million in its subject territories." [1]
Venice was a cosmopolitan city of merchants. "At the end of the fifteenth century, for example, the French diplomat Philippe de Commynes observed that in Venice ’most of the people are foreigners.’" [2]

[1]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

[2]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 20) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Polity Population:
[2,000,000 to 2,500,000] people
1565 CE

People.
"At the height of its power in the sixteenth century, the city of Venice counted nearly 170,000 souls, with a population of more than two million in its subject territories." [1]

[1]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels.
1. Capital (Venice)
2. Overseas Colonies(eg. Candia) [1] 3. Large or capital cities of overseas colonies
2. City-States3. Large Towns (Inferred from description of local governments) [2] 4. Small Towns (Inferred from description of local governments) [2]
5. Rural Outposts/Villages (inferred)

[1]: (Viggiano 2014, 51) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Religious Level:
5

The Venetian religious policy "expected the Greeks to abandon their traditional form of Christianity and accept Latin rites and doctrines." [1]
Using same code as for Papal States of this period, which was coded and referenced by our expert Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm.
Pope; Cardinals and legates; archbishops; bishops and abbots; parish priests and members of the religious orders; deacons.
1. Pope: The pope was, of course, the universally-acknowledged leader of Latin Christendom. This does not contradict the fact that who exactly was the legitimate pope was often contested during the period 1378-1418, during the Great Schism. During this period the papacy arrogated to itself the right to appoint bishops, negating the tradition of bishops being elected by their flock in conjunction with the priesthood. [2]
2. Cardinals and legates: The cardinalate was crucial in theological decision-making and the religious aspects of papal government; legates, similarly, handled religious matters abroad on occasion.
3. Archbishops: To a certain extent, archbishops were equivalent to cardinals, but there were more of them, distributed throughout Christendom. They supervised their suffragan bishops and bishoprics, while also overseeing their own (a good example is the Archbishop of Milan).
4. Bishops and abbots: Bishops were the crucial link between local religion and the papacy. There were 263 bishoprics in 14th century Italy. [3] Abbots sometimes played a role beyond the walls of their monasteries, although by this point once-powerful regional centers such as Farfa were in decline in Lazio.
5. Parish priests and members of the religious orders: These constituted the mundane religious level. Parish priests embodied Christianity for their flock, for the most part, since they said Mass, heard confession and, in general, were (supposed to) serve as the quotidian face of the organized Church. Members of the religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and so forth) also were a common part of the Church’s presence, especially in the towns. [4]

[1]: (McNeill 1986, 33-34) William H McNeill. 1986. Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

[2]: Peterson,

[3]: Najemy, 62

[4]: For Franciscan activity in the Tuscan countryside in a slightly early period, see de La Roncière.


Military Level:
11

levels.
Military Administration 1509-1617 [1]
1. Doge (inferred)
2. Heads of the Council of Ten
3. Council of Ten
3. Senate
4. Proveditor of Artillery (until 1588)
4. Proveditor of Fortifications
4. Collateral (inferred)
5. Savi
5. Camerlenghi
5. Arsenal Rector of Brescia
6. Rector, Proveditor, Military Governor, Senior Officer, Spies, Captain, Commissaries, Castellans
6. Paymaster
6. Engineers, Commander in Chief, Rector
7. Condottieri:
8. Men-at-arms (Lancers)
9. Militia officers
10. Lower level officers
11. Infantry Troops
Navy: "Venetian overseas colonies depended to a great extent on the defensive shield provided by Venice’s fleet, and the role of the Provveditore General dell’Armata, who acted not only as a navy commander but also as supreme authority over the colonies in peacetime as well as during wars, was another idiosyncratic feature of the overseas colonies. [2] .

[1]: (Mallett and Hale 1984: 250; 466. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/YFGBTMAH)

[2]: (Arbel 2013: 129) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2013. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
Reference to a closing of a Great Council 1297 CE?
1. Doge of Venice
The position of Doge was a life appointment. [1]
2. Magistracy of the Avogaria di Comun. [2]
2. Maggior Consiglio3. Council of Ten’Plebian’ nobility. [3] Council of Ten is part of the Maggior Consiglio.
Council of Ten was created in 1310 CE. [4]
3. Ducal chancery"Toward the early fourteenth century the ducal chancery was established. In the first instance it served as a bureaucratic arm of the Maggior Consiglio, bringing into the sphere of government the active participation of the citizen class." [5]
2. Consiglio dei PregadiThe office of Doge of Crete "was not for life, as in Venice, but only for two years, renewable at the discretion of the Lesser Council or Senate, which made the appointment in the first place." [1]
"the Senate, or Consiglio dei Pregadi, was made up of 120 permanent members." [3]
3. Sestiers associated with any official?
3. Podesta (with the Captain, one of the Rectors) of large town or city
3. Captain (with the Podesta, one of the Rectors) of large town or city4. Municipal councils
4. Local police
4. Schools
3. Podesta, Capitano or Povveditor of a small town"In each of the more important dependent cities she placed a civil governor, called the Podesta, and a military commandant, called the Captain, whose duty it was to raise levies and look after the defence of the city; these two when acting together were called the Rectors. The local municipal councils, varying in numbers, were left undisturbed and retained the control of such matters as lighting, roads, local taxation. The police and imperial taxation were in the hands of the Rectors, and they were in constant communication either with the Senate, or, in very grave emergencies, with the Council of Ten. The smaller towns were governed by a Podesta, a Capitano, or a Provveditore. Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life. ... In the Courts of Justice the Podesta or one of his three assessors merely presided; the did not constitute the Court, which was composed of citizens. Provision was made for public instruction in the humanities, in canon and civil law, and in medicine; primary education was supplied by what were called schools of aritmetic. The cost of education was charged on the revenues of the province." [6]
2. Doge of CandiaIn Crete a "simplified model of the Venetian home government" was used. "This allowed Venetian residents abroad to enjoy accustomed roles on governing boards and councils, while centralized conrol was assured by entrusting principal executive powers to officers appointed from Venice, usually for a term of two years. This practice dated from 1208, before Crete had been conquered, when the Venetians appointed a doge of Candia (the main city of the island) to act as chief magistrate and military commander." [1]
2. Greater Council (of Crete)3. Fief holders in sestiers (administrative areas) of Crete"The first doge of Candia, Giacomo Tiepolo, divided the island into six administrative areas and named them after the sestiers into which Venice itself was divided. Fief holders from the sestiers acted as members of a Greater Council, modeled on the Maggior Consiglio of Venice, to which all nobles belonged." [1]
"In 1297, culminating reorginization attempts that had begun in the late 1280s, the Maggior Consiglio (Great Council) set up a regularized system of membership, accepting as member those who had previously served in the council and the legitimate male descendants of all part and present members. The immediate effect was to increase the size of the council, but ultimately it limited access to a discrete group of families." [7]
Magistracy of the Avogaria di Comun. [2] "The college of the three avogadori could intromettere [introduce an appeal] into the government council which seemed most suitable to the typology of the case: the Quarantia civile or the Quarantia criminale - courts of justice composed of 40 nobles each, destined during the course of the 15th century to become state’s highest courts of appeal; the Senate or Consiglio de’ Pregadi - the principal Venetian legislative organ at the center of the production of norms regarding foreign and domestic policy, civil and military; the Minor Consiglio - a restricted and elite body represented by the doge’s councilors, six nobles nominated by the Senate; or the Maggior Consiglio - composed, instead, of all the the nobles who had reached their majority." [8] "in the 15th century ... the role of this magistracy took center stage in the political and constitutional history of Venice." [8] "Decrees of the Senate or sovereign letters signed by ducal councilors, sentences passed by the plethora of republican institutions with their seat in the capital, pronouncements or acts of government of the Venetian rectors in the terraferma or envoys in the colonies of the stato da mar; every type of act produced in the course of the activities of government, from the least important magistracy to the Doge himself, no matter how solemn or banal it might have been, could be brought by appeal before the Avogaria." [9] "The ever-increasing interventions of the Avogaria in the years 1440-60 represent a true turning point in Venetian political history. The apex of the constituional system - the doge, the Provveditori di San Marco, the ducal councilors, the Savi del Consiglio - thus came to be subjected to a form of continuous supervision. In 1453, for example, the avogadori were able to block an order from the Doge to the Giudici di Petizion." [10]
"The much enlarged imperial territories that thus accrued to the Venetian state after 1204 had to be governed somehow. In Corfu briefly, and in Crete more permanently, the Venetians resorted to the form of military administration used by all the Latin crusading states. That is, the city granted fiefs to knights and serjeants who undertook to build castles and defend the land in return for the income to be derived from territories granted to them. Holders of these fiefs were all Venetian citizens; their lands came by confiscation from Greek magnates." [11]
1200 CE: "a bailo was appointed to supervise Venetian affairs along the entire Syrian and Palestinian coast." [1]

[1]: (McNeill 1986, 34) William H McNeill. 1986. Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

[2]: (Viggiano 2014, 51) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[3]: (Viggiano 2014, 57) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[4]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 4) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

[5]: (Pincus 2000, 91) Debra Pincus. Hard Times and Ducal Radiance. Andrea Dandolo and the Construction of the Ruler in Fourteenth-Century Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

[6]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[7]: (Pincus 2000, 90) Debra Pincus. Hard Times and Ducal Radiance. Andrea Dandolo and the Construction of the Ruler in Fourteenth-Century Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

[8]: (Viggiano 2014, 52) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[9]: (Viggiano 2014, 53) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[10]: (Viggiano 2014, 54) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[11]: (McNeill 1986, 33) William H McNeill. 1986. Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"Since professional soldiers were rather expensive to maintain, Venice embarked from the 1520s onward on a systematic organization of civil militias (cernide, ordinanze), mostly peasant militias, in its overseas territories, on the model of a similar organization that had already been established in the Venetian terraferma." [1]

[1]: (Arbel 2013: 205) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2013. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Professional Priesthood:
present

eg. archbishops, bishops, chief priests and cantors (in Candia, La Canea, Rettimo, and Sitia) [1]

[1]: (Viggiano 2013: 166-7) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3TCVQMYV


Professional Military Officer:
present

For example, officers: "In the last two wars with the Ottomans, a greater number of non-Italian soldiers and officers wasemployed" [1] . Naval commanders: "Venetian overseas colonies depended to a great extent on the defensive shield provided by Venice’s fleet, and the role of the Provveditore General dell’Armata, who acted not only as a navy commander but also as supreme authority over the colonies in peacetime as well as during wars, was another idiosyncratic feature of the overseas colonies. [2] .

[1]: (Arbel 2013: 203) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2013. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Arbel 2013: 129) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2013. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The central administrative, executive, and judicial government was based inside the Ducale Palazzo, the palace of the doge. [1] . However, due to the complexity of regional governments and number of minor offices in the central government, we infer the presence of separate government buildings.

[1]: (Howard, Quill, and Moretti 2002: 102) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/WCTSCW9X


Merit Promotion:
present

Inferred present in terms of minor bureaucrats and civil servants: "It is opportune to remember that the Venetian “bureaucratic” system functioned on two levels: the first, constituted substantially by membersof the Ducal Chancellery, was occupied by civil servants attached to the great political councils; the second, clearly separated from the first, was made up of a plethora of secretaries, notaries, and others who in each single magistracy carried out the tasks of conserving the official acts and transmitting orders and mandates." [1] . Absent for nobles: "Venetiannobles, elected to office for a period of 18 or 24 months, would have had little impact on the ordinary mechanisms by which these offices functioned" [2]

[1]: (Viggiano 2013: 67) Seshat URL:

[2]: (Viggiano 2013: 67) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3TCVQMYV


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Shifts in the Venetian government in the period 1509-1660: "The growth of a non-patrician bureaucracy serving central government ran parallel to the tighter definition of criteria for its recruitment, with more extensive insistence on the requisite of Venetian citizenship—something immigrants to Venice could acquire, but which confirmed the exclusion of ordinary terraferma subjects." [1] The central government was run by nobles, but work was carried out by minor bureaucrats in central government magistracies: "It is opportune to remember that the Venetian “bureaucratic” system functioned on two levels: the first, constituted substantially by members of the Ducal Chancellery, was occupied by civil servants attached to the great political councils; the second, clearly separated from the first, was made up of a plethora of secretaries, notaries, and others who in each single magistracy carried out the tasks of conserving the official acts and transmitting orders and mandates." [2]

[1]: (Knapton 2013: 102) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/UI66ZTEI

[2]: (Viggiano 2013: 67) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3TCVQMYV


Examination System:
absent

No mention in sources: offices held through election or promotion. [1]

[1]: (Viggiano 2013: 67) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3TCVQMYV


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "Maintaining this coherence was a diverse class of jurists made up of scholars, lawyers, and judges, who provided a practical and theoretical framework capable of assuring the effectiveness and continuity of the system." [1]
Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "... the defendant’s father presented the peace agreeement and a defense document, clearly drafted by a lawyer. In the end, the judge imposed on all the defendants only small monetary penalties." [2]

[1]: (Povolo 2014, 518) Claudio Povolo. Liturgies of Violence: Social Control and Power Relationships in the Republic of Venice between the 16th and 18th Centuries. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Povolo 2014, 513) Claudio Povolo. Liturgies of Violence: Social Control and Power Relationships in the Republic of Venice between the 16th and 18th Centuries. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


"On the one hand, the Roman law-based tradition of terraferma statutes, sources of law in general, and judicial practice was a tradition much dependent on the legal expertise of jurists organic to local elites. On the other hand, Venice’s own, separate legal and judicial tradition was characterized by the space for empirical, informal, ’political criteria of equity in judging and by assignment of judicial posts to patricians with no legal training. Though much mainland judging remained the business of local courts with local judges, the uneasy reconciliation of these thwo approaches was evident in the dual options of mainland governors: they an entourage of legal professionals, judging by local law, but were also empowered to override the usual priority in sources of law. ... Local statutory traditions continued essentially intact, with periodic renewal of statues subject to Venetian approval, which entailed no drastic interference. Such codes were generally not significantly updated by new laws formulated by mainland legislators once under Venetian dominion, nor did they include as statutory norms the heterogeneous accumulation of Venetian laws and rulings, referred to single territories or (more rarely) to the whole of the mainland." [1]
Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "The local nobilities acted as judges in courts of first instance, including the basic inquests of criminal cases, and when they were the accused, intimidated testimonies and influenced inquests and verdicts by using patronage and violence..." [2]

[1]: (Knapton 2014, 98) Michael Knapton. The Terraferma State. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Arbel 2014, 163) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Formal Legal Code:
present

"Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life." [1]
"The Venetian constitution in fact froze in the form it attained early in the fourteenth century and survived externally unaltered until the demise of the Republic in 1797." [2] "Its republican constitution, which took shape in the late thirteenth century ... stood for five hundred years, until its fall to Napoleon on 12 May 1797." [3]
"Leze might at first appear a term both clear and neutral, but if we stop to consider the ways in which it was translated, the multiple realities this term might encompass (i.e., collections of statutes of the subject cities, customary laws, and a generally regulative idea of justice, charged with ethnical and religious meanings) and the close identification of leze and the defense of legality with the republican constitution, that first and oversimplified perception is replaced by the awareness of a far more complex system." [4]
"On the one hand, the Roman law-based tradition of terraferma statutes, sources of law in general, and judicial practice was a tradition much dependent on the legal expertise of jurists organic to local elites. On the other hand, Venice’s own, separate legal and judicial tradition was characterized by the space for empirical, informal, ’political criteria of equity in judging and by assignment of judicial posts to patricians with no legal training. Though much mainland judging remained the business of local courts with local judges, the uneasy reconciliation of these thwo approaches was evident in the dual options of mainland governors: they an entourage of legal professionals, judging by local law, but were also empowered to override the usual priority in sources of law. ... Local statutory traditions continued essentially intact, with periodic renewal of statues subject to Venetian approval, which entailed no drastic interference. Such codes were generally not significantly updated by new laws formulated by mainland legislators once under Venetian dominion, nor did they include as statutory norms the heterogeneous accumulation of Venetian laws and rulings, referred to single territories or (more rarely) to the whole of the mainland." [5]

[1]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (McNeill 1986, 46) William H McNeill. 1986. Venice: The Hinge of Europe, 1081-1797. University of Chicago Press. Chicago.

[3]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

[4]: (Viggiano 2014, 54) Alfredo Viggiano. Politics and Constitution. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[5]: (Knapton 2014, 98) Michael Knapton. The Terraferma State. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


"In the Courts of Justice the Podesta or one of his three assessors merely presided; the did not constitute the Court, which was composed of citizens." [1]

[1]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"Renaissance Venice was one of the most developed financial markets in Europe, and even in the public sector it was unrivalled." [1]

[1]: (Pezzolo 2014, 270) Luciano Pezzolo. The Venetian Economy. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Irrigation System:
present

1509-1630 CE: "Grain needs and profit opportunities driven by demographic increase - the price revolution - stimulated extension of the acreage tilled through drainage of marshy areas and cultivation of marginal land, much more than higher productivity via better agronomic practice - irrigation, water-meadows and fodder crops, high-yielding rice fields, stock-raising to balance agriculture etc." [1] 1509-1630 CE: "Action concerning watercourses and marshes brought diversion of rivers to avoid silting up the Venetian lagoon, attempts to prevent them flooding, authorization and support for sometimes massive land drainage schemes, and concession of irrigation rights. Policy toward woodland aimed to reserve much timber for state arsenal use and to counter deforestation." [2]

[1]: (Knapton 2014, 102) Michael Knapton. The Terraferma State. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Knapton 2014, 101) Michael Knapton. The Terraferma State. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Food Storage Site:
present

Warehouses and shipyards. [1]

[1]: (Ching and Jarzombek 2017, 457) Francis D K Ching. Mark M Jarzombek. 2017. A Global History of Architecture. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"Yes, for centuries, the Venetians developed a providential design of their own destiny: only God could allow life to thrive in the midst of salt water. ... For centuries, the community gave no priority to efforts at coastal defense. It was necessary to build, create, and beautify, to organize the supply of drinking water. Here the rare documentary evidence is consistent with the narrative sources. The city thus initially focused on growing and resolving day by day the difficulties related to the site." [1]

[1]: (Crouzet-Pavan 2014, 38) Elisabeth Crouzet-Pavan. Venice and Its Surroundings. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Transport Infrastructure

"The local municipal councils, varying in numbers, were left undisturbed and retained the control of such matters as lighting, roads, local taxation. The police and imperial taxation were in the hands of the Rectors, and they were in constant communication either with the Senate, or, in very grave emergencies, with the Council of Ten." [1]

[1]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Warehouses and shipyards. [1] "A maritime power, Venice served as an entrepot for trade between Europe and the Middle East". [2]

[1]: (Ching and Jarzombek 2017, 457) Francis D K Ching. Mark M Jarzombek. 2017. A Global History of Architecture. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons.

[2]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Canals. [1]

[1]: (Ching and Jarzombek 2017, 457) Francis D K Ching. Mark M Jarzombek. 2017. A Global History of Architecture. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons.


Bridge:
present

"Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life." [1]

[1]: (? 1902, 263) ?. Chapter VIII. Venice. A W Ward. G W Prothero. Stanley Leathes. eds. 1902. The Cambridge Modern History. Volume I. The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic". [1]

[1]: (Harrison 2006, 213) Peter Harrison. The natural philosopher and the virtues. Conal Condren. Stephen Gaukroger. Ian Hunter. eds. The Philosopher in Early Modern Europe: The Nature of a Contested Identity. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.




Practical Literature:
present

Account books and maritime contracts. [1]

[1]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 2) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Philosophy:
present

16th century philosophers mentioned in the text: "In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic". [1]

[1]: (Harrison 2006, 213) Peter Harrison. The natural philosopher and the virtues. Conal Condren. Stephen Gaukroger. Ian Hunter. eds. The Philosopher in Early Modern Europe: The Nature of a Contested Identity. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Account books. [1]

[1]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 2) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


History:
present

"In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic". [1] c14th century?: "The rising tide of humanism and the historical vision that accompanied it resulted in an upsurge in the writing of history, as well as the involvement of both patricians and nonpatricians in the activity of chronicle writing, which now featured a vernacular component." [2]

[1]: (Harrison 2006, 213) Peter Harrison. The natural philosopher and the virtues. Conal Condren. Stephen Gaukroger. Ian Hunter. eds. The Philosopher in Early Modern Europe: The Nature of a Contested Identity. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Pincus 2000, 91) Debra Pincus. Hard Times and Ducal Radiance. Andrea Dandolo and the Construction of the Ruler in Fourteenth-Century Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.


Fiction:
present

"Medieval and early modern Venice was also one of the great cultural capitals of Europe. It was home to scores of artists, musicians, and writers of international stature." [1]

[1]: (Martin and Romano 2000, 1) John Martin. Dennis Romano. Reconsidering Venice. John Martin. Dennis Romano. eds. 2000. Venice Reconsidered: The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State 1297-1797. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.



Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present

Venetian gold ducats


Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Important towns "normally defended by strong walls and canons". [1]

[1]: (Arbel 2014, 205) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Watch towers were built along the coasts". [1] Port towns in Crete refortified from 1540s CE. One fortress was built on a hill overlooking the town of Rettimo. Island fortresses were built to protect shipping. [2]

[1]: (Arbel 2014, 205-206) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Arbel 2014, 207) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Modern Fortification:
present

"Venice’s strategy of defense of its overseas territories was based on fortified cities and system of forts, provided with victuals and ammunition that were meant to enable resistance of long sieges (up to two years) until reinforcement arrived by sea. ... changes in military technology, especially the more effective use of artillery, necessitated a renewal of the systems of defense." [1]

[1]: (Arbel 2014, 206) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


We can probably include Venice itself?




A Venetian town was surrounded by a ditch at the time it was attacked by the Ottomans c 1571 CE. [1]

[1]: Jan Morris. 1990. The Venetian Empire: A Sea Voyage. Penguin.



Military use of Metals

General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armor "was formed from rings of iron (or, more rarely, steel)". [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 67) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armor "was formed from rings of iron (or, more rarely, steel)". [1]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 67) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "catapults and other siege engines". [1]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "catapults and other siege engines". [1]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Handheld Firearm:
present

Illustration shows "Venetian militiaman, late 15th C." with a firearm and dagger. [1] Illustration depicts a pistol early 17th century. [2] Illustration shows "Tommaso Morosini, c1647" with a pistol and sword. [3] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate G) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Important towns "normally defended by strong walls and canons". [1]

[1]: (Arbel 2014, 205) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Crossbow:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: crossbow bolts. [1] Illustration shows "N. Italian crossbowman, c. 1330" with a crossbow. [2] Illustration shows "N. Italian crossbowman, late 15th C." [3]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate B) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Handheld weapons

General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)". [1] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs. [2] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword. [3] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger. [3] Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword. [4] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield. [5] Illustration shows "Tommaso Morosini, c1647" with a pistol and sword. [6] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet. [6]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 75) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[4]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate F) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[5]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate G) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[6]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)". [1] General reference for medieval warfare: lances. [2] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs. [3] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword. [4] Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword. [4]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 75) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[4]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Dagger:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: daggers. [1] Illustration shows "Italian armoured infantryman, c.1320" with dagger, sword, helmet, guantlets. [2] Illustration shows "Knight, Collato family, c.1340" with a helmet, guantlets, sword, dagger, limb protection including plate armour for the feet, lower legs and knees. [2] Illustration shows "Venetian militiaman, late 15th C." with a firearm and dagger. [3] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger. [4]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate B) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[4]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate F) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Battle Axe:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: battle axes. [1] Illustration shows "’Scappoli’ volunteer, early 17th C." with what looks like a battle axe. [2]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 76) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Animals used in warfare

2000-2500 stradioti: "A group peculiar to the Venetian defense system were the so-called stradioti, who were light cavalrymen, mostly of Greek or Albanian descent but sometimes also Dalmatians (Crovati)." [1]

[1]: (Arbel 2014, 204) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.




Armor
Shield:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)". [1] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs. [2] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield. [3]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 75) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate G) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Scaled Armor:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "By the late thirteenth century, a new defense had been developed, the coat of plates - textile or leather coat with small iron plates attached to the inside." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [2]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 69) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Plate Armor:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "Plate armor was developed beginning in the thirteenth century." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: Full-plate armor. [2] General reference for medieval warfare: c1320 CE "Full plate arm defenses appeared". [3] General reference for medieval warfare: "From about 1340, the plates covering the chest were combined to form a rudimentary breastplate, which first covered only the upper chest area. ... By about 1370 the breastplate was extended downward by means of an attached skirt of hoops, a fauld, so that the whole torso was protected." [3] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [4] Illustrations show plate armour covering the torso for "Dalmatian knight, mid-15th C." [5] and "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." [5] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword. [5] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger. [6] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield. [7] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet. [8]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 68) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 69) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Smith 2010, 70) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate E) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[6]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate F) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[7]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate G) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[8]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "Plate gauntlets and gorgets, plates protecting the neck and chin, appeared at the end of the thirteenth century. From about 1300 poleyns and greaves, the armor for the lower legs, became more common, and sabatons, armor for the foot often made in the shape of the shoe in fashion at the time, first emerged around 1320." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: c1320 CE "Full plate arm defenses appeared". [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [2] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs. [3]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 70) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armour was normally worn with "everday garments or special, padded clothes that helped to cushion heavy blows and provide additional protection." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "Alongside the use of mail armor, various quilted textile defenses were also worn from the second half of the twelfth century - the pourpoint, the aketon, and the gambeson". [2] General reference for medieval warfare: "Though later always made from iron, early plate defenses could also be made from hardened leather called cuir boulli." [3] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [4] Illustration shows horse armour which includes non-metallic (quilting, leather?) and metallic (plate) elements. [5]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 68) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 69) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Smith 2010, 70) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.



Helmet:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)". [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [2] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs. [3] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet. [4]

[1]: (Gaier 2010, 75) Claude Gaier. Arms Industry and Trade. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate C) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[4]: (Nicolle 1989, Plate H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "The most common form of armor available after the fall of Rome was mail. It had been in use for a very long time and continued in use into the early modern period as it was relatively easy to produce and did not require large masses of iron for its manufacture." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "Scale armor, made from small plates of iron riveted to a backing, was common throughout eastern Europe until the seventeenth century but was rare elsewhere in Europe." [2] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [3] Illustrations show chainmail worn from to early 13th century to early 17th century. [4]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 67) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 72) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Nicolle 1989, Plates A-H) David Nicolle. 1989. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

General reference for medieval warfare: "From about 1340, the plates covering the chest were combined to form a rudimentary breastplate, which first covered only the upper chest area. ... By about 1370 the breastplate was extended downward by means of an attached skirt of hoops, a fauld, so that the whole torso was protected." [1] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century." [2]

[1]: (Smith 2010, 70) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Smith 2010, 73) Robert Douglas Smith. Armor, Body. Clifford J. Rogers. ed. 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Venetian ships. [1] "The size of the navy in peacetime was fixed in 1523 at 25 galleys, but it generally comprised no more than 24, of which 18 were commissioned in Venice and 6 in Crete and Cyprus. Cyprus had a small squadron of 2-4 galleys to protect its coasts and the commercial shipping, and a few other colonies, such as Cerigo and Zante, also had one or two galleys ... By the end of the 16th century the peacetime navy already numbered 33 galleys, four of which were manned in Crete." [2]

[1]: (Norwich 2003, 177) John Julius Norwich. 2003. A History of Venice. Penguin Books. London.

[2]: (Arbel 2014, 210) Benjamin Arbel. Venice’s Maritime Empire in the Early Modern Period. Eric Dursteler. ed. 2014. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. BRILL. Leiden.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

1310 CE after an insurrection "100 armed men in boats were deputed to patrol the lagoon and canals". [1]

[1]: (Norwich 2003, 197) John Julius Norwich. 2003. A History of Venice. Penguin Books. London.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.