Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Byzantine Empire III

EQ 2020  tr_byzantine_emp_3 / TrByzM3

The Byzantine period (1073-1204 CE) began with Michael VII Ducas (r.1071-1078 CE [1] and ended in disintegration with court in-fighting over the regency agenda for Manuel’s heir Alexios II [2] , which preceded the devastating 1204 CE conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. [3] The state had controlled about 500,000 km2 territory and upwards of 6 million people.
In ideology the Byzantine Empire carried the Roman worldview of its rightful domain of influence. Byzantine Emperors "recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor" and "never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons." [4] The reality was that, although the state could maintain a professional army of over 100,000 soldiers, [5] increasingly the Byzantine state was dependent on allies for the the projection of military power. "Emperors from the time of Basil II found it cheaper to call upon allies and dependents, such as Venice, to supply warships, than to pay for an expensive standing fleet at Constantinople." [6]
Nevertheless the Byzantine government was, in terms of sophistication, with its legion of professional officials employed on state salary, a cut-above that which was present in the western states of the middle ages. [7] [5] The Emperor headed a complex imperial government that was led by a Mesazon (Prime minister) who had secretaries and an official called Master of Petitions who took feedback from the people. Provinces were governed by doukes (provincial governors) who had provincial administrations staffed with multiple levels of fiscal administrators. [8]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) H W Haussig. J M Hussey, trans. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Holmes 2008, 276) E Jeffreys. J Haldon. R Cormack. eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences

[4]: (Haussig 1971, 201) H W Haussig. J M Hussey, trans. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[5]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[6]: (Haldon 2008, 560) E Jeffreys. J Haldon. R Cormack. eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[7]: (Haussig 1971, 54) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[8]: (Haldon 2008, 550) E Jeffreys. J Haldon. R Cormack. eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 T  
Original Name:
Bzyantine Empire III  
Capital:
Constantinople  
Alternative Name:
Eastern Roman Empire  
Byzantium  
Empire of the Romans  
Basileia ton Rhomaion  
Middle Byzantine Empire III  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,180 CE  
Duration:
[1,073 CE ➜ 1,204 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Christianity  
Succeeding Entity:
Latin Empire  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[20,000,000 to 25,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Byzantine Empire II  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Greek  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Orthodox  
Religion:
Byzantine Orthodox  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[100,000 to 400,000] people  
Polity Territory:
1,115,000 km2 1080 CE
[400,000 to 750,000] km2 1090 CE 1150 CE
[480,000 to 600,000] km2 1200 CE
Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people 1100 CE
10,000,000 people 1150 CE
6,000,000 people 1150 CE
9,000,000 people 1200 CE
7,300,000 people 1200 CE
6,000,000 people 1200 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
7  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
8  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Byzantine Empire III (tr_byzantine_emp_3) was in:
 (1073 CE 1203 CE)   Crete
Home NGA: Crete

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Bzyantine Empire III

Common name.


Capital:
Constantinople

By 395 CE capital of Eastern Roman Empire. [1]

[1]: (Davidson 2011, 76) Davidson, P. 2011. Atlas of Empires. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. London.


Alternative Name:
Eastern Roman Empire

Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

Alternative Name:
Byzantium

Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

Alternative Name:
Empire of the Romans

Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

Alternative Name:
Basileia ton Rhomaion

Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).

Alternative Name:
Middle Byzantine Empire III

Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”).


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,180 CE

"The first acute period of disintegration in Constantinople occurred in the early 1180s as various court parties fought for control of Manuel’s young heir Alexios II." [1]

[1]: (Holmes 2008, 276) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Duration:
[1,073 CE ➜ 1,204 CE]

Michael VII Ducas (r.1071-1078 CE) - Isaac II Angelus (again) and Alexius IV Angelus (r.1203-1204 CE), Alexius V Murtzuphlus (r.1204 CE). [1]
1204 CE: "Conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, temporal collapse of the Empire" [2]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Alliance with Venice in 1082 CE. [1]
Alliance: "Emperors from the time of Basil II found it cheaper to call upon allies and dependents, such as Venice, to supply warships, than to pay for an expensive standing fleet at Constantinople." [2]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 560) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Supracultural Entity:
Christianity

"The Byzantine Empire recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor. It spoke of the archontes Boulgaron, the princes of the Bulgars, and the reges Francias, the kings of Francia. The Byzantine Empire never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons. ... It was only with the Arab rulers that there had long been some recognition of equality, and also with the Persian kings, which was reflected in the title of ’brother’ used in official documents." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 201) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.



Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[20,000,000 to 25,000,000] km2

km squared. To the East, Christianity extended not only into the Middle East, but also as far as Central Asia, India and China. Westernmost reach was Ireland. In Africa present as far south as Ethiopia. [1] Expansion to the north and west into Scandinavia and Russia in this period increased the total area under Christendom.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.



Preceding Entity:
Byzantine Empire II


Language

Language:
Greek

"In some of the central authorities Greek had established itself as the language of the chancery since the beginning of the fourth century, in contrast to the army, which retained Latin as the official military language until the beginning of the seventh century. Other imperial authorities, above all the ministry of justice, kept to the Latin language until the beginning of the seventh century." [1] Heraclius (r.610-641 CE) made Greek the official language. [2] ; "Greek (spoken by the population as first language in southern Balkans and most of Anatolia, as second language Empire-wide) and Latin (spoken by part of the population as first language in the remaining possessions in Italy), Languages of minorities, migrants and deportees: Syriac, Armenian (in some eastern provinces of Anatolia, also as languages of liturgy and sacred literature), Slavonic (Balkans, deportees to Anatolia)." [3]

[1]: (Haussing 1971) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Davidson 2011, 76-77) Davidson, P. 2011. Atlas of Empires. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. London.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[100,000 to 400,000] people

Inhabitants. Constantinople.
Everything between 100,000 and 400,000 possible. [1]
Preiser-Kapeller [2]
Constantinople 300,000: 1200 CE
Stathakopoulos [3]
Constantinople [300,000-400,000]: 1150 CE ("12th century")
Thessalonike 150,000: 1150 CE ("12th century")
Chase-Dunn [4]
Constantinople 200,000: 1100 CE; 200,000: 1150 CE; 150,000: 1200 CE
"250,000 in 1100 BC; 150,000 in 1200; 100,000 in 1300." [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[3]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[5]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)


Polity Territory:
1,115,000 km2
1080 CE

in squared kilometers
Chase-Dunn
743,000: 1080 CE; 500,000: 1100 CE; 540,000: 1120 CE; 580,000: 1140 CE; 600,000: 1150 CE; 580,000: 1160 CE; 540,000: 1180 CE; 500,000: 1200 CE; 350,000: 1204 CE [1] Estimates seem much too high for me, maybe relying on unrealistic assumption on the extent of Byzantine power in the Balkans etc. I have tried to circumscribe the Byzantine borders at a specific time for a specific region as exact as possible. [2]
Preiser-Kapeller [3]
400,000: 1090 CE - temporal loss of almost entire Anatolia to Turkish groups and of the control over parts of the Balkans to the Pechenegs; permanent loss of remaining possessions in Italy to Normans
670,000: 1150 CE - control over most of the Balkans south of the Danube, of Western Asia Minor and the coastal zones of Anatolia
490,000: 1200 CE - loss of control over Northern Balkans to newly emerging independent kingdoms and of parts of possessions in Anatolia, loss of Cyprus
"750,000 in 1100 CE; 600,000 in 1200 CE; 200,000 in 1300 CE." Calculated using a GIS software by Alessio Palmisano. [4]
"1,115,000 in 1050 CE, 480,000 in 1200 CE, 30,000 in 1400 CE." [5]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[4]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[5]: (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.)

Polity Territory:
[400,000 to 750,000] km2
1090 CE 1150 CE

in squared kilometers
Chase-Dunn
743,000: 1080 CE; 500,000: 1100 CE; 540,000: 1120 CE; 580,000: 1140 CE; 600,000: 1150 CE; 580,000: 1160 CE; 540,000: 1180 CE; 500,000: 1200 CE; 350,000: 1204 CE [1] Estimates seem much too high for me, maybe relying on unrealistic assumption on the extent of Byzantine power in the Balkans etc. I have tried to circumscribe the Byzantine borders at a specific time for a specific region as exact as possible. [2]
Preiser-Kapeller [3]
400,000: 1090 CE - temporal loss of almost entire Anatolia to Turkish groups and of the control over parts of the Balkans to the Pechenegs; permanent loss of remaining possessions in Italy to Normans
670,000: 1150 CE - control over most of the Balkans south of the Danube, of Western Asia Minor and the coastal zones of Anatolia
490,000: 1200 CE - loss of control over Northern Balkans to newly emerging independent kingdoms and of parts of possessions in Anatolia, loss of Cyprus
"750,000 in 1100 CE; 600,000 in 1200 CE; 200,000 in 1300 CE." Calculated using a GIS software by Alessio Palmisano. [4]
"1,115,000 in 1050 CE, 480,000 in 1200 CE, 30,000 in 1400 CE." [5]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[4]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[5]: (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.)

Polity Territory:
[480,000 to 600,000] km2
1200 CE

in squared kilometers
Chase-Dunn
743,000: 1080 CE; 500,000: 1100 CE; 540,000: 1120 CE; 580,000: 1140 CE; 600,000: 1150 CE; 580,000: 1160 CE; 540,000: 1180 CE; 500,000: 1200 CE; 350,000: 1204 CE [1] Estimates seem much too high for me, maybe relying on unrealistic assumption on the extent of Byzantine power in the Balkans etc. I have tried to circumscribe the Byzantine borders at a specific time for a specific region as exact as possible. [2]
Preiser-Kapeller [3]
400,000: 1090 CE - temporal loss of almost entire Anatolia to Turkish groups and of the control over parts of the Balkans to the Pechenegs; permanent loss of remaining possessions in Italy to Normans
670,000: 1150 CE - control over most of the Balkans south of the Danube, of Western Asia Minor and the coastal zones of Anatolia
490,000: 1200 CE - loss of control over Northern Balkans to newly emerging independent kingdoms and of parts of possessions in Anatolia, loss of Cyprus
"750,000 in 1100 CE; 600,000 in 1200 CE; 200,000 in 1300 CE." Calculated using a GIS software by Alessio Palmisano. [4]
"1,115,000 in 1050 CE, 480,000 in 1200 CE, 30,000 in 1400 CE." [5]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[4]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[5]: (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email.)


Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people
1100 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154

Polity Population:
10,000,000 people
1150 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154

Polity Population:
6,000,000 people
1150 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154

Polity Population:
9,000,000 people
1200 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154

Polity Population:
7,300,000 people
1200 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154

Polity Population:
6,000,000 people
1200 CE

People.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
6,000,000: 1090 CE
10,000,000: 1150 CE
7,300,000: 1200 CE
"... around 1025, although the empire occupied more or less the same amount of territory as in 750, it was more densely populated (at c.20 inhabitants per km2) and all in all more populous at roughly 18 million (between 10 and 18 million—Koder 1984/2001: 153; 19 million around 1025—Laiou 2002: 50-1; 18 million around 1050—Stein 1949-51:154)." [2]
"5m in 1100 CE; 9m in 1200 CE; 2 m in 1300 CE." [3]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [4]
1100 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1150 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
1200 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, coastal regions of Anatolia 3.5m?.
According to Stein, Byzantine Empire (1951) Mid-11th Century time of Michael VIII: 5m. [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 312) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Palmisano, Alessio. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[4]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

[5]: (Russell 1958) Russell, J C (1958) Late and Medieval Population. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol 48. No 3. pp. 1-152 citing Stein, E. 1949-1951. Introduction a l’histoire et aux institutions byzantines, Traditio 7: 154


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels.
1. Capital
2. Capital of a province3. City in a province4. Town in a province5. Chorion - village community.6. Agridia - Hamlet ?. Farmstead
"Unlike the West, it did not originate as an independent peasant community with common meadowland and distribution of arable land, but was a taxable unit whose boundaries were defined by the fisc. The Byzantine rural community was only an economic unit in so far as this served the purpose of taxation. Membership of the village community resulted from inscription on the tax list. It was this principle which determined other forms of peasant settlements, individual farmsteads and hamlets. In Byzantine rural economy the most important role was played by the typical village settlement in which the farmsteads formed a close nucleus round which the arable land of the peasants was grouped. The Byzantines called this kind of settlement a chorion. In addition there were also individual farms situated in the middle of an agricultural estate. These were called ktesidia and for purposes of taxation were linked with the nearest village settlement as a taxable unit. The so-called hamlets (agridia), consisting of a widely distributed group of houses and farms, were treated in the same way." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 174) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Religious Level:
7

1. Pope
Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs. [1]
1. Patriarch of Constantinople
"Patriarchs were elected by the standing synod in Constantinople, which presented three names to the emperor. He was entitled to choose one of these, or, if unable to accept any of the candidates, to choose the new patriarch himself." [2] Five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem).
2. Metropolitans and archbishops"the term ’bishop’ applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the ’ecumenical’ patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church." [2]
"The title ’archbishop’ emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan." [2]
3. Bishops and ChorepiskopoiBishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops [1]
"Chorepiskopoi (literally ’country bishops’) were assigned to rural communities and were subject to a bishop in a nearby city." [2]
"After the fourth century, the powers and functions of chorepiskopoi were gradually restricted and they were allowed only to ordain clerics of the lower orders. After the second Council of Nicaea (787) which prohibited them from ordaining even readers (anagnostai) without episcopal assent (canon 14), this separate episcopal rank began to disappear (Jugie 1904)." [2]
3. Priest"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned." [2]
4. Deacon"Deacon (diakonos, ’servant’)" [3]
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese’s finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople." [4]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)Become more and more rare, would be of equal rank as deacon. [1]
"The deaconess’s chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women." [4]
5. Subdeacon"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon." [5]
6. Reader (anagnostesj"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy." [5]
7. Minor orders"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes." [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cunningham 2008, 530) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Military Level:
9

levels.
Preiser-Kapeller [1]
1. Emperor
2. Domestikos of the Scholai3. Commanders of larger frontier commands (Dux, Katepanos)4. Strategoi of the themata5. Comanders of single units6. Commanders of subunits 1007. of 10 inferred by Ed8. of 5 inferred by Ed9. Soldier
Haldon
Court and administration c.1081-1204 CE [2]
1. Emperor
2. Megas doux (Supreme Naval Commander)3. Imperial fleet
2. Megas domestikos (east and west)3. Provincial tagmata
2. Household units (Military)
2. doukes (provincial governors)"By the end of the reign of Manuel I (1143-80), the restored themata of Asia Minor stretched from Trebizond on the south-eastern stretch of the Black Sea coast westwards through Paphlagonia and around the western edges of the central plateau down to Cilicia. The armies based in these regions were under doukes who usually held both military and civil authority; while the fortresses and towns were administered by imperial officers called prokathemenoi aided or supported by a kastrophylax, or ’fortress warden’." [3]
3. Provincial tagmata

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 550) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Haldon 2008, 557) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Administrative Level:
8

levels.
Court and administration c.1081-1204 CE [1]
1. Emperor
2. Megas doux (Supreme Naval Commander)3. Imperial fleet
2. Megas domestikos (east and west)3. Provincial tagmata
2. Household units (Military)
2. doukes (provincial governors)3. Provincial tagmata
3. Provincial administration
4. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
2. Mesazon (Prime Minister)3. mystikos (private secretary)
3. protasekretis
3. Master of the Inkwell
3. Privy purse
3. Master of Petitions
3. Imperial table
3. Imperial private wardrobe
3. Cellarer
3. logothete of the sekreta4. Megas logariastes of the charitable bureaux (imperial estates)5. orphanotrophos6. Head of a single orphanage inferred7. Worker in an orphanage inferred
5. Curators and stewards of other charitable estatesAfter the theme organization introduced "The curatores, the heads of the great estate zones, now paid this revenue [tax] direct to the imperial sacellum, the imperial treasury. Within the treasury, as in all financial departments of state, there were two departments, the sacellum for money payments and the vestiarium for payments in kind." [2]
4. Megas logariastes of the sekreta5. vestiarion
5. oikeiaka (public fiscal lands)6. episkepseis (public fiscal estates)
6. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
5. General treasury6. Provincial fiscal administrators - multiple levels
3. protostrator4. Imperial stables
3. chartoularios of the stables4. chartoularata (stock-raising estates)
3. logothete of the dromos4. chartoularata (stock-raising estates)
3. dikaiodotes
3. Prefect of Constantinople4. demes
4. Prisons
3. quaestor
3. Megas droungarios (court of the velon)
3. parathalassites (waterways and maritime law)
"This preponderance of civil officials became accentuated, and by the eleventh century the strategos had given way to the judge (krites) as the head of the thematic administration." [3]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 550) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 181) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Cheynet 2008, 522) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "Major military and fiscal reforms under the emperors of the Komnenian dynasty after 1081 re-established a properly paid and trained regular army." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 557) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Professional clergy. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 535) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Professional Military Officer:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "An officer’s pay was so high that even the lower commissions had large sums of gold at their disposal. They also had a very substantial share in war booty, which was theirs by law." [2] "As far as salaries went the military were generally better off than civil servants. Officers were exceedingly well paid. And an ordinary soldier also received more pay than an artisan could earn." [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 98) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Haussig 1971, 171) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Customs building. "The route by which oriental goods came is well known. All ships coming from Syria and Egypt had to go to Attaleia, the great harbour in south-west Asia Minor. Only then were they allowed to continue their journey to Constantinople. At Atteleia the customs officials came on board and entered against the list of goods the duty payable to the customs. The rate of duty was very high." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 172) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Merit Promotion:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]
"The officials brought into association with the central administration in this way were not only the members of certain privileged families. They were often men who had risen from lower social classes by reason of their own ability." [2]
"Provincials, the best example being Michael Attaleiates, benefited from social mobility based on talent at a time of the development of the schools of Constantinople." [3]
Women and men from humble origins could rise to positions of power [4] . Woman played "leading part in state affairs and society... political constitution did not exclude women from the throne" [5]
Nepotism (very widespread [6] )
"It often happened that certain particularly energetic civil servants through their unusual activity in the central departments gave their office far greater importance than really belonged to it. They took great care to ensure that the importance gained by this usurpation of the responsibilities of other departments was retained, and with this in mind they appointed suitable successors, colleagues or men drawn from their own circle of relatives." [2]
"The administration, in spite of the great services it rendered to the State, was honeycombed with vices. As places were sold, so were favours and justice. To make a fortune and gain advancement, merit was of less use than intrigue...". [7]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 182) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Cheynet 2008, 522) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Ambrose 2003, [1])

[5]: (Tanner, Previte-Orton, Brooke 1923, 757) Tanner, J, Previte-Orton, C, Brooke, Z eds. (1923) Charles Diehl, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Eastern Roman Empire 171-1453 [2]

[6]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[7]: (Tanner, Previte-Orton, Brooke 1923, 775) Tanner, J, Previte-Orton, C, Brooke, Z eds. (1923) Charles Diehl, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Eastern Roman Empire 171-1453 [3]


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "The council composed of professional officials was also preserved in the Byzantine state. This distinguishes it from the western states of the middle ages." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 54) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Examination System:
present

"Attempts towards such a system in 11th century, but still not as permanent or sophisticated as in China.". [1] "The allocation of chairs showed that the university as it existed in the first half of the fifth century, had sunk to the level of an institution for professional training. The universal nature of a real university had been lost since the days of the Alexandrines. Here young men now received the education necessary to equip them for the higher offices in the civil service." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 81) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]
"In the fourth century ... we find scarcely any professionals in the field of law. On the contrary, this century is known for its dramatic shortcomings in comparison with the previous Roman jurisprudence, while on the other hand the new Byzantine law schools did not arise before the end of the fifth century." [2]
"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Fögen 1994, 60) Fögen M T, in Laiou A E eds. 1994. Law and Society in Byzantium, 9th-12th Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks.

[3]: (Haussig 1971, 179) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]
"These schools were attended by practically everyone who wanted a public appointment. There were for instance the notaries. They began as legal copyists of documents (donations, wills) and deed of sale. After a lengthy private practice they would then get an appointment as judge in one of the provinces and then, after some years in office, with the help of influential friends would enter the imperial chancery." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 179) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Formal Legal Code:
present

"Codex Justinianus (in the form of simplified extracts esp. translation into Greek - "Basilika" - under Basil I and Leon VI at the end of the 9th century). [1] "Revision of canon law by Theodore Vestes (c.1090)." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


"Court of the Hippodrome", "Court of the Velum" very well documented - see the entry on "Judges" in the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, for instance. [1] [1]
"There is no text explaining in so many words what courts existed in Constantinople at any one time." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication.

[2]: (Macrides 1994, 60) Macrides R J, in Laiou A E eds. 1994. Law and Society in Byzantium, 9th-12th Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Eleventh century: "Emperors from the aristocratic magnate class give up a planned economy." [2] State-supplied food sent to markets (macella) which in Constantinople "were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [3] "The market-places (agorai) built in the early Byzantine period follow Roman models (e.g. the oval Forum erected by Constantine I in Constantinople, the circular agora of Justiniana Prima built by Justinian I), so much so that the Forum Tauri in Constantinople was laid out by Theodosios I in imitation of Trajan’s Forum in Rome." [4]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Hennessey 2008, 213) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Bakirtzis 2008, 374) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Irrigation System:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] According to Haussig (1971) "a highly developed use of land, particularly by means of irrigation, as in Egypt and Syria, was unknown to the Byzantine economy, where no progress had been made in working and cultivating the soil" [2] Territory of Egypt and Syria not held in this period. However Harvey (2008): "Landowners had the resources to make improvements to their properties, in particular the construction of irrigation systems, and to specialize in cash crops like vines and olives." [3] Vines and olives are typically grown in Greece and Turkey.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 175-176) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Harvey 2008, 634) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Food Storage Site:
present

Castella settlements on the lower Danube "had common granaries for corn". [1] Such as in Constantinople: "Two granaries near the Marmara, the Alexandrina and Theodosianum, stored some of the grain from Egypt, while some was held in three granaries to the north, near the Srategion and Prosphorion harbour." [2]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 92-93) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Hennessey 2008, 213) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Cisterns of St Mocius, Philoxenus and Illus (Yerebatansaray), Acqueduct of Valens in Constantinople. [2] "Over 150 covered cisterns and reservoirs survive of the complex water programme, the most impressive of which is the Basilica Cistern (Yerebatansaray) (Crow and Bayliss 2005)." [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 166) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Hennessey 2008, 213) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Transport Infrastructure

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Certain streets paved with marble or other stone. [2] Road building, repairing and administration. [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Bakirtzis 2008, 376) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Belke 2008, 295-308) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "Commerce in the city was dependent on the four major harbours: the Prosphorion and the Neorion (naval dockyard) on the Golden Horn, and two artificial harbours on the Marmara Coast, built by Julian and Theodosius I (Magdalino 2000). Both state-supplied food (annona) (bread, wine, and oil, distributed until the seventh century) and privately marketed food were distributed from the harbours to warehouses (horrea) and then to bakeries, shops, and markets (macella), which were normally located by the fora and the Strategion (M. Mango 2000)." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Hennessey 2008, 213) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Maintenance of existing canals. Need examples.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Bridge:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Bridges. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Belke 2008, 295-308) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

[1]

[1]: Johannes Preiser-Kapeller, pers. comm.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Legal texts, legislative documents, theological writings, chronicles and more. [2] Letters: "The total of extant letters may number somewhere around 15,000; there are upward of 150 major letter-collections dating between 300 and 1500." [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 21-29) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Mullett 2008, 885) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Script:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Nonwritten Record:
present

"Archaeological evidence provides us with insights into many key aspects of medieval life: dwellings, fortifications, diet, clothing, tools, and items of daily existence, as well as providing information on the production and distribution of luxury goods." [1] E.g. pictures and artefacts.

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 26) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Mnemonic Device:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Highly literate culture.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Sacred Text:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Bible.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Religious Literature:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Euthymius Zigabenus, Nicolas of Methone, Nicetas Acominatas. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Tanner, Previte-Orton, Brooke 1923, 766) Tanner, J, Previte-Orton, C, Brooke, Z eds. (1923) Charles Diehl, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Eastern Roman Empire 171-1453 [4]


Practical Literature:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] encyclopaedias such as agricultural manuals. [2] Military manuals such as Tactica by or for Leo VI(r.886-912 CE) - this particular work compiled 903 CE or 907 CE - which offered advice such as "it is easier and less costly to wear out a Frankish army by skirmishes, protracted operations in desolate districts, and the cutting off of its supplies, than to attempt to destroy it at a single blow." [3]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 176) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (O’Rourke 2010, 7-10) O’Rourke, M. 2010. The Land Forces of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the 10th Century. Canberra.


Philosophy:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] John Italus. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Tanner, Previte-Orton, Brooke 1923, 764) Tanner, J, Previte-Orton, C, Brooke, Z eds. (1923) Charles Diehl, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Eastern Roman Empire 171-1453 [6]


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] E.g. tax assessment known as the kataster, "a central tax list covering all the cultivatable land". [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 174) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


History:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Late eleventh century: "High officials as historians: Michael Attaleiates, John Scylitzes, The history of poor Leo, John Zonaras." [2] Anna Comnena 1143 CE "Alexiad", history of Nicephorus Bryennius, her dead husband soldier. [3] Nicephorus Bryennius, Anna Comnena, Cinnamus, Nicetas and Chroniclers Cedrenus and Zonarus. Acropolita, Pachymeres.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Curtis 1912, 106 [5])


Fiction:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Twelfth century: "Theodore Prodromus, representative of Byzantine satirists. Composes in vernacular and in the literary language." [2] Porikologos. [2] 1204 CE "First sagas of epic poetry in the vernacular: Digenis Akritas (first redaction of this epic), Bellhandros and Chrysantzas, Callimachus and Chrysorrhoe." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, Chronological Table) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Calendar:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Information / Money

"Within the Byzantine Empire, the billion trachy functioned as a virtual token or quasi-token coin. Its equivalence to the hyperpyron was legislated, and, in 1136, it was worth 1/48 of an hyperpyron, that is to say, one gold coin was worth 48 billion trachea or stamena. The intrinsic value of the billion trachy (based on its silver content) would have been much lower. It was, then, against this token coin that the denier and the mark were exchanged." [1]

[1]: (Laiou 2001, 172) Laiou A E, Mottahedeh R P. 2001. The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Dumbarton Oaks.


Precious Metal:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Paper Currency:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Indigenous Coin:
present

"the solidus, later known as the nomisma, was the standard gold coin introduced by Constantine the Great in 309, which was to retain its weight and fineness well into the tenth century." 72 solidi were struck to the Byzantine pound (litra). [1] Under Nicephorus II Botaneiates (1078-1081 CE) "Debasement of the Byzantine currency. Reduction of gold content of the solidus."

[1]: (Entwhistle 2002, 611) Entwhistle, C. in Laiou A E eds. 2002. The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century. Dumbarton Oaks. Washington D.C. and Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford. pp.38-46


Foreign Coin:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Article:
present

"The shift from payment in cash to payment in kind is also characteristic of further Byzantine development." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 100) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Imperial post. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 180) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


General Postal Service:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Courier:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (O’Rourke 2010, 8) O’Rourke, M. 2010. The Land Forces of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the 10th Century. Canberra.



Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Such as castella in Asia Minor used to defend "strategically important points". [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 95) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Modern Fortification:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Present. [1]

[1]: (Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication


Fortified Camp:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (O’Rourke 2010, 8) O’Rourke, M. 2010. The Land Forces of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the 10th Century. Canberra.


Earth Rampart:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


"Like their ancestors the antique Romans, the Byzantines dug camp every night, surrounding it with a ditch and palisade." [1]

[1]: (O’Rourke 2010, 8) O’Rourke, M. 2010. The Land Forces of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the 10th Century. Canberra.



Military use of Metals

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Byzantines imported steel swords from the Baltic and the forest peoples of Russia. [2] "The timber and beaches of Chalybia could always provide it, but villages in less fortunate areas may hardly have qualified for the Iron Age. On the other hand the armouries of Constantinople itself were capable of producing numbers of complex bronze, iron and steel weapons at short notice - for example for the Cretan expedition of 949." [3] Al-Kindi (801-870 CE) in a letter to the Caliph of Baghdad mentions that "swords may be made out of shaburqan by Rus, Slavs & Byzantines". Shaburqan meant ’hard iron.’ Al-Kindi also said the Byzantines and others also made narmahan (’soft iron’). [4]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Cunliffe 2015, 378) Barry W Cunliffe. 2015. Steppe, Desert, and Ocean: The Birth of Eurasia. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Bryer 1988, 41) Anthony Bryer. 1988. Peoples and settlement in Anatolia nad the Caucasus: 800-1900. Variorum Publishing.

[4]: (Williams 2012, 27-29) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Varangian guard wore iron helmets.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Bronze:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Counter weight trebuchet almost certainly to have been used by the sieges of Zevgminom 1165 CE and Nicaea 1184 CE. The Byzantine Empire used two types of this trebuchet: bricola (gravity powered, single pole) and tresle-framed, or trebuchet. Helepoleis used at seige Laodicea 1104 CE, at Mylos, Aretai, Durazzo, Kastoria, Apollonias Dristra, Chios, Abydos. Alexios I possibly helped invent the helepolis and counter-weight trebuchet. [1] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [2]

[1]: (Chevedden 2000, 75-82 [ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291833])

[2]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Javelin:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Late Byzantine (not this period) small and made little impact on events. [1] "The so-called “Greek fire” was a kind of flame-thrower first deployed on ships against the Arab fleet during the siege of Constantinople 674/678 CE (reportedly introduced by an architect named Kallinikos who had flead from Syria to the capital); later on, we also have reports about the usage of this weapon on land (at sieges) and in a smaller version as handheld arm." [2]

[1]: (Bartusis 1997, 334-336) Bartusis, M (1997) The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453, University of Pennsylvania Press

[2]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1] Bombards, first mentioned at 1393 CE. Early 15th century, arquebus. Not much evidence heavy firearms under Byzantine control. Probably occurred albeit a rare event. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Bartusis 1997, 334-340) Bartusis, M (1997) The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453, University of Pennsylvania Press


Crossbow:
present

There are different definitions of a crossbow. Present on one definition. [1] "Whether Byzantine soldiers also used the hand-held crossbow, some evidence for which exists from the late Roman period (as opposed to the much larger frame- or swivel-mounted weapon used as field or siege-artillery, which certainly did continue in use), seems doubtful." [2] Preiser-Kapeller says present. [3]

[1]: (Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Composite Bow:
present

Hunnic bow. [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Iron mace. [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


sword called spathion. [1] Varangian guard carried a sword.

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


"Byzantine heavy cavalry were armed more after the fashion of westerners where it could be afforded" [1] Present. [2]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication


Polearm:
present

Present. [1]

[1]: (Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Personal Communication



Battle Axe:
present

Varangian guard carried an axe.


Animals used in warfare

"Byzantine heavy cavalry were armed more after the fashion of westerners where it could be afforded" [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Elephant:
absent

Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] if pack animals code is absent

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Preiser-Kapeller says absent. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] if pack animals code is absent

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Shield:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Varangian guard carried a round shield.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Scaled Armor:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Plate Armor:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present with a ?. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Limb Protection:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Varangian guard wore limb protection on arms and legs.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Leather Cloth:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear" [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear" [2] Varangian guard wore a lamellar cuirrass.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Helmet:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Varangian guard wore an iron helmet.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Chainmail:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] "light cavalry and infantry continued to be armed, like their Seljuk or Saracen enemies, with the traditional combination of lamellar corselets or mail, quilted fabrics or boiled leather, felt and cotton headgear" [2] Varangian guard wore a mail hauberk.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 477) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1] Great martime power with an imperial fleet, until 13th Century. [2]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)

[2]: (Tanner, Previte-Orton, Brooke 1923, 741-742) Tanner, J, Previte-Orton, C, Brooke, Z eds. (1923) Charles Diehl, The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Eastern Roman Empire 171-1453 [7]


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

Preiser-Kapeller says present. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015) Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences)



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.