Home Region:  Mexico (North America)

Oaxaca - Tierras Largas

EQ 2020  mx_tierras_largas / MxTieLa

The Tierras Largas phase refers to the period from 1400 to 1150 BCE. It was named for an archaeological site in the Etla subregion of the Valley of Oaxaca, Southern Mexico. [1]
Population and political organization
There is no evidence for a widespread unified polity during the Tierras Largas phase, and very little indication of social differentiation between or within communities. The period has therefore been characterized as one of egalitarian social organization, in which status could perhaps be achieved but not inherited. [2] The population, estimated at 500-1000, was dispersed throughout the valley with settlements clustered on the most fertile land in the Etla arm. [3] [4] [5] [6] Most of these settlements were small (between one and three hectares), except for San José Mogote, which was larger (seven hectares), had a defensive palisade and featured larger buildings that could have been used as public spaces. [7] However, there is no evidence that the influence of San José Mogote extended beyond the village to other settlements. [7] The ’type site’, Tierras Largas, covered around 1.6-2.2 ha and consisted of 5-10 households with nearby storage pits. [8] The inhabitants of the valley cultivated domestic crops and supplemented their diet by gathering wild fruits and hunting animals. More intensive forms of agriculture had not yet developed. [9]

[1]: (Hodges 1989, 26) Denise C. Hodges. 1989. Agricultural Intensification and Prehistoric Health in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Vol. 9. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

[2]: (Flannery and Marcus 2005, 6) Kent V. Flannery and Joyce Marcus. 2005. Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

[3]: (Marcus and Flannery 1996, 88) Joyce Marcus and Kent V. Flannery. 1996. Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. London: Thames and Hudson.

[4]: (Joyce 2009, 74-75) Arthur A. Joyce. 2009. Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Chatinos: Ancient Peoples of Southern Mexico. Malden, MA: Wiley‐Blackwell.

[5]: (Flannery and Marcus 2005, 7) Kent V. Flannery and Joyce Marcus. 2005. Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

[6]: (Feinman et al. 1985, 337) Gary M. Feinman, Stephen A. Kowalewski, Laura Finsten, Richard E. Blanton and Linda Nicholas. 1985. ’Long-term Demographic Change: A Perspective from the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico’. Journal of Field Archaeology 12 (3): 333-62.

[7]: (Joyce 2009, 74) Arthur A. Joyce. 2009. Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Chatinos: Ancient Peoples of Southern Mexico. Malden, MA: Wiley‐Blackwell.

[8]: (Marcus and Flannery 1996, 84) Joyce Marcus and Kent V. Flannery. 1996. Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. London: Thames and Hudson.

[9]: (Hodges 1989, 28) Denise C. Hodges. 1989. Agricultural Intensification and Prehistoric Health in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Vol. 9. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
14 Q  
Original Name:
Tierras Largas  
Capital:
none  
Alternative Name:
Early Prehistoric  
Early Formative  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,400 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]  
Duration:
[1,400 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Early Formative  
Succeeding Entity:
MxSanGu  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
3,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Archaic Period  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Proto-Otomanguean  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[71 to 340] people  
Polity Territory:
-  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
1  
Administrative Level:
1  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent  
Irrigation System:
absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
absent  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
absent  
Bridge:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred absent  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
inferred present  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
unknown  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Oaxaca - Tierras Largas (mx_tierras_largas) was in:
 (1400 BCE 1151 BCE)   Valley of Oaxaca
Home NGA: Valley of Oaxaca

General Variables
Identity and Location


The largest settlement was San José Mogote, but there is no evidence for a unified polity and so the settlement cannot be called a capital.



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,400 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]

The date range given here corresponds to the whole Tierras Largas phase as there was no discernible peak date.


Duration:
[1,400 BCE ➜ 1,150 BCE]

[1]

[1]: Feinman, G. M., et al. (1985). "Long-term demographic change: A perspective from the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 12(3): 333-362.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

This phase was characterised by a number of small settlements, with the exception of one larger site (San José Mogote) [1] .

[1]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 372.


Supracultural Entity:
Early Formative

The groups occupying the Valley of Oaxaca at this time were relatively simple, settled communities which shared a widespread ceramic complex (the Tierras Largas pottery). There are no distinct cultural differences across the region at this time and the supracultural entity has therefore been coded as the general phase name for sites of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p43



Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
3,000 km2

km squared. As there are no distinct cultural differences between the material culture of communities in the valley of this period, the area of the valley has been coded here.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

The main difference between this period and the preceding Archaic Period are the emergence of the Tierras Largas ceramic complex, an increase in the number of settlements and a larger settlement at San José Mogote. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p43



Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

This phase was characterised by a number of small settlements, with the exception of one larger site (San José Mogote) [1] . The Tierras Largas phase was a period of “egalitarian or “autonomous village” society, where status could be achieved but not inherited (as suggested by three burials of potentially higher status individuals at San José Mogote and Tierras Largas) [2] .

[1]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 372.

[2]: lannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p6


Language

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

There are no written records from this phase, but later evidence shows that people in the valley spoke Zapotec, possibly from the succeeding San José Mogote phase, and the Otomanguean language families may have split before the start of this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p4-7


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[71 to 340] people

Inhabitants. The actual extent of San José Mogote during this period cannot be determined because of later disturbance and the movement of materials from this period: “The Settlement Pattern Project estimates San José Mogote to have had between 71 and 186 persons... Our [Flannery and Marcus, 2005] estimates for the site of San José Mogote, based on excavation, would be 170-340 persons... There is no way to know, at present, whether either of those estimates is accurate.” [1] "Table 11.3. Population in the largest centers, by phase, in Oaxaca and Ejutla." [2] Valley of Oaxaca population (Largest center in Oaxaca): Tierras Largas: 327 (128). [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p7

[2]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 183) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1


Polity Territory:
-

Previously coded as 0.078 squared kilometers, based on the following reasoning: sources do not suggest there is evidence for a unified polity during this period, so the size of the largest settlement, San José Mogote, has been coded here. The settlement consists of nine proximate sites which together form a settlement cluster. [1] [2] [3]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11802

[2]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 372.

[3]: Feinman, G. M., et al. (1985). "Long-term demographic change: A perspective from the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 12(3): 333-362.


Polity Population:
-

people. Previously coded as [71-340] people, based on the following reasoning: As sources do not suggest there is evidence for a widespread unified polity during this period, the population estimate of the largest settlement (San José Mogote) has been coded here. [1] The population of the whole Valley of Oaxaca has been estimated at 463-935 people, who were mainly concentrated in the Etla arm (~52% of the population) [1] [2] "Table 11.3. Population in the largest centers, by phase, in Oaxaca and Ejutla." [3] Valley of Oaxaca population (Largest center in Oaxaca): Tierras Largas: 327 (128). [3]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p7

[2]: Feinman, G. M., et al. (1985). "Long-term demographic change: A perspective from the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 12(3): 337.

[3]: (Feinman and Nicholas 2013, 183) Gary M Feinman. Linda M Nicholas. 2013. Settlement Patterns of the Ejutla Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico: A Diachronic Macroscale Perspective. Fieldiana Anthropology, 43(1):1-330. 2013. Field Museum of Natural History. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3158/0071-4739-43.00.1


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1

level. Around 26 settlements were occupied during the Tierras Largas phase [1] . Most of these settlements were small villages or hamlets, except for San José Mogote which was larger and had public buildings and a defensive palisade, although sources do not suggest there is evidence that the influence of San Jose Mogote extended beyond the village to other villages.
1. Including both the largest village, San Jose Mogote, and smaller villages throughout the valley.
Large village: San José Mogote (estimated at 7.8ha in size), although it consisted of 9 loosely clustered residential areas. [2] [3] . The site included: nuclear family houses; subterranean storage pits (collectively 1,000kg maize per household); ritual “men’s houses”; and a palisade defense along western periphery consisting of a double line of posts, dated to 1300 BCE (which could have extended further but archaeological remains have been destroyed in other areas) [2] Small villages or hamlets (most were between 0.1-1.5 ha in size).
Smaller villages: The "type site" for this phase, Tierras Largas, covered around 1.58-2.24ha and consisted of 5-10 households with nearby storage pits. [4]

[1]: Kowalewski, S. A. and R. D. Drennan (1989). Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Regents of the University of Michigan, the Museum of Anthropology.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11802

[3]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p78

[4]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p84


Religious Level:
1

levels. Ritual “Men’s Houses” at San José Mogote suggest that some members of the community may have had ritual roles during this phase. [1] [2]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11802

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p48


Military Level:
1

levels. A degree of military organisation is suggested by the presence of a defensive palisade at San José Mogote, although sources do not suggest there is evidence for a permanent military. Raiding warfare on a small scale was common during this period. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11802


Administrative Level:
1

levels. One administrative level is inferred, as sources do not suggest there is evidence that one village exerted influence on another, and storage pits were located nearby individual households. [1] San José Mogote has evidence for subterranean storage facilities which could hold up to 1,000kg of maize per household, and ritual “Men’s Houses” [2] . The exact relationship between San José Mogote and the surrounding smaller villages in the Etla region is unknown.
1. Organisation was based at the village or household level in both the large and small villages.
Large village: San José Mogote (estimated at 7.8ha in size) [2] [3] . The site included: nuclear family houses; subterranean storage pits (collectively 1,000kg maize per household); ritual “men’s houses”; and a palisade defense along western periphery consisting of a double line of posts, dated to 1300 BCE (which could have extended further but archaeological remains have been destroyed in other areas) [2]
Small villages or hamlets: (most were between 0.1-1.5 ha in size). These sites did not have public buildings, with household storage pits. [4] [5]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p88

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11802

[3]: Blanton, R. E., et al. (1979). "Regional evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Field Archaeology 6(4): 369-390.

[4]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. p84

[5]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p43


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Warfare consisted of small-scale raiding during this period, and sources do not suggest there is evidence for professional military officers or soldiers. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Professional Priesthood:
absent

The best evidence for ritual activity are the ritual “Men’s Houses” at San José Mogote, but sources do not suggest there is evidence for a professional priesthood. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Warfare consisted of small-scale raiding during this period, and sources do not suggest there is evidence for professional military officers or soldiers. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

There were public buildings and evidence for group organisation (for construction of public buildings and defensive palisade at San José Mogote) but no evidence for governmental organisation. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p87-8

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Merit Promotion:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for a bureaucratic class at this time, much less a meritocratic one. [1]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p88


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

Although there must have been organised activity (e.g. to construct the public buildings and defensive palisade at San José Mogote) sources do not suggest there is evidence for full-time bureaucrats. [1]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p88


Examination System:
absent

No writing, and small size of polity enable us to infer that there was no examination system. sources do not suggest there is evidence for an examination system during this period, although status may have been gained by achievement throughout an individual’s lifetime. [1]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London, p88


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

Considering the small size of polities, full-time lawyers were probably absent. Coded as absent as sources do not suggest there were legal writings or buildings for legal proceedings. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Considering the small size of polities, full-time judges were probably absent. Coded as absent as sources do not suggest there were legal writings or buildings for legal proceedings. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There are no written records from this period. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Considering the small size of polities, specialised court buildings were probably absent. Coded as absent as sources do not suggest there were legal writings or buildings for legal proceedings. [1] [2]

[1]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.

[2]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

There is very little evidence to suggest the presence of any market system before the establishment of Monte Alban. [1]

[1]: Kowalewski, S. A. (1990) The evolution of complexity in the Valley of Oaxaca. Annual Review of Anthroplogy. Vol.19: 39-58. p48


Irrigation System:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence of either canal or pot irrigation in the Valley of Oaxaca before 1000 BCE. [1]

[1]: Kirkby (1973) The use of land and water resources in past and present Valley of Oaxaca. Muesum of Anthropology, Memoirs No.5. An Arbor, University of Michigan. p127


Food Storage Site:
absent

At San José Mogote there were subterranean storage pits which could store 1000kg of maize per household. [1] However, it is unlikely these were maintained by a state-like entity.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2003). "The origin of war: New C-14 dates from ancient Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(20): 11801-11805, p11802


Transport Infrastructure

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for a road system in this period. [1] Gary Feinman [2] told us that "Between sites there are known 16th century trails, which were likely used for a long, long time. [...] they likely were not paved, but there were no beasts of burden." However, we do not count paths and trails not constructed deliberately as roads.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.

[2]: Gary Feinman, personal communication to Peter Turchin and Jenny Reddish, March 2020.


The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Canal irrigation did not appear until the Monte Albán I period. [1]

[1]: Kirkby, A. (1973). "The use of land and water resources in past and present Valley of Oaxaca. Museum of Anthropology, Memoirs No. 5." Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.


Bridge:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for bridges in this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

Sources only describe residential sites. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Sacred Text:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Religious Literature:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Practical Literature:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Philosophy:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


History:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Fiction:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Calendar:
absent

The first written records in the Valley of Oaxaca are from the Rosario phase (700-500 BCE). [1] [2] Written records are therefore coded as absent for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York.

[2]: Marcus, J. and K. V. Flannery (1996). Zapotec civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley, Thames and Hudson London.


Information / Money

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Precious Metal:
absent

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Paper Currency:
absent

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Indigenous Coin:
absent

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Foreign Coin:
absent

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Article:
unknown

Although exchange of goods will have taken place, sources do not suggest that specific monetary items have been found dating to this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for a postal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


General Postal Service:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for a postal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Courier:
absent

Sources do not suggest there is evidence for a postal system during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

A defensive palisade was present at San José Mogote during this period, as shown by two rows of post holes. The length of the wall is not known due to later disturbance of the remains. [1]

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

The majority of settlements were located in fertile arable land during this period. [1]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Gunpowder not yet introduced.


The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Fortified Camp:
unknown

The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Earth Rampart:
unknown

The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102


Complex Fortification:
unknown

The fact that sources mention evidence for defensive palisades [1] but not evidence for any other kind of fortification suggests that there is only evidence for the former. Evidence for large or complex fortifications has not been found for this period.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1: The Household Archaeology, University of Michigan Museum, p102



Military use of Metals

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2] Moreover, Hassig lists steel weapons among the new military technologies the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century [3]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.

[3]: (Hassig 1992, 143) Hassig, Robert. 1992. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. London; Berkeley: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/F76EVNU3/itemKey/E9VHCKDG


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Projectiles


Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias. It is also worth noting that Spanish documents record the use of slings at the end of the Monte Alban V period. [2]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Self Bow:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias. It is also worth noting that Spanish documents record the use of bows and arrows at the end of the Monte Alban V period. [2]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Javelin:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.




Crossbow:
absent

Hassig lists crossbows among the new military technologies the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century [1]

[1]: (Hassig 1992, 143) Hassig, Robert. 1992. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. London; Berkeley: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/F76EVNU3/itemKey/E9VHCKDG


Composite Bow:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias. It is also worth noting that Spanish documents record the use of bows and arrows at the end of the Monte Alban V period. [2]

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.

[2]: Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People. New York. p217-8


Atlatl:
present

Present in the valley of Oaxaca since preceramic times (the Proto-Otomangueans) for hunting. [1] However, it does seem to be clear whether they were also used as weapons in warfare.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Spear:
present

Present in the valley of Oaxaca since preceramic times (the Proto-Otomangueans) for hunting. [1] However, it does seem to be clear whether they were also used as weapons in warfare.

[1]: Flannery, K. V. and J. Marcus (1983). "The Cloud People." New York, p36


Polearm:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Dagger:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Battle Axe:
unknown

Relative to this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, weapons made from wood and cloth have been documented for the later periods, so the absence of weapons other than the atlatl and spears in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Animals used in warfare

Hassig lists horses among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century [1]

[1]: (Hassig 1992, 143) Hassig, Robert. 1992. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. London; Berkeley: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/F76EVNU3/itemKey/E9VHCKDG


Elephant:
absent

Not native to region.


Not native to region.


Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century [1]

[1]: (Hassig 1992, 143) Hassig, Robert. 1992. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. London; Berkeley: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/F76EVNU3/itemKey/E9VHCKDG


Not native to region.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Shield:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Scaled Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Plate Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Limb Protection:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Leather Cloth:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Helmet:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Chainmail:
absent

Metalworking was not widely used in Mesoamerica, with metal products consisting mainly of small beads and ornaments. [1] [2]

[1]: Coe, M. D., Koontz, R. (2013) Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs (7th ed.) Thames and Hudson, London, p157

[2]: Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finten, L., Blanton, R. E., Nicholas, L. M. (1989) Monte Albán’s Hinterland, Part II: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlan, The Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, Volume II. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Number 23. Ann Arbor.


Breastplate:
unknown

Relative to military technology used in this period, sources only mention the atlatl and spears. [1] However, armour made from wood and cloth has been documented for the later periods, so its absence in the archaeological record may be due to preservation bias.

[1]: Marcus and Flannery (1996) Zapotec Civilization: How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Flannery and Marcus (1983) The Cloud People: divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Academic Press, New York.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

The Valley of Oaxaca is landlocked.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.