Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Rum Sultanate

EQ 2020  tr_rum_sultanate / TrRum**

The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077-1307 CE) was probably founded by Suleman Qotlomos after a Turkmen tribe in Syria asked him to lead them. [1] The early years of the Sultanate are, however, extremely murky as it is unlikely that any local Muslim chronicles were written. [1]
It is likely that the government was a largely military arrangement. The regional apparatus was organised with military officials overseeing local tax collectors. The amirs were granted land by the Sultan in return for military service [2]
At his royal court a core of senior bureaucrats and scribes assisted with the central administration. [1] Land, and the right to collect revenue for it, was also distributed by the Sultan to senior officials. [1] These positions and the land grants often became hereditary. [1]
The early 13th century was probably the high point of the Sultanate of Rum [1] before Anatolia came under the authority of invading Mongols in the 1240s CE. [1] Konya was the largest city of the polity with 30,000-40,000 inhabitants. Crusaders who reached there in 1190 reckoned it was “the size of Cologne". [3]

[1]: (Peacock 2010) Andrew Peacock ’Saljuqs iii. Saljuqs of Rum. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii

[2]: (Fodor 2009, 197) Pal Fodor. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (Cahen 2001, 121) Claude Cahen. 2001. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 S  
Original Name:
Sultanate of Rum  
Capital:
Konya  
Alternative Name:
Bilad al-Rum  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,220 CE ➜ 1,237 CE]  
Duration:
[1,077 CE ➜ 1,307 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
nominal allegiance to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Islam  
Succeeding Entity:
Mongol Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation  
Preceding Entity:
Byzantine Empire III  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Turkish  
Persian  
Arabic  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[30,000 to 40,000] people  
Polity Territory:
[250,000 to 300,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[1,500,000 to 2,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
4  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
inferred absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred present  
  Iron:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent 1077 CE 1187 CE
unknown 1188 CE 1199 CE
inferred present 1200 CE 1299 CE
present 1300 CE 1307 CE
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Rum Sultanate (tr_rum_sultanate) was in:
 (1093 CE 1243 CE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location


Suleiman, one of the sons of Kutlumush, won control of Konya and turned it into the capital of the sultanate. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.72.


Alternative Name:
Bilad al-Rum

Known in Arabic as Bilad al-Rum or “Land of the Romans”. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.72.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,220 CE ➜ 1,237 CE]

"Medieval and modern sources agree that the reign of ʿEzz-al-Din Kaykāvus I’s brother ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Kayqobād I [1220 - 1237 CE] marks the apogee of the sultanate of the Saljuqs of Rum." [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Duration:
[1,077 CE ➜ 1,307 CE]

1077 - "The role of the Saljuq family in this confusing and poorly documented period is unclear. The first reliable evidence for the activities of Solaymān b. Qotlomoš, traditionally regarded as the founder of the Sultanate of Rum, indicates that because of the prestige of his Saljuq lineage he was called on in 1074 by some Turkmen of Syria to lead them" [1]
1307 - the last full year of the reing of the last Saljuq sultan Masʿud II. Although Anatolia had already been under Mongol authority since 1240s. [1]
"This first century of the Saljuq sultanate in Anatolia is the most obscure part of Saljuq history. Our understanding is inhibited by our lack of any local Muslim sources, so that we are mostly dependent on Christian sources in Syriac, Armenian, Latin, and above all Greek, as well as the occasional references in works by authors from the central Islamic lands, for whom Anatolia was an obscure frontier region. This poverty of information probably suggests that no local Muslim chronicles were written, for the historian Ebn-e Bibi (d. after 1285) remarked that it was impossible to find information about Anatolia before the reign of Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Kayḵosrow (Ebn-e Bibi, 1956, p. 11)." [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

’nominal allegiance’ to the Caliphate - and the Mongols from 1240s CE? or vassal state?

Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

’nominal allegiance’ to the Caliphate - and the Mongols from 1240s CE? or vassal state?


Supracultural Entity:
Islam

The Sultanate of Rum was part of the wider Medieval Islamic World, a primary religious supercultural entity, with artistic and symbolic elements as well.


Succeeding Entity:
Mongol Empire

The Mongols defeated the Sultanate’s army in 1243. From then on Anatolia was under Mongol, later Il-Khnate, authority to varying degrees. The Sultans carried on as a dynasty till Masʿud II. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation

Given the presence of the Turks in the region before the 1070s there was not large population change. However it was a clear end to Byzantine rule. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Preceding Entity:
Byzantine Empire III

In the period from 1030-1070 Byzantine officials were still in their posts in Eastern Anatolia, although the Turkish tribes were roaming "with more or less impunity, in search of plunder and pasture". [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

Language

Language:
Turkish

Turkish poetry and Turkish spoken, or more prominent from 13th century. The court culture was Perso-Islamic as scholars came from Persia to settle in Anatolia. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.72, 75.

Language:
Persian

Turkish poetry and Turkish spoken, or more prominent from 13th century. The court culture was Perso-Islamic as scholars came from Persia to settle in Anatolia. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.72, 75.

Language:
Arabic

Turkish poetry and Turkish spoken, or more prominent from 13th century. The court culture was Perso-Islamic as scholars came from Persia to settle in Anatolia. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.72, 75.



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[30,000 to 40,000] people

Konya probably the largest city. The crusaders who reached there in 1190 thought it was “the size of Cologne". [1]
The population of Cologne had about 40,000 in 1180 CE.

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.p.121.


Polity Territory:
[250,000 to 300,000] km2

Polity Population:
[1,500,000 to 2,000,000] people

5-6 million in Turkey-in-Asia at this time. [1] However, the polity covered only 40% of the land area and possibly not the most densely populated area because it was landlocked. 2,400,000 would be just above the upper limit for a range so perhaps 1.5-2 million.

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 135) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
1. Capital - Konya was also probably the largest city. [1]
2. Cities - Sivas, the second city. Also Antalya, Erzincan, Malatya which were all all important trading cities. [1] 3. Small cities/ towns - e.g. Erzurum, Amasya, Aksaray. [1] 4. villages. Rural life was arranged around villages. [2] Ibn Said “believed that in his time the Seljukid realm comprised 400, 000 villages, 36, 000 of which were in ruins. No doubt one would go too far either to accept these figures as valid, or to dismiss them as useless, since he did not make them up.” [3]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.121.

[2]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.78 .

[3]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. Pp.88-89


Religious Level:
4

levels.
1. Caliph.
2. Sultan. The title ’sultan’, "carried with it the notion of defender of the faith, but ... did not commit them to holy war". [1] 3. Jurists. The central concern of the madrasa was the study of law in this period. [2] 4. Imams

[1]: Michael Brett, ‘State Formation and Organisation’, in Maribel Fierro (ed.), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 2: The Western Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 562.

[2]: Muhammad Qasim Zaman, ‘Transmitters of Authority and Ideas across Cultural Boundaries, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 582-610.


Military Level:
6

levels.
Originally the Seljuks in Anatolia had been tribal warriors. After establishing the sultanate they adopted some of the military organisation of other Middle Eastern polities. By the mid 13th century their force consisted of: Turcoman tribes; “the elite of ghulam slave-soldiers (many of whom were freed on the completion of their military training); cavalrymen performing military service in return for lands or fiefs known as iqta; local mercenaries; Western European or ‘Frankish’ mercenaries; and assorted allied contingents” [1] The professional warriors were supported by a system of land grants "on whose revenues the warriors, their mounts and weapons could be supported." [2]
1. Sultan.
The Sultan appointed the military governors, tribal leaders owed allegiances to him in times of war. [1]
2. Sultan’s retinues.Seljuks, Ottomans and Mongols all had a version of ‘military retinue’ system, “a group of armed, mainly free men (the majority of them foreigners), who served on a voluntary basis and were attached personally to the leader. They were his closet companions, friends and servants; they commanded the troops in wars, while a select group of them served as his bodyguard." [3] They would have numbered a few thousand.
3, Subasibay or zaim- military governor of large city and commander of cavalry and fortress garrison. [4] As the state established itself, land was given to members of the retinue who then ruled it as regional governors. [3] The governors
ruled "a territorial unit called avilayet, or larger city, and was the commander (zaimu’l-cuyus) of the ikta-holder cavalry (sipahi) and the fortress garrisons (mustahfiz) under his authority.” [4]
4. Tribal leaders.They owed allegiances to the Sultan and would provide troops. [1]
5. Officers and cavalrymen.Professional warriors performing military service in return for land holding. [1] 6. Soldiers.Ghulam slave-soldiers and mercenaries employed during war. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). p.208

[2]: ‘Turks, Seljuk and Ottoman’, Holmes, Richard, ed., The Oxford companion to military history (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

[3]: Fodor, Pal. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.193.

[4]: Fodor, Pal. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.197.


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
In keeping with their tribal origins the Saljuqs of Rum did not have a bureaucratic apparatus to begin with. As they consolidated their power, they did develop one. A core of senior bureaucrats were based around the royal court, along with scribes. The rest of apparatus was organised regionally with regional officials overseeing local tax collectors.Land, and the right to collect revenue for it, was distributed to the senior officials. There positions and the land grants often became hereditary; certainly they were decided by the Sultan, rather than by an examination systems. [1]
1. Sultan
2. Court officials.A core of senior bureaucrats were based around the royal court, along with scribes. [1]
3.4.
_Provincial government_
2. Amirs.Administered regions. They were granted land by the Sultan, often in return for military service. [2]
3. Governors - of cities and towns. [3] 4. The ikdis or urban aristocracy who were like a police force or local militia. Later acting as tax collectors or sometime tax assessors. [4]

[1]: Andrew Peacock SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii

[2]: Fodor, Pal. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.197.

[3]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.114 .

[4]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.115 .


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

The ghulam slave soldiers. [1]
Both officers and soldiers were employed by the polity on a full time basis. [2]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). p.208

[2]: Fodor, Pal. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.193.


Professional Priesthood:
present

e.g. Imans. A full time Islamic priesthood worked in the mosques.


Professional Military Officer:
present

Senior soldiers within the sultan’s military retinue and the military governors. [1]
Both officers and soldiers were employed by the polity on a full time basis. [1] A full time Islamic priesthood worked in the mosques.

[1]: Fodor, Pal. “Ottoman Warfare, 1300-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.193.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

e.g. treasury [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.


Merit Promotion:
absent

The system was not meritocratic. Senior position often became hereditary. All positions were ultimately the appointed of the Sultan or the regional officials. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

e.g. court scribes. [1]
In keeping with their tribal origins the Saljuqs of Rum did not have a bureaucratic apparatus to begin with. As they consolidated their power, they did develop one. A core of senior bureaucrats were based around the royal court, along with scribes. The rest of apparatus was organised regionally with regional officials overseeing local tax collectors. Land, and the right to collect revenue for it, was distributed to the senior officials. There positions and the land grants often became hereditary; certainly they were decided by the Sultan, rather than by an examination systems. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Examination System:
absent

The system was not meritocratic. Senior position often became hereditary. All positions were ultimately the appointed of the Sultan or the regional officials. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Law

The qadi. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.p.114


Formal Legal Code:
present

Sharia law.


[1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001.p.114


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown

Markets in towns “of which there is no special knowledge. Fairs have sometimes been spoken of, but without obvious evidence” [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.95.


Transport Infrastructure

Roads "are best regarded as public works" and initially financed by the State.


Antalya and Sinope conquered and run by the Seljuqs in 1207 and 1214. [1]

[1]: Meyers, Eric M., ed., ‘Anatolia in the Islamic Period’, The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)


Bridge:
present

Bridges "are best regarded as public works" and initially financed by the State.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Iron mines and silver mines [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.89.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Examples include chronicles and legal documents such as the waqf. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.102-103.


Script:
present

e.g. Arabic, Persian. [1]

[1]: Yasar Ocak, Ahmet. “Social, Cultural and Intellectual Life, 1071 - 1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, 353-422. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.p.407.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Arabic, Persian


Nonwritten Record:
present

Examples include chronicles and legal documents such as the waqf. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.102-103.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Arabic, Persian


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Most books written in Anatolia during reign of Kayqubad I “were books and treatises relating to philosophy and natural sciences” [1]

[1]: Yasar Ocak, Ahmet. “Social, Cultural and Intellectual Life, 1071 - 1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, 353-422. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.p.420


Sacred Text:
present

The Qu’ran, the Hadith. [1]

[1]: Andrew Peacock ’SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saljuqs-iii


Religious Literature:
present

Futuwwa literature which “speaks almost wholly of initiation rites and theoretical moral and religious considerations” [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.118.



Philosophy:
present

Most books written in Anatolia during reign of Kayqubad I “were books and treatises relating to philosophy and natural sciences” [1]

[1]: Yasar Ocak, Ahmet. “Social, Cultural and Intellectual Life, 1071 - 1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, 353-422. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.p.420



History:
present

Chronicles e.g. that of Ibn Bibi. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.103.


Fiction:
present

Epic poetry e.g. the Battal-name & the Danismend-name. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.72.


Calendar:
present

Islamic calendar


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Silver and gold. [1] When they were a tribal people the Turks and the Seljuks would have accumulated coins through tribute and booty. As they settled down they began to mint their own coins under Sultan Masud I. These early coins were of copper and used in commerce. Silver began to be used under Kilic Arslan II, followed by gold in the 1200s. [2]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, Pp.95-96.

[2]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.97



Indigenous Coin:
present

Silver coins minted, "of a fineness superior to other Muslim coinages in the Levant". [1] When they were a tribal people the Turks and the Seljuks would have accumulated coins through tribute and booty. As they settled down they began to mint their own coins under Sultan Masud I. These early coins were of copper and used in commerce. Silver began to be used under Kilic Arslan II, followed by gold in the 1200s. [2]

[1]: Meyers, Eric M., ed., ‘Anatolia in the Islamic Period’, The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)

[2]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.97


Foreign Coin:
present

e.g. coins acquired through booty and tribute. [1] When they were a tribal people the Turks and the Seljuks would have accumulated coins through tribute and booty. As they settled down they began to mint their own coins under Sultan Masud I. These early coins were of copper and used in commerce. Silver began to be used under Kilic Arslan II, followed by gold in the 1200s. [2]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, Pp.95-96.

[2]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, p.97


Article:
present

Used in barter between merchants and nomads. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001, Pp.95-96.


Information / Postal System


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Konya had "a city-wall and a citadel” [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.121.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

"Lime-burners" are mentioned among the craftsmen who worked on the construction of the walls of Rumeli Hisar. [1] Konya had "a city-wall and a citadel” [2]

[1]: J. M. Rogers, Waqf and Patronage in Seljuk Anatolia: The Epigraphic Evidence Anatolian Studies, Vol. 26 (1976): 85.

[2]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.121.



Modern Fortification:
absent

Not developed until later in history.


References to Seljuks building moat fortification for a different region.



Earth Rampart:
present

The city of Sinop had ramparts. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.51.


References to Seljuks building ditch fortification for a different region.


Complex Fortification:
absent

All descriptions are of a single wall with towers around the city, with a citadel at the centre in some cases. [1]

[1]: Cahen, Claude. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. A History of the Near East. Harlow, England: Longman, 2001. P.121.



Military use of Metals

Used for the chainmail. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
unknown

Present for the Abbasids, Ayyubids and Fatimids. Unknown for the Seljuks.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent
1077 CE 1187 CE

First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
unknown
1188 CE 1199 CE

First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
present
1200 CE 1299 CE

First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
present
1300 CE 1307 CE

First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Present for the expert-checked Fatimid period but there is no explanatory text there to confirm whether they were used beyond the 10th century CE. We currently code unknown for Seljuks and the Second Abbasid Caliphate. Lack of data might indicate absence.


Self Bow:
present

Used by archers. [1]

[1]: ‘Turks, Seljuk and Ottoman’, Holmes, Richard, ed., The Oxford companion to military history (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).


Javelin:
present

Ghulams or mamluks had javelins. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.




Crossbow:
present

No data. Present for Saladin’s Ayybid Sultanate in Syria and Egypt c1200 CE [1] and also for our expert-checked Fatimid Caliphate which covers 1100 CE. Could be inferred present for this Islamic polity.

[1]: (Nicolle 2011) Nicolle, D. 2011. Saladin. Osprey Publishing.


Composite Bow:
present

Used by mounted archers. Range of over 300m. [1]

[1]: Başan, Aziz. The Great Seljuqs: A History. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2010, p.161


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Ghulams or mamluks had maces. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.


Ghulams or mamluks had swords. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.


Saljuq art shows cavalryman equipped with ’short spear’. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.211.


Polearm:
present

The arsenals of the Fatimid Caliphate contained pikes. [1]

[1]: (Hamblin 2005, 749) Shillington, K. ed. 2005. Encyclopedia of African History: A - G.. 1. Taylor & Francis.


Dagger:
present

Saljuq art shows soldiers equipped with daggers. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.211.


Battle Axe:
present

Saljuq art shows soldiers equipped with axes. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.211.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry was important part of the Seljuk armies. [1] The Turcomen tribal soldiers fought on horse back, wore leather-armour, using tactics such as “harassment horse archery” [2] Even when the Seljuks adopted new military organisation mounted archers remained central to their forces. The ghulam slave soldiers “fought and were equipped in much the same manner as the ghulams and mamluks” elsewhere in Middle east [2] At its best equipment was similar to that used in Iran "with perhaps some Byzantine or even Western European influence.” [2]

[1]: ‘Turks, Seljuk and Ottoman’, Holmes, Richard, ed., The Oxford companion to military history (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

[2]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.208


Elephant:
absent

The closest reference to elephants currently found are to soldiers who rode on elephants in military parades in the Ayyubid Sultanate. [1] No data for Seljuks, Fatimids or Abbasids. Highly likely to be absent on the basis alone that there were no elephants native to the region.

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 65-69 and in Raymond 2000, 38)


Donkey:
present

Donkeys were present in Rum. [1] May have been used within the armies baggage train, probably cheaper than a camel

[1]: (Cahen 2001, 209) Claude Cahen. P M Holt trans. 2001. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Routledge. London.



"The Turcomans of Central Asia made use of the two-humped Bactrian camel, which in the Iranian borderlands was often crossed with the female Arabian dromedary to give a more adaptable stock for varied climates. However, it must be borne in mind that neither the Bactrian nor the Arabian camel is a fighting animal. It may be a source of milk or hair, but its principal function is as a baggage carrier." [1] For baggage.

[1]: (Cahen 2001, 77) Claude Cahen. P M Holt trans. 2001. The Formation of Turkey: The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century. Routledge. London.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Presumably used for shields?


Shield:
present

[1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.221.



Plate Armor:
present

Even when the Seljuks adopted new military organisation mounted archers remained central to their forces. The ghulam slave soldiers “fought and were equipped in much the same manner as the ghulams and mamluks” elsewhere in Middle east. [1] At its best equipment was similar to that used in Iran "with perhaps some Byzantine or even Western European influence.” [1] General reference for this time period in Europe: cuirasses. [2]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.208

[2]: (Rogers 2007, 31) Clifford J Rogers. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Middle Ages. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing chain mail leg armour. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.212.


Leather Cloth:
present

The Turcomen tribal soldiers fought on horse back, wore leather-armour, using tactics such as “harassment horse archery”. [1] Even when the Seljuks adopted new military organisation mounted archers remained central to their forces. The ghulam slave soldiers “fought and were equipped in much the same manner as the ghulams and mamluks” elsewhere in Middle east. [1] At its best equipment was similar to that used in Iran "with perhaps some Byzantine or even Western European influence.” [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.208


Laminar Armor:
present

Saljug art shows a lamellar cuirass [torso armour] worn over a mail shirt. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.214.


Helmet:
present

Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing dommed helmets, some with neck coverings.. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. pp.212, 215.


Chainmail:
present

Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing mail shirts and mail leg armour. [1]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. pp.211,214.


Breastplate:
present

Even when the Seljuks adopted new military organisation mounted archers remained central to their forces. The ghulam slave soldiers “fought and were equipped in much the same manner as the ghulams and mamluks” elsewhere in Middle east. [1] At its best equipment was similar to that used in Iran "with perhaps some Byzantine or even Western European influence.” [1] General reference for this time period in Europe: cuirasses. [2]

[1]: Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Rev. and updated ed. London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999. p.208

[2]: (Rogers 2007, 31) Clifford J Rogers. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Middle Ages. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Their naval base and victories at sea imply the use of military vessels. [1] The Seljuks had a naval base at Sinope, making them a maritime force in the Black Sea. [1]

[1]: Chrysostomides, Julian. “The Byzantine Empire: Eleventh to Fifteenth Century.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. p.25





Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.