Home Region:  Polynesia (Oceania-Australia)

Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period

EQ 2020  us_kamehameha_k / USKameh

Hawai’i, also known as the Big Island, is the largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. Here, we consider the period of its history from 1778 to 1819. 1778 is the date of first European contact ‒ the arrival of Captain Cook ‒ while 1819 is the year of King Kamehameha I’s death. [1] [2] Kamehameha was a war chief and keeper of the war god Kūka’ilimoku who, in 1782, rose against King Kīwala’ō and managed to seize power over the Kohala and Kona districts of the Big Island. [3] Over the next three decades, Kamehameha waged several military campaigns, eventually unifying the entire archipelago (minus Kaua’i and Ni’ihau) in 1804. [4]
Population and political organization
In this period, Kamehameha I sat at the top of the political hierarchy. He was advised on secular affairs, including war, by the kālaimoku, who also oversaw the royal storehouses, while the kahuna nui was in charge of the king’s sacred duties and oversaw his temples and main gods. [5] Kamehameha did not introduce many changes to the traditional hierarchies, but he did appoint a number of governors to be his representatives on the other islands. [6] Each island was divided into districts under the control of high-ranking chiefs, the ali’i ’ai moku. These districts were in turn subdivided into territories ruled by lesser chiefs, the ali’i ’ai ahupua’a. Below this level, there were the konohiki, who were in charge of the small and largely self-sufficient ahupua’a territories. [7]
The population of the entire Hawaiian archipelago by Cook’s arrival was certainly very large, but there is a long-standing debate regarding exact numbers. Estimates range between 250,000 and 800,000. [8] The ’reasonably accurate’ first census of 1832 puts the archipelago’s population at around 130,000 people. However, we cannot project this figure backwards in time because the kanaka maoli (indigenous Hawaiian) population fell drastically after Europeans introduced diseases, such as smallpox, syphilis and measles, to which they had no immunity. [9] [8]

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 170, 174) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[2]: (Kirch 2000, 300) Patrick V. Kirch. 2000. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[3]: (Kirch 2010, 118-19) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[4]: (Kirch 2010, 116) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[5]: (Kirch 2010, 50, 57) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[6]: (Kuykendall 1938, 51) Ralph S. Kuykendall. 1938. The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854: Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.

[7]: (Kirch 2010, 48-49) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[8]: (Kirch 2010, 129-130) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[9]: (La Croix and Roumasset 1990, 835) Sumner J. La Croix and James Roumasset. 1990. ’The Evolution of Private Property in Nineteenth-Century Hawaii’. The Journal of Economic History 50 (4): 829-52.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
4 Q  
5 Q  
Original Name:
Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period  
Capital:
none  
Alternative Name:
Kamehameha's Kingdom  
Owyhee  
Owhyhee  
Sandwich Islands Kingdom  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,810 CE  
Duration:
[1,778 CE ➜ 1,819 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
nominal allegiance to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Kingdom of Hawaii - Post-Kamehameha Period  
Preceding Entity:
Hawaii III  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Austronesian  
Language:
Hawaiian  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[15,000 to 16,600] km2 1800 CE
Polity Population:
[60,000 to 180,000] people 1800 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Religious Level:
2  
Military Level:
[3 to 4]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
inferred absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period (us_kamehameha_k) was in:
 (1778 CE 1819 CE)   Big Island Hawaii
Home NGA: Big Island Hawaii

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period

Kingdom of Hawai’i


Until 1820, the king did not live in any particular place; he had several principal residences [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 73.



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,810 CE

By this time the polity included the entire archipelago; Kamehameha’s conquest was complete. Perhaps it peaked later, though, as Kamehameha consolidated his rule and increased his wealth.


Duration:
[1,778 CE ➜ 1,819 CE]

Justification for start date: Cook’s first arrival in the archipelago (1778 at Kauai - he did not visit the Big Island until 1779). Justification for end date: Kamehameha I dies, kapu system is abolished.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

Kamehameha I “ceded” the islands to Britain in 1810, and later wrote a letter in which he declared himself subject to the British king. [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 54.

Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

Kamehameha I “ceded” the islands to Britain in 1810, and later wrote a letter in which he declared himself subject to the British king. [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 54.


Supracultural Entity:
Kingdom of Hawaii - Post-Kamehameha Period


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

When Kamehameha I took power, “the government continued to be essentially a feudal autocracy. The king’s will was the supreme authority” [1] Taxes were transmitted to the center [2]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 51.

[2]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 54.


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[15,000 to 16,600] km2
1800 CE

in squared kilometers. 10,832: 1778 ce; 4,173: 1782 ce; 6,259: 1790 ce; 10,432: 1791 ce; 14,988: 1795 ce; 16,624:1810-1819ce. In 1778, Kalani’ōpu’u controlled all of Hawai’i Island, plus the Hana district of Maui (it is unclear exactly how much land the Hana district occupies, so I have estimated 400 square km [about a fifth of the island of Mau’i] and added that to the area of Hawai’i Island). In 1782, Kamehameha held Kona, Kohala, and some of Hamakua - I have estimated these holdings as 40% of the area of the island. He added Puna in 1790, making his holdings 60% of the island (my estimate). He added the rest of Hawai’i Island in 1791; Mau’i, Moloka’i, O’ahu, Lana’I, and Kaho’olawe in 1795; and Kaua’i and Ni’ihau in 1810, thus controlling the entire archipelago (excepting of course the very small, distant, uninhabited islands to the northwest which are technically part of the “Hawaiian Islands”).


Polity Population:
[60,000 to 180,000] people
1800 CE

By the time of Capt. Cook’s arrival there in 1779, Kalani’ōpu’u’s kingdom (the entire Big Island plus the Hana district of Maui) had at least 60,000 people, and possibly as many as 150,000 people [1] . Kirch (2010: 33) gives as a high figure 150,000 (based on estimates by Lt. King on Cook’s voyage), and a low of 120,000 based on Emory, in Schmitt (1968, Table 6) (This included the kingdom’s foothold in eastern Maui.) In 1778, the population of entire archipelago was 250,000 or more [2] , so the population of the entire archipelago at the time of Kamehameha’s unification in 1810 was probably somewhat less than this, given outbreaks of disease as well as a considerable number killed in the wars. Given a fairly credible estimate of 142,050 people in the entire archipelago in 1823 [3] , 180,000 is a reasonable estimate for 1810.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2000. On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands Before European Contact. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 248.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 286.

[3]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 336.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

1. Royal/chiefly centre
2. Dispersed households
"Hawai’i lacked anything approaching urban centers, and although there were substantial differences in population density corresponding to an uneven topographic distribution of soil and hydrologic resources (see discussion that follows), the general trend was of dispersed households, each occupying and farming its own adjacent plots. Moreover, while the commoners were sedentary on their lands, the ali’i were known to move about in relation to available food stocks. This peripatetic pattern of chiefly movement is well described, and underlies the metaphor of the chief as a “shark who travels on the land” (He manōholo ̒āina ke ali’i; Pukui 1983:87: Proverb 799). Nonetheless, there were distinct chiefly and royal centers, marked by concentrations of larger residences adjacent to temples of the main state cults of Kū and Lono. [...] Surrounding the king’s own extensive household compound were the residential courts of several principal ali’i and advisors, the houses of warriors, and the main Hale o Lono or temple to the god in whose name the annual tribute was collected. While this settlement plan has certain innovations reflecting Western contact (notably the gun drilling (p.51) field and the shipyard), in most respects it was probably typical of royal courtly centers in the late precontact era." [1]

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 50-51)


Religious Level:
2

Though there were many different types of ritual specialists in pre-contact Hawaii [1] , only one kind, the kahuna pule, was involved with state affairs. Other types include healing experts, sorcerers, and prophets [1] .
1. Kahuna nuiThe kahuna nui was the most important of the kahuna pule (see below), as he "carried the responsibilities for the king’s religious duties and looked after his temples and main gods." [1]
2. Kahuna pule"The priests who officiated at temples controlled by the king and major chiefs were the kahuna pule. These were subdivided into a number of specific orders or cults, especially those pertaining to Kū and Lono (mo’o Kū and mo’o Lono). These priests were drawn from high-ranking elite families, typically of papa rank (in which the person’s mother comes from one of the three highest ranks)." [1]

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 57)


Military Level:
[3 to 4]

There does not seem to have been a separate military hierarchy, so this estimate is based on a modified version of the administrative hierarchy, in which the kalaimoku is given greater weight because of his role as adviser in times of war.
1. Ali’i nui"At the apex of the polity sat the king, the ali’i nui or ’great ali’i,’ [...]. The al’i nui ruled over the entire mokupuni [island], assisted by various administrative aides." [1]
2. Kalaimoku"The kālaimoku was charged with advising the king on all secular affairs, including war. Among his chief duties was to oversee the royal storehouses ’in which to collect food, fish, tapa [barkcloth], malo [loincloths], pa-u [female skirts], and all sorts of goods’ (Malo 1951:195). Only the kālaimoku had the regular privilege of holding secret meetings with the king, and he controlled the access of other al’i to royal audiences." [2]
3. Governors inferred ???
3. Ali’i-’ai-moku"The districts (moku) into which the kingdom was divided were each under the control of a major chief of high rank, called the ali’i-’ai-moku. The operative term ’ai in this compound term has the core meaning of both ’food’ and ’eat’ but with metaphoric extensions connoting to ’consume,’ ’grasp,’ or ’hold onto’ (Pukui and Elbert 1986:9). Thus the figurative extension of ’ai includes ’to rule, reign, or enjoy the privileges and exercise the responsibilities of rule.’ The term ali’i-’ai-moku might thus be simply translated ’ruler of the moku,’ but as in many Hawaiian expressions there are layers of kaona, ’hidden meanings’, folded in. He is as well the chief who ’eats’ the district (recall the metaphor of the chief as land shark), and literally ’eats from’ its productions." [1]
4. Ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a"[T]he more numerous ahupua’a territories were apportioned to chiefs who were called the ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a, the chiefs who “ate” the ahupua’a. Low-ranked chiefs might hold just a single, marginal land unit, but more powerful and higher-ranked ali’i frequently held more than one ahupua’a." [1]

[1]: (Kirch 2010, 48)

[2]: (Kirch 2010, 50)


Administrative Level:
5

"We observe first that this great chieftain did not invent a new system of government. He simply utilized the system already existing, with only such modifications as were required by new conditions or suggested by his own experience. The government continued to be essentially a feudal autocracy." [1] "Kamehameha introduced one important new feature, made necessary by the uniting of all the islands into one kingdom. The king could be on only one island at a time; hence he appointed governors to be his special representatives on the other islands (except Kauai). They were in fact viceroys. It is probable that the governorship was at first only a temporary expedient and that it became a permanent institution because of the obvious necessity for such an office under the new conditions." [2]
1. Ali’i nui"At the apex of the polity sat the king, the ali’i nui or ’great ali’i,’ [...]. The al’i nui ruled over the entire mokupuni [island], assisted by various administrative aides." [3]
__Central administration__
2. Kalaimoku"The kālaimoku was charged with advising the king on all secular affairs, including war. Among his chief duties was to oversee the royal storehouses ’in which to collect food, fish, tapa [barkcloth], malo [loincloths], pa-u [female skirts], and all sorts of goods’ (Malo 1951:195). Only the kālaimoku had the regular privilege of holding secret meetings with the king, and he controlled the access of other al’i to royal audiences." [4]
2. Kahuna nuiThe kahuna nui "carried the responsibilities for the king’s religious duties and looked after his temples and main gods." [5]
__Provincial administration__
2. Governor"Kamehameha introduced one important new feature, made necessary by the uniting of all the islands into one kingdom. The king could be on only one island at a time; hence he appointed governors to be his special representatives on the other islands (except Kauai). They were in fact viceroys. It is probable that the governorship was at first only a temporary expedient and that it became a permanent institution because of the obvious necessity for such an office under the new conditions." [1]
3. Ali’i-’ai-moku"The districts (moku) into which the kingdom was divided were each under the control of a major chief of high rank, called the ali’i-’ai-moku. The operative term ’ai in this compound term has the core meaning of both ’food’ and ’eat’ but with metaphoric extensions connoting to ’consume,’ ’grasp,’ or ’hold onto’ (Pukui and Elbert 1986:9). Thus the figurative extension of ’ai includes ’to rule, reign, or enjoy the privileges and exercise the responsibilities of rule.’ The term ali’i-’ai-moku might thus be simply translated ’ruler of the moku,’ but as in many Hawaiian expressions there are layers of kaona, ’hidden meanings’, folded in. He is as well the chief who ’eats’ the district (recall the metaphor of the chief as land shark), and literally ’eats from’ its productions." [3]
4. Ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a"[T]he more numerous ahupua’a territories were apportioned to chiefs who were called the ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a, the chiefs who “ate” the ahupua’a. Low-ranked chiefs might hold just a single, marginal land unit, but more powerful and higher-ranked ali’i frequently held more than one ahupua’a." [3]
5. Konohiki"The three tiered hierarchy of land rulers, beginning with the ali’i nui who had the power to reallocate lands to the ali’i-’ai-moku and ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a under him, did not extend down below the level of the largely self-sufficient ahupua’a territories. Rather, the administration of the ahupua’a, including its various ̒ili subdivisions, was put into the hands of a konohiki, a resident “land manager” who acted on behalf of the ali’i-’ai-ahupua’a. Konohiki were, in fact, often lower-ranked members of the al’i class (such as kaukau ali’i), frequently junior collaterals of the ahupua’a chiefs themselves." [6]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 51)

[2]: (Kuykendall 1938, 53)

[3]: (Kirch 2010, 48)

[4]: (Kirch 2010, 50)

[5]: (Kirch 2010, 57)

[6]: (Kirch 2010, 49)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

There were full-time elite warriors [1] . Kalani’ōpu’u of the Big Island had a large standing army [2]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 71.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 75.


Professional Priesthood:
present

There were full-time priests [1] [2]

[1]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 14.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 57.


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Chiefs and stewards were the military officers [1] , so there does not appear to have been any specifically *military* officers.

[1]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 19.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

inferred from discussion of sources of development/introduction in later periods


Merit Promotion:
present

"The governors doubtless owed their appointment to their executive ability and their tested loyalty to the king rather than to chiefly rank." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 53)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

This is ambiguous. Stewards (konohiki) formed a “primitive bureaucracy” according to Sahlins [1] . There was also an “incipent bureaucracy” [2] composed of specialists in memorizing genealogies, traditions, and other information. This does not seem to be a fully fledged bureaucracy, but expert input is needed.

[1]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 16.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 75.

Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

This is ambiguous. Stewards (konohiki) formed a “primitive bureaucracy” according to Sahlins [1] . There was also an “incipent bureaucracy” [2] composed of specialists in memorizing genealogies, traditions, and other information. This does not seem to be a fully fledged bureaucracy, but expert input is needed.

[1]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 16.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 75.


Examination System:
absent

inferred from discussion of sources of development/introduction in later periods


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

inferred from discussion of sources of development/introduction in later periods


There were no specialized judges - stewards and chiefs adjudicated disputes such as conflicts over water rights [1] .

[1]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 19.


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There was a body of customary law governing rights to water, fishing, and land [1] . But there were no written records, so this legal code probably cannot be called ‘formal’.

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 10.


inferred from discussion of sources of development/introduction in later periods


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation infrastructure was extensive, including water-diversion walls for dryland agriculture [1] and pondfields for taro [2] . Irrigation was utilized in Kohala and Hāmākua valleys on the Big Island [3] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pp. 171-5.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 218.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 220.


Food Storage Site:
present

High status individuals (chiefs, etc.) had houses for the storage of provisions as part of their household clusters [1] . Food storage sheds were called hale papa’a. All scholars agree that these provisions were intended for redistribution, but it is unclear to whom. Sahlins [2] implies that the food was redistributed to the people, including commoners. But Kirch [3] states that the food was redistributed almost entirely to other chiefs, lesser chiefs, retainers, etc., with only token amounts, at most, going to commoners. He also states that food storage was difficult given the climate and kinds of crops that Hawaiians cultivated, so chiefs had to physically travel to different areas of their chiefdoms in order to exact tribute, rather than being able to store all of the tribute in a central location [4] . Meanwhile, Valeri states that none of the tribute was redistributed to the commoners [5] . Sahlins and Kirch seem to agree that chiefs would sometimes, or at least were expected to, provide food to commoners in the event of famine [6] [3] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 251.

[2]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pp. 17-8.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 260

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 261.

[5]: Valeri, Valerio 1985. Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and Society in Ancient Hawaii. (Translated by Paula Wissing.) Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 204.

[6]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 18.

Food Storage Site:
absent

High status individuals (chiefs, etc.) had houses for the storage of provisions as part of their household clusters [1] . Food storage sheds were called hale papa’a. All scholars agree that these provisions were intended for redistribution, but it is unclear to whom. Sahlins [2] implies that the food was redistributed to the people, including commoners. But Kirch [3] states that the food was redistributed almost entirely to other chiefs, lesser chiefs, retainers, etc., with only token amounts, at most, going to commoners. He also states that food storage was difficult given the climate and kinds of crops that Hawaiians cultivated, so chiefs had to physically travel to different areas of their chiefdoms in order to exact tribute, rather than being able to store all of the tribute in a central location [4] . Meanwhile, Valeri states that none of the tribute was redistributed to the commoners [5] . Sahlins and Kirch seem to agree that chiefs would sometimes, or at least were expected to, provide food to commoners in the event of famine [6] [3] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 251.

[2]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pp. 17-8.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 260

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 261.

[5]: Valeri, Valerio 1985. Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and Society in Ancient Hawaii. (Translated by Paula Wissing.) Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pg. 204.

[6]: Sahlins, Marshall 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. Pg. 18.



Transport Infrastructure

There were trails, and these could possibly be called “roads” because sections of them were made of stone for easier travel (e.g. over sharp igneous rock) [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 266.





Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Sacred Text:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Religious Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Practical Literature:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Philosophy:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


History:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Fiction:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Calendar:
absent

Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [1] .

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 102-118)


Information / Money
Token:
present

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1] Significant "wealth economy" in the form of precious feathered garments (cloaks, capes, helmets, lei) which was very important to the ruling elite (the ali’i). [2]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)

[2]: (Kirch 2016, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)


Paper Currency:
absent

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)


Foreign Coin:
absent

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)


Article:
present

"Taxes were not paid in money, but in the produce of the soil and in the various articles manufactured by the people, there being no native coinage and but very little foreign money in circulation." [1]

[1]: (Kuykendall 1938, 54)


Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

Chiefs had retainers who would carry messages quickly through the chiefdom [1] , but they do not appear to be full-time.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 266.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

"A wooden palisade was the case at Kamehameha I’s compound at Pakaka". [1]

[1]: P Christiaan Klieger. 1998. Moku’Ula: Maui’s Sacred Island. Bishop Museum Press.



Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Kirch [1] [2] states that Hawaiians had no true fortifications, only refuges where civilians could flee during wartime, and none of the refuges he describes include a substantial stone wall. [3] [4]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 213

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.

[3]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 167.

[4]: Kirch, P. V. 1984. The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 208-9, 215-6.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"defenders more commonly established a fortress site known as a pali (cliff) or pā kauau (war enclosure), a “natural or artificial fortress, where they leave their wives and children, and to which they fled if vanquished in the field.” One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches". [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pg 35-36.


Modern Fortification:
absent

[1] General: Hawaiians do not appear to have adopted any new *defensive* technologies as a result of early European contact [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.





Ditch:
present

"One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches" [1]

[1]: Hommon, Robert, J. 2013. The Ancient Hawaiian State: Origins of a Political Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pg 35-36.


Complex Fortification:
absent

[When there are more than one concentric ring of walls.]



Military use of Metals

[1] However, need to look into what metal military technologies they traded from Europeans.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1] However, need to look into what metal military technologies they traded from Europeans.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1] However, need to look into what metal military technologies they traded from Europeans.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


[1] However, need to look into what metal military technologies they traded from Europeans.

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Slings were used in warfare [1] [2] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 1985. Feathered Gods and Fishhooks: An Introduction to Hawaiian Archaeology and Prehistory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 273.


Self Bow:
absent

Bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


Javelin:
present

Thrown spears were used in warfare [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.


Handheld Firearm:
present

[E.g., muskets, pistols, and rifles] Various chiefs managed to purchase guns and ammunition from visiting Westerners [1] . European arms were in used by the army of Kamehameha [2] , who accumulated a large number of muskets ( [3]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 23.

[2]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 119.

[3]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 48.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

[For example, cannon, mortars.] Cannons were used in the naval battle of Kepūwaha’ula’ula [1] , as well as the defeat of the Maui forces at ‘Iao Valley. By 1802 Kamehameha had a large supply of cannons [2]

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 120.

[2]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 48.


Crossbow:
absent

[1] .

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Composite Bow:
absent

Bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war [1] .

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 70.



Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Elephant:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Hawaiians had dogs, but I have found no references to their use in war.


[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

This is possible, but I have found no references to it.


This is possible, but I have found no references to it.


Scaled Armor:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Plate Armor:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Limb Protection:
absent

This is possible, but I have found no references to it.


Leather Cloth:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Laminar Armor:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


This is possible, but I have found no references to it.


Chainmail:
absent

[1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Breastplate:
absent

This is possible, but I have found no references to it.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

[such as galleys and sailing ships] There were specialized war canoes [1] .
Fortifications

[1]: Kirch, P. V. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai’i. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pg. 71.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Native canoes, as well as small schooners bought from Westerners [1]

[1]: Kuykendall, Ralph S. 1968[1938]. The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1: 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pg. 95.




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.