Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  tr_konya_eba / TrBrzER

Preceding:
5500 BCE 3000 BCE Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic (tr_konya_lca)    [population migration]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Early Bronze Age period in Anatolia is complicated and complex topic. This period begins with controversy, because the transition from Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age is not clear. Some scholars argue that beginning of Early Bronze age should be dated to around 3000 BCE.

This is clearly visible at the monumental graves, known as Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük site. These tombs yielded over 700 items that we can grouped into 12 typological categories. A multiplicity of materials were used in those grave goods - from metals (copper, bronze, silver, gold, electrum, iron, lead, haematite), stones (carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, lapis lazuli), frit, faience, pottery, to bone and textiles. The most spectacular findings were anthropomorphic figurines, which were made by the combination more than one metal in a single object. In these Royal Tombs we can find also remains of ceremonial funerary feasts. Some animals were slaughtered, the oxen being the most common.
Many sites of this period were well fortified. Proof of wooden palisades and stone walls was found in Karataş-Semayük, and just stone walls in for example Taurus and Demircihöyük. At Alişar Hüyük, complex fortifications were excavated - a well constructed stronghold wall, and 10 meters of fortification on the terrace. One of these walls was set behind the other, and onto it rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed. A lot of handheld weapons were also found in Central Anatolia Plateau, for example: swords, daggers, pikes, halberds, spears, battle axes and warclubs. At the Demircihöyük and Karataş-Semayük sites, there were extramural Early Bronze Age cemeteries - altogether there were about 900 pithoi burials, and the majority of bodies was facing Southeast.
The pottery of Anatolian Early Bronze Age was distinctive by red monochrome wares. In terms of animal remains, it can be concluded that Sheep and goats were most dominant (at Acemhöyük), representing 63-68 percent of the faunal remains, followed by cattle and pigs.


Wood or rather wooden planks were used in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük. "The burials consisted of a rectangular pit roofed with wooden planks." [1]
Flint/Obsidian present [2] [1]
Building stone present Building stone was used e.g. in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük. "The lower parts of these shafts consisted of rectangular stone-lined pits in wchich a single person was normally buried" [3] "The most numerous examples of the megaron plan are found in the Early Bronze Age village at Karataş (Troy I-II period), where stone foundations of over thirty such structures have been uncovered in recent excavations." [4]
Copper present E.g. grave goods [3]
Tin/Arsenic present Kestel [5] "The Kestel-Göltepe complex is vast. The mine itself comprises a network of eight galleries, extending in various directions. Some 4500 cubic meters of ore were extracted, often through precariously narrow tunnels, using fire and large ground stone hammers to shatter the ore. Even if the ore mined in antiquity were low grade, containing only 1 % of tin like some the nodules found in the excavations, the size of the galleries point to the produciotn of some 115 tons of tin." [6]
Iron present E.g. grave goods [3] . Iron Dagger [7]
Material to make ornaments gold, silver, carnelian, jade, rock crystal "In terms of jewellery, we should note the ability of the craftsmen to combine gold and silver with precious stones (carnelian, jade, and rock crystal), a technique especially favored for pins, and at the same time the conspicious absence of filigree and granulation." [8]
Lead present Most of all as grave goods [9]
Agropastoral with pastoral dominating Sheep and goats were the dominant component of the animal economy at Acemhöyük III and II, representing 63-68 percent of the faunal remains, followed by cattle and pigs. This is similar to the situation observed at contemporary sites on the central plateau including Kaman Kalehhöyük, Küultepe, and Çadır Höyük. [10]
Iron present Pieces of iron object found in Tomb L in Alacahöyük [11] .
Metals present [12]
Raw materials present Melian Obsidian in Beycesultan [2]
Pottery present Trojan depas vessel, two-handled tankards, wheelmade plain plates and bowls [13]
Coppersmith present [14]
Pottery present [15]
Butcher present [16]

[1]: Sagona A. and P. Zimanksy, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214.

[2]: Knitter D. "Concepts of Centrality and Models of Exchange in Prehistoric Western Anatolia" In: "Landscape Archaeology. Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Berlin, 6th - 8th June 2012", p. 363.

[3]: Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 291.

[4]: Warner J., "The Megaron and Apsidal House in Early Bronze Age Western Anatolia: New Evidence from Karataş", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1979), p. 138.

[5]: Yener K. A., "An Early Bronze Age Tin Production Site at Göltepe, Turkey.", In: "The Oriental Institute News and Notes", Vol. 140 (1994)

[6]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 200-2001.

[7]: Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies.", Cambridge 2011, p. 292.

[8]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 208-209.

[9]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, pp. 214-217

[10]: Arbuckle B., "Pastoralism, Provisioning, and Power at Bronze Age Acemhöyük, Turkey", In: "American Anthropologist", Vol. 114 (2012), Issue 3, p. 466.

[11]: Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.

[12]: Efe T., "The Theories of the ’Great Caravan Route’ between Cilicia and Troy: The Early Bronze Age III Period in Inland Western Anatolia" In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West inthe Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 49

[13]: Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10

[14]: Yakar T., "Regional and Local Schools of Metalwork in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Part I", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 34 (1984), p. 75.

[15]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.

[16]: Arbuckle B., "Pastoralism, Provisioning, and Power at Bronze Age Acemhöyük, Turkey", In: "American Anthropologist", Vol. 114 (2012), Issue 3, p. 468.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 S  
Original Name:
Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age  
Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Alternative Name:
Fruhe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien  
Debut de l age du bronze en Anatolie centrale  
Orta Anadolu da Erken Tunc Cagi  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,000 BCE ➜ 2,000 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Middle Bronze Age  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
population migration  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic (tr_konya_lca)    [population migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
Proto-Indo-European language  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Military Level:
[2 to 3]  
Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]  
Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred absent  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age (tr_konya_eba) was in:
 (3000 BCE 2001 BCE)   Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age

Capital:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

unknown


Alternative Name:
Fruhe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien

Frühe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien; Début de I’âge du bronze en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu’da Erken Tunç Çağı ... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Debut de l age du bronze en Anatolie centrale

Frühe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien; Début de I’âge du bronze en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu’da Erken Tunç Çağı ... this is not machine readable.

Alternative Name:
Orta Anadolu da Erken Tunc Cagi

Frühe Bronzezeit in Zentralanatolien; Début de I’âge du bronze en Anatolie centrale; Orta Anadolu’da Erken Tunç Çağı ... this is not machine readable.


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,000 BCE ➜ 2,000 BCE]

Early Bronze I (EB I) 3000 - 2700/2600 B.C.E.
Early Bronze II (EB II) 2700/2600 - 2300 B.C.E.
Early Bronze III (EB III) 2300 - 2000 B.C.E.
The beginning date of this period is very controversial, because the transition from the end of Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I period is far from clear. Early Bronze Age III period sees extensive changes which were great foundations for Anatolia’s first empire [1] .

[1]: Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]

unknown


Succeeding Entity:
Konya Plain - Middle Bronze Age

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Determining the geographic frontiers of Central Anatolia is also problematic. The frontiers are not only linked to climate and topography, but also to the location of sites. Pontic Mountains can be considered the South border, and similarly, the Taurus Mountains were in the South frontier. The Eastern boundary is the easiest to define: it is a straight line between modern Malatya and Trabzon. Western border is formed by crucial sites like Beycesultan, Demircihöyük, Karataş-Semayük. During Early Bronze Age, some Indo-European nations arrived on this land - this happened around 2300 BCE. Most of the Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia saw massive and violent destruction and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period.

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
population migration

Determining the geographic frontiers of Central Anatolia is also problematic. The frontiers are not only linked to climate and topography, but also to the location of sites. Pontic Mountains can be considered the South border, and similarly, the Taurus Mountains were in the South frontier. The Eastern boundary is the easiest to define: it is a straight line between modern Malatya and Trabzon. Western border is formed by crucial sites like Beycesultan, Demircihöyük, Karataş-Semayük. During Early Bronze Age, some Indo-European nations arrived on this land - this happened around 2300 BCE. Most of the Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia saw massive and violent destruction and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period.


Preceding Entity:
Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic [tr_konya_lca] ---> Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age [tr_konya_eba]

Determining the geographic frontiers of Central Anatolia is also problematic. The frontiers are not only linked to climate and topography, but also to the location of sites. Pontic Mountains can be considered the South border, and similarly, the Taurus Mountains were in the South frontier. The Eastern boundary is the easiest to define: it is a straight line between modern Malatya and Trabzon. Western border is formed by crucial sites like Beycesultan, Demircihöyük, Karataş-Semayük. During Early Bronze Age, some Indo-European nations arrived on this land - this happened around 2300 BCE. Most of the Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia saw massive and violent destruction and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period.


Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Language:
Proto-Indo-European language

Some scholars suggest that populations speaking the proto-languages of what would later be Luwian/Hittite/Palaic entered and settled in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. Others suggest that Indo-European languages arrived in Anatolia some time during the Chalcolitic to Early Bronze Age periods. The final argument implies that Anatolia was actually part of the original Proto-Indo-European-speaking homeland. Both indigenous and Indo-European languages existed side by side on that plateau from earliest times. [1]

[1]: Ancient Anatolia, 10,000-323 B.C.E, S.R. Steadman, G.McMahon, Oxford University Press, 2011. Chapter 10


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

During the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia, many societies developed into more sophisticated urban communities. This is a time when proto-city-states emerged, and the density of population was growing.


Military Level:
[2 to 3]

1. Ruler
2.3. Individual soldier
Many sites of this period were well fortified. Proof of wooden palisades and stone walls was found in Karataş-Semayük, and just stone walls in for example Taurus and Demircihöyük. At Alişar Hüyük, complex fortifications were excavated - a well constructed stronghold wall, and 10 meters of fortification on the terrace. One of these walls was set behind the other, and onto it rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed. A lot of handheld weapons were also found in Central Anatolia Plateau, for example: swords, daggers, pikes, halberds, spears, battle axes and warclubs.


Administrative Level:
[2 to 3]

During the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia, many societies developed into more sophisticated urban communities. This is a time when proto-city-states emerged, and the density of population was growing.
1. Ruler of proto-city state
The development of metallurgy and the long distance trade networks generated a new elites culture.
2.3.


Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Megaron in Karataş - Semayük [1] A large, independent megaron structure was constructed on the highest point of the mound, overlooking the settlement. The court along three sides of the megaron was on an earthen embankment. [2]

[1]: Warner J., " The Megaron and Apsidal House in Early Bronze Age Western Anatolia: New Evidence from Karataş", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr., 1979).

[2]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.



Examination System:
absent

Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Food Storage Site:
present

Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

At the Kestel-Göltepe site, there was a tin mine. It was a vast complex, where 4500 cubic meters of ore were extracted, often through precariously narrow tunnels, using only fire and stone hammers to shatter the ore. The size of these galleries allude to a production of some 115 tons of tin.


Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Nonwritten Record:
present

A clay stamp-seal was found in a sealed deposit of late Early Brone Age in Beycesultan [1] , and button seals in Royal Tombs at Alaca Höyük site [2] .

[1]: Mellart J., "The End of the Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean", In: "American Journal of Archaeology", Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1958).

[2]: Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. And Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 169.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent


Religious Literature:
absent

Practical Literature:
absent


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent




Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

unknown Large-scale trade appeared, and there were trade routes from Syro-Palestine to Aegan across the whole Konya Plain. gold, silver, tin, copper, bronze, electrum, iron, lead, hematite, carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, lapis lazuli, faience, textiles [1] [2]

[1]: Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, pp. 166 - 173.

[2]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214





Article:
present

gold, silver, tin, copper, bronze, electrum, iron, lead, hematite, carnelian, rock crystal, chalcedony, lapis lazuli, faience, textiles [1] [2]

[1]: Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, pp. 166 - 173.

[2]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 214


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent

Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Karataş-Semayük [1]

[1]: Sagona A. and P. Zimansky, "Ancient Turkey", USA 2009, p. 197.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

defensive stone walls dated from 2670-2300 BCE being found and had been present at the end of the previous polity. [1]

[1]: Sharon Steadman, ‘The Early Bronze Age on the Plateau’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 245


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Tarsus [1] Demircihöyük [2]

[1]: Çevik Ö., "The Emergence of Different Social Systems in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Urbanisation versus Centralisation", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West inthe Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 135.

[2]: Düring B. S., "The Prehistory of Asia Minor. From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies", Cambridge 2011, p. 267.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"At some point between Early Bronze II and Early Bronze III, or at ca. 2300-2200, dramatic changes took place again. Most Early Bronze Age II sites in Anatolia were overcome by massive and violent destructions and these disasters brought an end to the EB II period. Intrusion into the area by Indo-Europeans has been theorized as the cause, but there may have been other foreign or even indigenous elements on the move that are as yet unknown. [1]

[1]: Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 145."


Modern Fortification:
absent

Technology not yet available


not found in settlements


Fortified Camp:
absent

Technology not yet available


Earth Rampart:
absent

not found in settlements


not found in settlements


Complex Fortification:
present

Alişar Hüyük [1] . A fortification wall was constructed, and only 10 meters of fortification found on the terrace were excavated. One of these walls was set behind the other and rectangular-shaped bastions were constructed onto it. [2]

[1]: Çevik Ö., "The Emergence of Different Social Systems in Early Bronze Age Anatolia: Urbanisation versus Centralisation", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 57, Transanatolia: Bridging the Gap between East and West in the Archaeology of Ancient Anatolia (2007), p. 136.

[2]: Joukowsky M. S., "Early Turkey. An Introduction to the Archeology of Anatolia from Prehistory through the Lydian Period", USA 1996, p. 170.



Military use of Metals

Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Arslantepe had particularly good metallurgy, copper swords and spearheads [1]

[1]: James D. Muhly, ‘Metals and Metallurgy’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, pp. 864-867


"The 312 tombs excavated to date contained a large number of “bronze” weapons and spearheads, similar to those from Arslantepe" short swords around 3000 BC. Bronze items had become widespread by around 2500 BCE [1]

[1]: James D. Muhly, ‘Metals and Metallurgy’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, pp. 864-867


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not invented yet


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not invented yet


4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons". [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Triangular arrowheads with wings made of flint stone were found [1] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons". [2]

[1]: Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Javelin found at the EBA III site of Ikiztepe in northern Anatolia. [1]

[1]: (Mellink 1987: 4) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JGB5S74T.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented yet


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented yet


Not invented yet


Composite Bow:
absent

Although composite bows were present in nearby Mesopotamia, Eastern Anatolia had become separated from this culture by around 2500 BCE: ‘From that moment onward the history of the site and of the region was completely separated from the history of the Syro-Mesopotamian areas and that of the southernmost region of the Middle/Upper Euphrates Valley; it now began to gravitate toward the eastern Anatolian world.’ [1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE." [2] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE." [3]

[1]: Marcella Frangipane, ‘Arslantepe-Malatya: A Prehistoric and Early Historic Center in Eastern Anatolia’, The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE), Edited by Gregory McMahon and Sharon Steadman, 2011, p. 984

[2]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[3]: (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


weapon of the Americas


Handheld weapons

Two copper mace heads in Tomb H in Alacahöyük. [1] "The mace was among man’s oldest weapons (at least 6000 B.C.E. at Catal Huyuk)". [2] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons". [3]

[1]: Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 51) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Broken sword in Tomb A1 in Alacahöyük. [1] The traditional view is that sword use - as a secondary weapon - dates from about the seventeenth century BCE. [2] although earlier swords are also known in Susiana.

[1]: Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Copper/bronze spearheads [1] .

[1]: Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.


Pikehead from near Tarsus [1] . Halberd was recovered from Mahmatlar [2] .

[1]: Stronach D., "The Development and Diffusion of Metal Types in Early Bronze Age Anatolia", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 7 (1957), p. 116.

[2]: Stronach D., "The Development and Diffusion of Metal Types in Early Bronze Age Anatolia", In: "Anatolian Studies", Vol. 7 (1957), p. 121.


Broken daggers found. [1] 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons". [2]

[1]: Yilmaz D., "Burial Customs of The Chamber Tombs in Southeast Anatolia during The Early Bronze Age", Anatolia 2006.

[2]: (Gabriel 2007, xii) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Battle Axe:
present

Two axes in Tomb A1 in Alacahöyük [1] .

[1]: Yalçin Ü. and H. G., "Reassessing Antropomorphic Metal Figurines of Alacahöyük, Anatolia", In: "Near Eastern Archeology" Vol. 76:1 (2013), p. 41.


Animals used in warfare

first used for warfare for chariots much later


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


In the Near East pack animals appears by around 7000 BC onward. [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 41) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


no evidence of use in warfare appears for this period


Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check


No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check


Scaled Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Plate Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Limb Protection:
unknown

This time is earlier than the earliest reference in Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [1] It is also earlier than the earliest reference in Anatolia, the Hittite period. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15


Leather Cloth:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check


Laminar Armor:
absent

Technology not yet available


Earliest reference for present we currently have is for the Hittites. [1] In Egypt helmets were probably first worn by charioteers in the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE. [2] It’s technically possible they could have been used earlier than the mid-2nd millennium BCE in both Egypt and in Antolia as the earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. Gabriel (2002) claims after this time use of helmets became standard issue [3] , but possibly he was only referring to the Mesopotamian region.

[1]: Bryce T. (2007) Hittite Warrior, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 15-16

[2]: (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Technology not yet available


Breastplate:
absent

Technology not yet available


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

No information in the archaeological evidence for this time and code has yet to receive an expert check



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.