Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

British Empire I

EQ 2020  gb_british_emp_1


The British Empire consisted of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by England (later as Britain after the Union Act of 1707).
The foundations of the Empire began in the early seventeenth century when England established overseas trading posts in North America, Africa, India, South Asia and the West Indies. By 1600 the East India Company had already established trading posts in India. In 1661 the first permanent British settlement was made on James Island on the Gambia River in Africa.
British American colonies were well established in New England, Virginia, and Maryland by 1670. After a series of wars with France and the Netherlands in the seventeenth century, Britain also acquired Quebec in 1759 and become the dominant colonial power in North America. Following the American War of Independence (1776-83) Britain lost its thirteen American colonies. Many loyalists from the US migrated to Canada, further growing the empire’s colonies there.
By 1757 Britain had also become the leading power in the Indian subcontinent, after the East India Company, under the colonial administrator, Robert Clive, defeated the Mughal Empire and overthrew the Nawabs.
By the 1840s Britain had acquired more settlements in Australia, and New Zealand became a British domain, while control was extended to islands in the Pacific Ocean such as Fiji, Tonga and Papua.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
30 N  
Original Name:
British Empire I  
Capital:
London  
Alternative Name:
British Empire  
First British Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,690 CE ➜ 1,849 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
British Empire II  
Preceding Entity:
Tudor and Stuart England  
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Protestant  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
80,000 people 1695 CE
575,000 people 1700 CE
675,000 people 1750 CE
1,050,000 people 1811 CE
1,873,676 people 1841 CE
Polity Territory:
283,634 km2 1811 CE
Polity Population:
5,470,000 people 1700 CE
61,157,433 people 1811 CE
Largest Communication Distance:
20776  
Hierarchical Complexity
Religious Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Source Of Support:
salary  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Utilitarian Public Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present  
Entertainment Building:
present  
Special Purpose House:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Special Purpose Site:
present  
Enclosure:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
inferred absent  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Fastest Individual Communication:
113  
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present  
Volume Measurement System:
present  
Time Measurement System:
present  
Length Measurement System:
present  
Geometrical Measurement System:
present  
Area Measurement System:
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range British Empire I (gb_british_emp_1) was in:
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
British Empire I


Alternative Name:
British Empire
Alternative Name:
First British Empire

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,690 CE ➜ 1,849 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
British Empire II

Preceding Entity:
Tudor and Stuart England

Language
Religion


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
80,000 people
1695 CE

Inhabitants.The largest settlement in the British Empire was the imperial capital of London, England. It was estimated to have around 80,000 people living there in 1695. In 1700 it had around 575,000 inhabitants, and 675,000 in 1750. [1] By 1811 it had more than doubled in population, recorded to have had around 1,050,000 inhabitants. [2] And towards the end of this polity period, in 1841, it had grown to 1,873,676 inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Porter 2000: 97-98) Porter, Roy. 2000. London: A Social History. London: Penguin UK. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BUIF7ZRL

[2]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 45) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[3]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 256. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
575,000 people
1700 CE

Inhabitants.The largest settlement in the British Empire was the imperial capital of London, England. It was estimated to have around 80,000 people living there in 1695. In 1700 it had around 575,000 inhabitants, and 675,000 in 1750. [1] By 1811 it had more than doubled in population, recorded to have had around 1,050,000 inhabitants. [2] And towards the end of this polity period, in 1841, it had grown to 1,873,676 inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Porter 2000: 97-98) Porter, Roy. 2000. London: A Social History. London: Penguin UK. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BUIF7ZRL

[2]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 45) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[3]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 256. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
675,000 people
1750 CE

Inhabitants.The largest settlement in the British Empire was the imperial capital of London, England. It was estimated to have around 80,000 people living there in 1695. In 1700 it had around 575,000 inhabitants, and 675,000 in 1750. [1] By 1811 it had more than doubled in population, recorded to have had around 1,050,000 inhabitants. [2] And towards the end of this polity period, in 1841, it had grown to 1,873,676 inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Porter 2000: 97-98) Porter, Roy. 2000. London: A Social History. London: Penguin UK. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BUIF7ZRL

[2]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 45) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[3]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 256. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,050,000 people
1811 CE

Inhabitants.The largest settlement in the British Empire was the imperial capital of London, England. It was estimated to have around 80,000 people living there in 1695. In 1700 it had around 575,000 inhabitants, and 675,000 in 1750. [1] By 1811 it had more than doubled in population, recorded to have had around 1,050,000 inhabitants. [2] And towards the end of this polity period, in 1841, it had grown to 1,873,676 inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Porter 2000: 97-98) Porter, Roy. 2000. London: A Social History. London: Penguin UK. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BUIF7ZRL

[2]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 45) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[3]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 256. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
1,873,676 people
1841 CE

Inhabitants.The largest settlement in the British Empire was the imperial capital of London, England. It was estimated to have around 80,000 people living there in 1695. In 1700 it had around 575,000 inhabitants, and 675,000 in 1750. [1] By 1811 it had more than doubled in population, recorded to have had around 1,050,000 inhabitants. [2] And towards the end of this polity period, in 1841, it had grown to 1,873,676 inhabitants. [3]

[1]: (Porter 2000: 97-98) Porter, Roy. 2000. London: A Social History. London: Penguin UK. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/BUIF7ZRL

[2]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 45) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[3]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 256. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL.


Polity Territory:
283,634 km2
1811 CE

in squared kilometers.A report from 1811 claimed there were 70,087,612 acres of cultivated land and ad infinitum of uncultivated lands. [1] During the reign of Queen Victoria the empire was expanded at an average of 100,000 square miles (c. 258, 998 squared kilometres) per year. [2]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 61) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

[2]: (Brendon 2008: 139) Brendon, Piers. 2008. Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781-1997. New York: Random House. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/ZFFJNZ6J


Polity Population:
5,470,000 people
1700 CE

The estimated populations of the British Isles and British colonies in the west was 5,470,000 in 1700. [1] The entire population of the British Empire was estimated to be over 61 million in 1811. [2]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 100. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ.

[2]: (Colquhoun 1811: 47) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ

Polity Population:
61,157,433 people
1811 CE

The estimated populations of the British Isles and British colonies in the west was 5,470,000 in 1700. [1] The entire population of the British Empire was estimated to be over 61 million in 1811. [2]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 100. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ.

[2]: (Colquhoun 1811: 47) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Largest Communication Distance:
20776

in kilometers. From 1840 the journey by sea from Plymouth, England to Wellington, New Zealand was 12,910 miles. [1]

[1]: (Porter 1999: 254) Porter, Andrew, ed. 1999. The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/GTF9V4CG


Hierarchical Complexity
Religious Level:
7

levels. The Anglican church had a hierarchy as follows: [1] : 1. The Monarch :: 2. Archbishops ::: 3. Bishops :::: 4. Archdeacon :::: 5. Priest ::::: 6. Chaplain :::::: 7. Ecclesiastical officials

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 30) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Soldiers were posted across the empire. [1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 274) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL



Professional Military Officer:
present

Military officers were posted across the empire. [1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 274) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL



Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Government buildings throughout the UK and all of the Empire’s territories.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Professional bureaucrats throughout the UK and all of the Empire’s territories.



Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

[1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 275) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL


Judge:
present

Judges were well established in England and then through the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 275) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL


Formal Legal Code:
present

English law applied throughout the UK and the British Empire. [1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 275) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL


Court:
present

The Court of Pleas for civil suits and the King or Queen’s bench for cases concerning revenue and some civil matters. [1]

[1]: (Chambers and Chambers 1847: 275) Chambers, Robert and Chambers, William. eds. 1847. History and Present State the British Empire. London: W.R.Chambers. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/K77JRGEL


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Markets were present all across England (later the UK) and expanded rapidly across the Empire. Local as well as colonial markets were providing goods from across the world. [1]

[1]: (Canny 1998: 145, 209) Canny, Nicholas. ed. 1998. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I The Origins of Empire, vol. 1, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RTDR3NCN


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation was already present in England and was developed throughout the Empire. [1]

[1]: ( Porter 1999: 351) Porter, Andrew, ed. 1999. The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/GTF9V4CG


Food Storage Site:
present

Settlements had granaries.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Settlements had wells.


Communal Building:
present

Places of worship, entertainment buildings, factories, warehouses, workplaces, knowledge buildings, shops, pubs and coffee-houses, government buildings etc.



Symbolic Building:
present

Churches, cathedrals, abbeys etc.


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present

Universities, schools, colleges, laboratories, archives, libraries etc. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 131) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Entertainment Building:
present

Theatres, gambling halls, coffee-houses, pubs.



Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

Present throughout the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 228-233) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Port:
present

Present throughout the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 228-233) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Canal:
present

Present throughout the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 228-233) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Bridge:
present

Present throughout the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 228-233) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Tin and coal mines in the UK. Precious metals and jewels in the Americas and Africa. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 130) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Trading Emporia:
present

British trading posts such as Gibraltar became famous for their emporiums and immense amounts of imports and exports that it traded across the Empire. [1]

[1]: ( Colquhoun 1811: 306) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ



Enclosure:
present

City walls, forts, animal enclosures, private land enclosures.


Ceremonial Site:
present

Places of worship. Churches, cathedrals, abbeys etc.


Burial Site:
present

Cemeteries.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Books, essays, manuscripts, court records, legal texts, poetry, pamphlets and newspapers, almanacs etc. [1] [2]

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 171, 283, 372-73) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U

[2]: (Marshall 2006: 231-244, 270-271) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

The English alphabet.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Royal seals, merchant seals, postal stamps. [1]

[1]: (Canny 1998: 419) Canny, Nicholas. ed. 1998. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I The Origins of Empire, vol. 1, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RTDR3NCN


Non Phonetic Writing:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

As the empire expanded, non-phonetic alphabets such as Hindi, Punjabi, Cantonese, Mandarin were introduced, though in no way adopted officially, however some ruling members of the colonies would encourage study of the local language. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 130, 243, 248, 525) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

The scientific revolution took place in Europe through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and with it came a surge of scientific literature particularly in astronomy, physics, medicine, botany and mathematics. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 170, 231-244) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Sacred Text:
present

The Bible.


Religious Literature:
present

Religious guidance and sermons were often published throughout the period. Most notably Sacheverell’s The Perils of False Brethren (1709). Issac Newton also wrote commentaries on the bible in the seventeenth century. [1] The Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, founded in 1698, circulated religious literature to the colonies and for at-home learning. [2] [3] Half the books published in the late seventeenth century were philosophical or religious. [4]

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 375) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U

[2]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 385) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U

[3]: (Marshall 2006: 130) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ

[4]: (Canny 1998: 100) Canny, Nicholas. ed. 1998. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I The Origins of Empire, vol. 1, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RTDR3NCN


Practical Literature:
present

Advice books for subjects such as agriculture and farming. Travel books. Military strategy. Architecture [1] [2]

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 372) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U

[2]: (Marshall 2006: 1170-2) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Philosophy:
present

The Philosophical Society was founded in 1683 and branches were created in the American colonies by the mid seventeenth-century, which produced texts and books. Natural philosophy could be studied at university level from the early eighteenth century. [1] Half the books published in the late seventeenth century were philosophical or religious. [2]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 240-42) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ

[2]: (Canny 1998: 100) Canny, Nicholas. ed. 1998. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I The Origins of Empire, vol. 1, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RTDR3NCN


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Natural history and classifications were popular from the beginning of the period. Directories. Government reports on the Empire, its people and lands. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 88, 170) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


History:
present

Histories of England and military and warfare history were particularly popular. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 170, 172) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Fiction:
present

Poetry, novels, plays. [1] [2]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 18, 523) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ

[2]: (Canny 1998: 100) Canny, Nicholas. ed. 1998. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I The Origins of Empire, vol. 1, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/RTDR3NCN


Calendar:
present

England/Britain used the Julian calendar until adopting the Gregorian calendar in the mid-eighteenth century. [1]

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: xvi) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U


Information / Money
Token:
absent

No mention of articles in the sources consulted thus far.


Precious Metal:
present

Gold had been used widely in the preceding polities for hundreds of years and began to be mined throughout the Empire, particularly the Americas and Africa. [1]

[1]: (Colquhoun 1811: 130) Colquhoun, Patrik. 1814. Treatise on the Wealth, Power and Resources of the British Empire in Every Quarter of the World Etc. Jos. Mawman. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3SNZA6FJ


Paper Currency:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

The Bank of England began issuing fixed denomination paper currency in the early eighteenth century and partially printed notes from 1725. [1]

[1]: ( Bank of England) Bank of England. ‘History’. https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/about/history. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/PYMZXS4N


Indigenous Coin:
present

British sterling.


Foreign Coin:
present

Territories across the empire had their own currency, e.g. Rupees in India.


Article:
absent

No mention of articles in the sources consulted thus far.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Banks. Personal cash and precious goods hoards in private homes.


Debt And Credit Structure:
present

The Bank of England was established in 1694. There were also an increasing number of commercial, mercantile and private creditors in the UK and across the Empire. [1]

[1]: (Marshall 2006: 62-63, 296, 384, 423, 432) Marshall, P. J. ed. 2006. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II The Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/HGG2PPQQ


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

The postal service in England began in 1660. [1]

[1]: ( Royal Mail) Royal Mail. ‘Our Story’. https://www.royalmailgroup.com/en/about-us/our-story. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QI4L8AA2


General Postal Service:
present

The postal service in England began in 1660. [1]

[1]: ( Royal Mail) Royal Mail. ‘Our Story’. https://www.royalmailgroup.com/en/about-us/our-story. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QI4L8AA2



Fastest Individual Communication:
113

days. In 1825 a steam assisted ship sailing from Falmouth to Calcutta (British Indian capital) took 113 days to make the one-way journey. [1]

[1]: (Porter 1999: 255) Porter, Andrew, ed. 1999. The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, 5 vols. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/GTF9V4CG


Information / Measurement System




Geometrical Measurement System:
present

From the seventeenth century gardens were increasingly laid out in geometric and symmetrical designs. In the eighteenth-century symmetrical buildings, houses and gardens was the most fashionable architectural style. [1]

[1]: (Bucholz et al 2013: 374, 376) Bucholz, Robert, Newton Key, and R.O. Bucholz. 2013. Early Modern England 1485-1714: A Narrative History. Chicester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1166775. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XQGJH96U




Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.