Home Region:  Southern South Asia (South Asia)

Mughal Empire

EQ 2020  in_mughal_emp / InMugl*

The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern world history. By the late 1600s, it covered most of the Indian subcontinent. The empire was founded by Babur (reigned 1526-1530 CE), who had invaded northern India from central Asia. He defeated the Delhi sultan at Panipat and occupied Delhi and Agra before moving on to Bengal. His grandson, Abu Akbar (’the Great’) consolidated Mughal rule in the north through a series of military campaigns, notable for their use of field artillery. Akbar was also a great administrator, establishing a system of salaried civil and military office holding, combined with efficient taxation. Revenue was collected on the basis of land assessments, administered by local tax farmers, and the system served to integrate both Hindu and Muslim elites into the state. This period saw a flourishing of Indo-Muslim culture, particularly in the fields of painting and architecture. Economically, India was the centre of mercantile activity within the Indian Ocean; its manufactured goods, especially cotton textiles, were in huge demand. The reign of Shah Jahan (1628-1658 CE) is seen as the high point of Mughal culture, represented above all by the construction of the Taj Mahal. His son Aurangzeb (reigned 1658-1707) was more aggressive military and eventually incorporated most of India into the empire, at least formally. The state was run on increasingly military lines and was more assertively Muslim. After Aurangzeb’s death the empire began to disintegrate, encouraged by infighting and corruption among elites. The Mughals had lost much of their territory and power by the mid-18th century. The Marathas, a dynasty of Hindu warriors, became the dominant force in India during the 1700s, followed by the British in the early 19th century. Delhi was taken by the armies of the East India Company in 1803, but the Mughals carried on as rulers of Delhi until 1857. Following the Indian Rebellion, the British exiled the last king, Bahadur Shah II, who had given the rebels his support. [1]
Population and political organization
The two main branches of the Mughal empire were dedicated to revenue and military affairs. The emperor, seen as a divinely inspired patriarch, supervised his revenue and military officials through frequent travelling, and curbed their political ambitions by transferring them frequently, requiring them to attend court regularly, and assigning them responsibilities that cross-cut those of other officials. [2]
At its peak, in the late 1600s, the Mughal Empire comprised between 100 and 150 million inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Richards 1995, 1-5) John F. Richards. 1995. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Blake 1979) Stephen Blake. 1979. ’The Patrimonial-Bureaucratic Empire of the Mughals’. The Journal of Asian Studies 39 (1): 77-94.

[3]: (Richards 1995, 1, 190) John F. Richards. 1995. The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 P  
Original Name:
Mughal Empire  
Capital:
Agra  
Fatehpur Sikri  
Agra  
Lahore  
Shahjahanabad  
Delhi  
Alternative Name:
Mogul Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,630 CE ➜ 1,707 CE]  
Duration:
[1,526 CE ➜ 1,858 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
Durrani Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Timurid Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Urdu  
Persian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
400,000 people  
Polity Territory:
[3,200,000 to 4,500,000] km2 1700 CE
Polity Population:
[110,000,000 to 150,000,000] people 1700 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent 1526 CE 1799 CE
inferred present 1800 CE 1858 CE
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Mughal Empire (in_mughal_emp) was in:
 (1526 CE 1687 CE)   Kachi Plain     Middle Ganga
 (1687 CE 1720 CE)   Kachi Plain     Middle Ganga     Deccan
 (1720 CE 1740 CE)   Kachi Plain     Middle Ganga
 (1740 CE 1803 CE)   Middle Ganga
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire ruled over the Kachi plain from 1605CE-1858CE [1]

[1]: Link


Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.

Capital:
Fatehpur Sikri

Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.

Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.

Capital:
Lahore

Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.

Capital:
Shahjahanabad

Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.

Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.
Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [1] [2] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals’ capital for the rest of the dynasty. [3]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), p.12.

[3]: Stein, Burton, A History of India (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998), p.176.



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,630 CE ➜ 1,707 CE]

Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra between 1632 CE-1648 CE and his reign saw the golden age of Mughal architecture. Aurangzeb reigned from 1658 CE to 1707 CE, during which time the territory, wealth and population of the empire grew. His reign also saw the zenith of Mughal cannon production. [1]

[1]: Fergus Nicoll, Shah Jahan: The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Emperor (2009)


Duration:
[1,526 CE ➜ 1,858 CE]

The Mughal Empire began with Babur’s victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat, and ended when it was supplanted by the British Raj. [1] [2]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), pp. 1-4


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

Independent polity. [1] [2]

[1]: Richards, John F. (March 18, 1993). Johnson, Gordon

[2]: Bayly, C. A., eds. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge history of India: 1.5. I. The Mughals and their Contemporaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1995), pp. 1-4


Succeeding Entity:
Durrani Empire

Core region was lost to Durrani? Empire but Mughal state still existed in the upper Ganges valley.



Preceding Entity:
Timurid Empire

Core region was Afghanistan


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

The Mughal empire had a centralized and imperialistic government; the emperor had unlimited freedom in making laws. Although he had a council of ministers he was not bound to consult them. The third Emperor, Abu Akbar, established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Taxes were imposed by, and transmitted to, the center (the emperor). [1]

[1]: C. Srinivasa Reddy, Mughal Historiography; review of Panjab in the Seventeenth Century by Chetan Singh, Social Scientist, Vol. 21, No. 1/2 (1993), pp. 105


Language

Persian was the official language of the empire, but Urdu became the language of the elite. Urdu uses an Arabic script derived from Persian. [1] [2]

[1]: A. Schimmel, The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture, ‎(2004) p. 259

[2]: Matthews, P. H. "Hindi-Urdu." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. : Oxford University Press, 2007.

Language:
Persian

Persian was the official language of the empire, but Urdu became the language of the elite. Urdu uses an Arabic script derived from Persian. [1] [2]

[1]: A. Schimmel, The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture, ‎(2004) p. 259

[2]: Matthews, P. H. "Hindi-Urdu." In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. : Oxford University Press, 2007.


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
400,000 people

Dehli. The Mughal rulers of India constantly toured the realm and maintained no fixed capital. Mid-seventeenth century Delhi is reputed to have had a population of about 400,000 but one European observer claimed most of it moved with the royal court, reducing its population to as little as 65,000. Another compared Mughal Delhi to a ‘camp’ rather than a city like Paris, and apparently there were so many trees that from a distance it looked like a wood. [1] [2]
[3] -- we have a reference but no number.

[1]: Ramesh Kumar Arora. Rajni Goyal. 1996. Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. Wishwa Prakashan. New Delhi. p.23

[2]: Abraham Eraly. 2007. The Mughal World: Life in India’s Last Golden Age. Penguin Books. New Delhi. p. 8

[3]: Hambly, G. (1982) Towns and Cities: The Mughal Empire in The Cambridge economic history of India Vol.1, c1200-c.1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.436.


Polity Territory:
[3,200,000 to 4,500,000] km2
1700 CE

squared kilometres. [3,200,000-4,500,000] [1]

[1]: Richards, (1993) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 190.


Polity Population:
[110,000,000 to 150,000,000] people
1700 CE

[110,000,000-150,000,000] [1] The reference refers to the year range 1650-1750 CE, which is turned into 1700 CE, so that it can be matched up with the population range.

[1]: Richards, (1993) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1, 190.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

Administration of parganas adjacent to cities inhabited by peasants lacking strong lineage organizations could be managed on a village by village basis.(81) Villagers carried agricultural products to sell at the nearest market or pargana town. (91) By the 1680s hundreds of prosperous market towns (qasbas) had proliferated in northern India. In each pargana the central town served as a principal market. Gradually, the networks of these trading towns and larger villages grew more dense. (194) Each provincial capital had a governor, responsible directly to the emperor. (59, 67) [1]
1. The capital
2. Provincial capitals3. Towns4. Villages

[1]: Richards, J. F. 1995. The Mughal Empire, Part 1. Volume 5. Cambridge University Press.


Religious Level:
1

Would be at least one level.
Din-e Ilahi, religion of the empire from 1582 CE to 1605 CE, had no priestly hierarchy or sacred scriptures. [1]
Islam (which both proceeded and succeeded Din-e Ilahi) similarly has no hierarchy, although there are Shaikh, Olama or Imam’s who are seen as spiritual teachers and leaders. [2]

[1]: Dr.Sunita Gupta, Children’s Knowledge Bank, Pustak Mahal.

[2]: Link


Military Level:
6

"Noteworthy was the decimal chain of command, the grouping of soldiers in tens, hundreds, and thousands, up to an army division of 10,000 men (Mongolian tümän, Pers. tūmān), which was to have an enduring impact on the military organization of succeeding eastern Islamic powers, being adopted by, e.g., the Mughals in India." [1]
Decimal: 1, 10s, 100s, 1000s, 10000s, Emperor = 6
1. Emperor
2. Bakhshi (Adjutant-General). Bakhshi-titles were given to those with administrative duties, the Adjutant-General commanded the army in the Emperor’s absence.3. Mir Bakhshi4. Other Bakhshi (such as Bakhshi-i-tan)5. Officer.Mansabdars were also chiefs and leaders, ranked based on the number of men they recruited, the mansab rank was further divided into zat and suwar, where zat referred to foot-soldiers and suwar to horsemen. [2]
6. Soldier.

[1]: (Bosworth 2011) Bosworth, C E. 2011. ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-ii

[2]: Shreya Acharya, Short Essay on the Mansabdari System of Akbar, Link


Administrative Level:
7

Delhi Sultanate which "had a powerful impact on small states and principalities that were formed after its disintegration as well as on the Mughal administration that would come into existence in the sixteenth century." [1]
needs more work on central government
1. Emperor
Furthermore, the Zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. [2]
_Central government_
2. WakilHighest administrative officer
3. Departments? inferred4.5.
_Provincial government_
3. Subahdar of several SarkarsA group of one or more villages constitutes a paragana, a few paragana a sarkar, and several sarkar’s (or ’shiqqs’) a subahdar. A wakil was the highest administrative officer. [3]
4. Sarkar of a few Paragana
5. Paragana of one or more villages
6. Muqqaddam (Village headman)Also of note are the Muqaddam and Patwari. The village head was a muqaddam - the sole link between government and village. Although not a government servant, he was responsible for maintaining law and order. Similarly a patwari, a record keeper, was not employed by the state but by the village community. [4] -- not a paid official but still took orders i.e. maintain law and order
7. Patwari (record keeper)
7. Employed by muqaddam to help maintain law and order inferred

[1]: (Ahmed 2011, 96) Ahmed, Farooqui Salma. 2011. A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India.

[2]: Barbara Daly Metcalf, Joint Committee on South Asia Moral conduct and authority: the place of adab in South Asian Islam, pp 269

[3]: Farīd Bhakkari, Shaikh Farid Bhakkari, Ziyaud-Din A. Desai, A Biographical Dictionary of Mughal Noblemen, (1993) p 107

[4]: Mughal Administration: Central, Provincial, and Local, p.22 Link


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

The Mughal Empire relied largely on the military force employed from the ’Indian military labor market’, which included the ’highly talented, movable warlords and their mounted following’ in India. [1] The skills of these soldiers ranged from the part-time peasant to the professional warlord or jamadar. [2]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500-1700 (2004), p.67

[2]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500-1700 (2004), p.68



Professional Military Officer:
present

Mansabdar was the generic term for the military-type grading of all imperial officials who governed the empire and commanded it’s armies in the emperor’s name. [1]

[1]: Richards, (1993) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 64


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The mint in Delhi. [1]

[1]: Dr. M. P. Singh, Towns, Markets, Mints & Ports in the Mughal Empire (2007)


Merit Promotion:
present

Persian was needed to enter the administrative service. Hindus learned Persian in school in order to qualify. [1] -- Hindus could gain employment within the Islamic administration

[1]: Asher, Catherine B., and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.140


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The army and revenue service to support it were run on bureaucratic lines. [1]

[1]: Richards, (1993) The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 59


Examination System:
present

Persian was needed to enter the administrative service. Hindus learned Persian in school in order to qualify. [1]

[1]: Asher, Catherine B., and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.140


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

"These men, who sometimes acted as lawyers, were known as wakils, but the term did not have the precise legal definition that it acquired during the British period. H. H. Wilson defined a wakil as, "A person invested with authority to act for another, an ambassador, a representative, an agent, an attorney." It is in this very general sense that the word was current in pre-British times; only on rare occasions do we find the term wakil used to describe someone who pleaded a case in a court of law.
"A wakil was, then, a representative, although not necessarily a legal representative. In general, his job was to negotiate with equals or superiors of his employer, in order to obtain a desired goal, such as trading privileges, a reduction of the revenue demand, a military alliance, or a favorable decision in a civil or criminal court of law. In many cases a wakil was also a gatherer of information. Thus, most important nobles, landholders, and foreign trading companies employed wakils whose job was to attend the court of the governor of the province in which they were situated (or perhaps even the emperor’s court) in order to collect information that might be useful, as well as to represent the interests of their employers when disputes between nobles arose, or when a favor from the governor was needed. [...] Most of the wakils described in historical accounts, then, were specialists in the arts of bargaining, negotiation, and pleading cases; but usually they did not work in law courts, and often they were not even concerned with legal matters. However, there were some wakils who were courtroom lawyers, although not as many as there were in contemporary Europe." [1]

[1]: (Calkins 1968, pp. 404-405)


e.g. the Quazi-ul-Quazat [chief justice] [1]

[1]: Link


Formal Legal Code:
present

In 1605 CE Jahangir issued 12 ordinances. It was not a comprehensive legal code but a well-meaning if also somewhat idiosyncratic set of rulings. These included the setting up of hospitals, a ban on the sale of alcohol, the release of prisoners, and a proclamation that Sunday was an auspicious day. Sharia law codes and the rulings of the ulemas were of fundamental importance to the Islamic dynasty but most of the native Indian customary law was respected. [1] [2]

[1]: N. Jayapalan. 2001. History of India. From 1206 to 1773. Volume II. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi. p. 158-159

[2]: Ramesh Kumar Arora. Rajni Goyal. 1996. Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. Wishwa Prakashan. New Delhi. p.22


At local and informal level. [1]

[1]: Link


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

The Palace and city built by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri had shops. [1]

[1]: Asher, Catherine B., and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.132.


Irrigation System:
present

used for gardens. [1]

[1]: M.Conan,D.Oaks,The Middle East Garden Traditions, Unity, and Diversity: Questions, Methods and Resources in a Multicultural Perspective (2007)


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

[1] Canals, dighi (cisterns), nahar (small channels), qanat (underground channels), dams, ponds, neighbourhood wells, and impressive baoli were built to capture and transport river and monsoon rains. Drinking water within a princely household was managed by the darogha-i abdar, the superintendent of drinking water. Aristocrats often took water from the Ganges river, which was thought to be especially pure and also ice. [2] [3] [4] [5]

[1]: M.Conan,D.Oaks,The Middle East Garden Traditions, Unity, and Diversity: Questions, Methods and Resources in a Multicultural Perspective (2007)

[2]: Mark Harvey. 2015. Drinking Water: A Socio-economic Analysis of Historical and Societal Variation. Routledge. Abingdon.

[3]: Munis D. Faruqui. 2012. The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p.278

[4]: Daljit Singh. 2004. Punjab Socio-Economic Condition (1501-1700 A.D.). Commonwealth Publishers.

[5]: James L Wescoat, Jr. Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn. 1996. Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Washington, D.C. pp. 73-74


Transport Infrastructure

e.g. the highway that ran from east to west India, restored by Sher Shah. [1]

[1]: A.K. Farooque, Roads and Communications in Mughal India, Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli (1977)


"With the conquest of Gujarāt, Bengāl, Orissa and Golkonda a number of ports lying in those provinces came into possession of the Mughals." [1]

[1]: Dr. M. P. Singh, Towns, Markets, Mints & Ports in the Mughal Empire (2007) p192.


Canals and water works were present, although irrigation systems were not common. [1]

[1]: Link


Bridge:
present

Bridges were constructed to allow faster transportation across land. [1]

[1]: Link


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit. [1]

[1]: Habibullah, A. B. M. (1961). The foundation of Muslim rule in India. Central Book Depot, pp 245.


Script:
present

Persian, Sanskrit. [1]

[1]: Habibullah, A. B. M. (1961). The foundation of Muslim rule in India. Central Book Depot, pp 245.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Persian, Sanskrit. [1]

[1]: Habibullah, A. B. M. (1961). The foundation of Muslim rule in India. Central Book Depot, pp 245.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit. [1]

[1]: Habibullah, A. B. M. (1961). The foundation of Muslim rule in India. Central Book Depot, pp 245.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences. [1]

[1]: Link


Sacred Text:
present

present: 1526-1582 CE; absent: 1582-1605 CE; present: 1605-1857 CE Quran for Islam, Din-e Ilahi has no sacred scriptures.


Religious Literature:
present

Commentaries used in teaching.



Philosophy:
present

Philosophical thought at this time was based on the deep philosophical tradition in India, [1] which was discussed and written down by the mentor of Mughal emperor Prince Dara Shikoh, Kavindracarya. [2]

[1]: Kulke, H. Rothermund, D. 2010. A History of India (5th ed.). London: Routledge, pp102-3.

[2]: Busch, A. 2010. Hidden in Plain View: Brajbhasha Poets at the Mughal Court. Modern Asian Studies, 44, pp 267-309. p292.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Measurements and data collection used in land revenue system. [1]

[1]: Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.128.


History:
present

e.g. the chronology of Akbar’s reign by Abu- al-Fazl [1]

[1]: Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.124.


Fiction:
present

The Dastan-i Amir Hamza [1]

[1]: Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.138.



Information / Money

Shell money in use. [1]

[1]: Jan Hogendorn, Marion Johnson, The Shell Money of the Slave Trade, p.42




Indigenous Coin:
present

Silver based money, the rupiya introduced by Sher Shah. [1] Sher Shah (c.1540) issued a pure silver coin called a rupya (rupee) with a weight of 178.25 grains. He issued gold coins, which were rare, as well as a copper coin called paisa and extended the issuing of this coinage on a uniform basis from all his 15 mints. This trimetallic system became permanent when it was adopted by Akbar with minor modifications. The Mughal rupee soon became the standard for which commodity prices, rates for exchange and for loans were quoted in. [2] Akbar sanctioned the following daily rates of wages: ordinary labourers 2 dams, superior labourers 2-4 dams, carpenters 3-7 dams and builders 5-7 dams. The dam was a copper coin a litter over 1 tola and 8 Masas in weight and 1/40 of the value of the silver rupiya in value. The purchasing power of an Akbari Rupiya was nearly 6 Indian Rupees in 1912. (82) The lowest servants were entitled to less than two rupees monthly (e.g. 65 dams for a sweeper, 60 for a camel-driver, etc.) while the bulk of the menials and the ordinary foot-soldiers began at less than three Rupees. Even slaves were entitled to one dam daily, equivalent to three-quarters of a rupee monthly in the currency of the time. (82) [3]
Cost of wheat equals 0.30 rupees per maund of 25.11kgs c.1595 CE in Lahore. (21, Table 3) In 1611, price of wheat in Surat (Gujarat) was 1.03 rupees per maund, rising to 6.37 in 1630 during famine. In 1631 at Broach (Gujarat) the price rose to 6.66 rupees per maund (25, Table 4). The prices of wheat in Agra were higher than Lahore by almost 20 percent. (31) Ordinary Labourer receives 1.50 rupees per month c.1595 (64) Lowest wage of a worker in the Imperial Establishment (domestic servant, peon, porter, etc) c.1613-89 in Agra was 3.00 rupee per month on average. The daily wages of an unskilled labourer more than doubled between c.1595 and 1637 from 2 dams to 6.5 paisas. In 1637 the monthly wages of unskilled labourers was 3.5 rupees. (69-70, Table 24) [4]

[1]: Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.121.

[2]: (455-57) Dani, A. S. and Masson, V. 2003. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO

[3]: Sircar, D. C. 2008. Studies in Indian Coins. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[4]: Haider, N. 2004. “Prices and Wages in India (1200-1800): Source Material, Historiography and New Directions.” Towards a Global History of Prices and Wages, Utrecht: 19-21 Aug. 2004.


Foreign Coin:
present

In use, although foreign coins were often remelted as Mughal coins, [1]

[1]: George Cuhaj, Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins, 2009, p.815



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Stations were positioned at regular intervals along roads to keep horses for the next leg of the journey. [1]

[1]: Chitra, Joshi. 2012. Dak Roads, Dak Runners, and the Reordering of Communication Networks.Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis. 57, pp. 169-189.


General Postal Service:
absent
1526 CE 1799 CE

The postal system was used mainly for military and economic purposes, but was expanded towards the end of the empire through British colonial influences. [1]

[1]: Chitra, Joshi. 2012. Dak Roads, Dak Runners, and the Reordering of Communication Networks.Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis. 57, pp. 169-189.

General Postal Service:
present
1800 CE 1858 CE

The postal system was used mainly for military and economic purposes, but was expanded towards the end of the empire through British colonial influences. [1]

[1]: Chitra, Joshi. 2012. Dak Roads, Dak Runners, and the Reordering of Communication Networks.Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis. 57, pp. 169-189.


Courier:
present

Runners and mounted couriers were used to transport information across the empire quickly, for military and economic purposes. [1]

[1]: Chitra, Joshi. 2012. Dak Roads, Dak Runners, and the Reordering of Communication Networks.Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis. 57, pp. 169-189.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

In the form of bound hedges. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 260-269.



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Typical fortification of town or city e.g. Delhi. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 260-269.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Castles on hills inherited from previous polities.



Port of Surat: the inner citadel was protected by a moat. [1] Ed: seems to be references to something called a khandaq - which could be either moat or a ditch or both.

[1]: Gommans, J. J. L. 2002. Mughal Warfare: Indian frontiers and high roads to Empire, 1500-1700. London: Routledge, p139.


Fortified Camp:
present

Used on campaign. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 260-269.


Earth Rampart:
present

Used in fortification of town or city. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 260-269.


Ditch:
present

Ed: seems to be references to something called a khandaq - which could be either moat or a ditch or both.


Complex Fortification:
present

Forts were present throughout the Mughal Empire, but mainly in new territories as ’safe points’ to extend from. An example of a complex fort is at the port of Surat. Here, Aurangezeb ordered for strong bulwarks to protect the outer part of the city, while the inner citadel was protected by a moat and 30-40 pieces of heavy artillery. [1]

[1]: Gommans, J. J. L. 2002. Mughal Warfare: Indian frontiers and high roads to Empire, 1500-1700. London: Routledge, p139.


Military use of Metals

Joshan steel breast plate. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),p. 566.


e.g Iron leg pieces. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 566.


Copper:
present

Armor included iron and copper mail (mighfar), and elephant armor could be made of high iron or brass plates. In addition, guns were made of bronze and brass. [1] [2]

[1]: Gommans, J. J. L. 2002. Mughal Warfare: Indian frontiers and high roads to Empire, 1500-1700. London: Routledge, p199, 125, 133.

[2]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 90-102


Bronze:
present

Armor included iron and copper mail (mighfar), and elephant armor could be made of high iron or brass plates. In addition, guns were made of bronze and brass. [1] [2]

[1]: Gommans, J. J. L. 2002. Mughal Warfare: Indian frontiers and high roads to Empire, 1500-1700. London: Routledge, p199, 125, 133.

[2]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 90-102


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"Aside from the massive cannon and mortars, a number of more old-fashioned weapons were also present at sieges. Catapults and trebuchets remained in Indian siege trains for decades after Babur’s invasion. A few distinct advantages saved them from immediate obsolescence. They were inexpensive and could be easily broken down for transport and assembled in the field. Like mortars they sent missiles on a high trajectory, ideal for indirect fire. They could also be loaded with ammunition too fragile to be fired from a cannon—gunpowder bombs and canisters of incendiary or caustic chemicals." [1]

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 123)


Sling Siege Engine:
present

"Aside from the massive cannon and mortars, a number of more old-fashioned weapons were also present at sieges. Catapults and trebuchets remained in Indian siege trains for decades after Babur’s invasion. A few distinct advantages saved them from immediate obsolescence. They were inexpensive and could be easily broken down for transport and assembled in the field. Like mortars they sent missiles on a high trajectory, ideal for indirect fire. They could also be loaded with ammunition too fragile to be fired from a cannon—gunpowder bombs and canisters of incendiary or caustic chemicals." [1] (KB: Added present code as trebuchet is sling siege engine according to codebook)

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 123)


"Heavy infantry often carried simple missile weapons like javelins, slings and the chakram, a razor-edged steel disc that resembled an oversized shuriken." [1]

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 145)


Self Bow:
present

Used by cavalry. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 90-102


Javelin:
present

"Heavy infantry often carried simple missile weapons like javelins, slings and the chakram, a razor-edged steel disc that resembled an oversized shuriken." [1]

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 145)


Handheld Firearm:
present

Mughal armies used muskets. [1]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002, p.158.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

e.g. used by Akbar during siege of Chittor. [1]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002, p.158.


Crossbow:
present

"Babur makes many references to individual foot soldiers armed with bows. He also discusses a weapon particularly suited to the infantryman—the crossbow. Crossbows were especially valuable during sieges because they were ideal for sniping. Unlike a conventional archer, a crossbowman could fire his weapon while lying prone and behind cover. He could also keep it cocked and at full draw while carefully lining up a shot or waiting for a target to emerge. Babur describes his own experience as a sniper, firing a crossbow from the ramparts of Samarqand while that city was under siege. Before muskets became commonplace, the Ottomans used janissary infantrymen as missile troops, arming them with crossbows or heavier, more powerful versions of the cavalry bow. Babur may have employed similar large formations of foot archers. Once firearms were adopted they became the ranged weapon of choice for his infantry, but the musketeers were still supported by large numbers of foot archers." [1]

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 58)


Composite Bow:
present

Composite Bows and Crossbows. [1] [2] [3]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002

[2]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 90-102

[3]: De la Garza, A. 2010. Mughals at War: Babur, Akbar and the Indian Military Revolution, 1500 - 1605. The Ohio State University. Unpublished PhD dissertation.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"More specialized troops like the shamsherbaz, or “gladiators,” however, wielded a variety of exotic weapons like two-handed swords, halberds and massive war clubs." [1]

[1]: (De la Garza 2010, p. 113)


"The common weapons in Mughal India were the sword, the bow and arrow, and the spear." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 293)


"The common weapons in Mughal India were the sword, the bow and arrow, and the spear." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 293)


Polearm:
present

"The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; ’mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger’, write Peleart." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 293)


Dagger:
present

"The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; ’mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger’, write Peleart." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 293)


Battle Axe:
present

"Says Tavernier about the weapons of the Golconda soldier: ’[...] Their cavalry carries bows and arrows, a buckler and a battle axe" [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 294)


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry used in Mughal armies. [1]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002, p.158.


Elephant:
present

As well as horse-cavalry, elephants also used. [1] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times." [2]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002, p.158.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.




As well as horse-cavalry, camels also used. [1]

[1]: J.J.L. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire 1500 1700. London: Routledge, 2002, p.158.


Armor

Shield:
present

"The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; ’mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger’, write Peleart." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2007, p. 294)



Plate Armor:
present

Chahar-a,inah - breastplate, backplate, connecting side pieces. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),p565.


Limb Protection:
present

Dastwdnah - gauntlet or arm piece. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp. 62-70


Leather Cloth:
present

Leather straps used to hold amour together. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),p. 565.



Helmet:
present

Steel headpieces with nose guards, or mail worn under them. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),p. 563.


Chainmail:
present

Jihlam coat of chain-mail. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),pp.568.


Breastplate:
present

Joshan steel breast plate. [1]

[1]: William Irvine, The army of the Indian Moghuls: its organization and administration (1903),p. 566.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Galleys were the main fighting vessel for Indian navies.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Used in the river systems of Bengal.




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.