Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  eg_mamluk_sultanate_1 / EgMamBh

Preceding:
1171 CE 1250 CE Ayyubid Sultanate (eg_ayyubid_sultanate)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1348 CE 1412 CE Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II (eg_mamluk_sultanate_2)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Mamluk Sultanate has two possible start dates: 1250 CE, when the last Ayyubid ruler in Egypt was deposed, or ten years later, once a period of disorder that included an attack from the Mongols had ended. Baybars (sultan from 1260 to 1277 CE) killed the first two Mamluk sultans after victories on the battlefield and, as a statesman and organizer, was ’the real founder of the Mamluk state’. [1] The sultans of the Bahri Dynasty or ’Dawlat al-Atrak’ (Empire of the Turks) [2] - so-called because the rulers were of Turkish origin - oversaw a new climax of sociopolitical development, wealth and splendour in Egypt, which peaked under the reign of Sultan Nasiri [3] before plague arrived in Alexandria in 1347 CE. [1] We end our early Mamluk Sultanate period in 1348 CE, a year when crisis struck Egypt.
The traditional chronological division of the Mamluk Sultanate into Bahri (Turkish) and Burji (Circassian) periods is not followed here because, according to the historian André Raymond, these periods ’correspond to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state’. [4] We have chosen to split the sultanate in 1348 and 1412 CE instead in recognition of the crisis period following the Bahri period of prosperity. After the ’great plague epidemic’ of 1348, Mamluk troops were defeated by the Turco-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane (Timur) at the end of the 14th century, and, in 1403, the sultanate faced another political crisis and the ’disastrous reign of Faraj’. [4] The final Burji period began in 1412 CE and, while known for ’a return to normality and periods of brilliance’, was marked by demographic decline. [4]
Population and political organization
Since the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks, [5] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign ’slave-elite’ that had to be constantly replaced by new ’slave’ recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role. Manumission was essential because under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. The sultan performed a ritual manumission at his inaugural ceremony but the legal manumission would usually have occurred when he was about 18 years old, following the mamluk training. [1] In the Bahri period the Mamluks were of Turkish origin (like those recruited by the last Ayyubid sultan), but later sultans recruited mostly Circassians from the Caucasus. [6] Mamluk recruits were employed in the central government, the military and as governors in the provinces. While promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was ’granted according to precise rules’, succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest in which ’seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence’ all jostled for prominence. [7] Nevertheless, the deck was stacked such that from 1290 to 1382 CE, the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun. [8]
The Mamluk sultan ruled from Cairo and during his absence from the capital, Egypt was governed by his viceroy, the na’ib al-saltana. [9] The bureaucracy did not tightly control the countryside. Rather, influence was projected informally through ’iqta holdings (allotments of land along with the right to their tax revenue) - first used in Egypt during the preceding Ayyubid Dynasty period. These were assigned as a way to remunerate the slave soldiers of the centrally organized professional military, [10] as well as more formally through the na’ib, governor of a mamlaka administrative district. [11] The Mamluk elite controlled the appointment of ’judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy’. [12] In Cairo, Islamic law was kept by three traditional magistracies called qadi (pl. qudah), whose courts had a wide remit over civil law. A law-enforcement official called the chief of the sergeant of the watch oversaw wulah (sg. wali) policemen who kept watch at night and also fought fires. [13]
Revenue and Resources
The Bahri Dynasty was highly effective at drawing revenue. In the 14th century CE, the annual revenue was 9.5 million dinars, which was ’higher than at almost any other time since the Arab conquest’. [14] This paid for the Al-Barid postal system initiated by Baybars (1260‒1277 CE), which was extremely expensive to set up. Horses were used for first time on routes such as Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; and Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [15] The Syrian region of the Mamluk Sultanate was run by a chief governor, who had governors below him. [11] Imperial communications via Palestine were reportedly so efficient that ’Baybars boasted that he could play polo in Cairo and Damascus in the same week, while an even more rapid carrier-pigeon post was maintained between the two cities’. [16]
The Mamluk rulers continued the tradition of dedicating much effort and resources to what might be termed public works projects, for which they largely used corvée labour. [17] [1] In addition to a permanent medical staff, lecture halls and laboratories, a hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279‒1290 CE) included a library stocked with books on medicine, theology and law. [18] The Mamluks followed Ayyubid precedents when they embarked on an ’intense period of construction’ in the first century of their rule, with building projects initiated by governors, generals, generals, rich merchants and judges. [19] André Raymond has identified 54 mosques and madrasas built in the 1293‒1340 CE period alone. [20] The Mamluks also built many ’tombs for venerated Muslim ancestors and for deceased rulers’. [12]
Private wealth was extensive at this time and the Karimi merchant and banking families operated fleets and agencies from China to Africa. [21] Cairo’s population was probably under 200,000 in the mid-14th century (only Constantinople could claim a great population in Western Eurasia), [22] and the sultanate as a whole reached about 6-7 million people. [23] This would have fluctuated, however, as severe bouts of famine struck Egypt in 1284, 1295, 1296 and 1335 CE. [24]

[1]: (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. ’Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts’, in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Hrbek 1977, 41) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. ’Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts’, in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 137) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 116-17) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[5]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[6]: (Raymond 2000, 112) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[7]: (Raymond 2000, 113-14) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[8]: (Raymond 2000, 114) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[9]: (Raymond 2000, 152) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[10]: (Lapidus 2012, 250) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[11]: (Drory 2004, 169) Joseph Drory. 2004. ’Some Remarks Concerning Safed and the Organization of the Region in the Mamluk period’, in The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society, edited by Michael Winter and Amalia Levanoni, 163-90. Leiden: Brill.

[12]: (Lapidus 2012, 249) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13]: (Raymond 2000, 153) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[14]: (Raymond 2000, 116) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[15]: (Silverstein 2007, 173) A. J. Silverstein. 2007. Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[16]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 17) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[17]: (Dols 1977, 152) M. W. Dols. 1977. The Black Death In The Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[18]: (Dols 1977, 177) M. W. Dols. 1977. The Black Death In The Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[19]: (Lapidus 2012, 248) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[20]: (Raymond 2000, 120) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[21]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 19) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22]: (Raymond 2000, 136-37) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[23]: (McEvedy and Jones, 1978, 138-47, 227) Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Allen Lane.

[24]: (Nicolle 2014, 11-12) David Nicolle. 2014. Mamluk ’Askari 1250-1517. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 R  
Original Name:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I  
Capital:
Cairo  
Alternative Name:
Turkish Dynasty  
Mamluk Sultanate  
Bahri Dynasty  
Empire of the Turks  
Dawlat al Atrak  
State of Turkey  
Dawla al Turkiyya  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,341 CE  
Duration:
[1,260 CE ➜ 1,348 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Islam  
Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Ayyubid Sultanate (eg_ayyubid_sultanate)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II (eg_mamluk_sultanate_2)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Arabic  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Hanafi  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sufi  
Alternate Religion:
Shadhil  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[200,000 to 500,000] people  
Polity Territory:
2,100,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[6 to 7]  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
unknown  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I (eg_mamluk_sultanate_1) was in:
 (1260 CE 1347 CE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I


Alternative Name:
Turkish Dynasty

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
Mamluk Sultanate

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
Bahri Dynasty

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
Empire of the Turks

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
Dawlat al Atrak

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
State of Turkey

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

Alternative Name:
Dawla al Turkiyya

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,341 CE

After "the splendor of the Fatimids" there was "a new climax" under the reign of Sultan Nasiri. [1] End of reign: 1341 CE.
Before the plague which arrived in Alexandria 1347 CE [2]
Zenith was reached during the 14th Century.
In the 14th century the state’s annual revenue was 9.5 million dinars "higher than at almost any other time since the Arab conquest." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 137)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 116)


Duration:
[1,260 CE ➜ 1,348 CE]

"The traditional division of the Mamluk period into a Bahri/Turkish dynasty (1250-1382) and a Burji/Circassian one (1382-1517) is an inheritance from medieval chroniclers, but it corresponds to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state or in Egypt’s fortunes. A chronological division responsive to the vagaries of history seems preferable: first, a period of expansion and prosperity, encompassing particularly the reign of Nasir Muhammad, which may be said to end conveniently (if somewhat arbitrarily) in 1348. Next comes a period of crisis starting with the great plague epidemic of 1348, encompassing Tamerlane’s expedition, which brought ruin to Syria and decline to Egypt, and ending with the crisis of 1403 and the disastrous reign of Faraj. There follows a period of relative recovery, with a return to normality and periods of brilliance, even as the factors of decline (demographic stagnation in particular) continued to exercise their effects..." [1]
Two possible start dates: 1250 CE (end of Ayyubid Sultanate) or 1260 CE, the beginning of rule of Baybars. Baybars (Sultan 1260-1277 CE) killed the first two Sultans after victories on the battlefield (second, Sultan Qutuz, after defeat of the Mongols). His rule initiated great reforms and according to Oliver (1977) was a statesman and organizer, "the real founder of the Mamluk state." [2] Sultan Aybeg (1250-57 CE) called himself the Caliph’s viceroy. Baybars installed a new line of Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo. [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 116-117)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)


Political and Cultural Relations


Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Ayyubid Sultanate [eg_ayyubid_sultanate] ---> Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I [eg_mamluk_sultanate_1]
Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I [eg_mamluk_sultanate_1] ---> Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II [eg_mamluk_sultanate_2]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[200,000 to 500,000] people

People. Cairo.
Cairo. 500,000: 1300 CE [1]
Raymond: "The data available to us (location of mosques) suggests that the built-up area in 1348 was more extensive than can be supposed from Maqrizi’s information, but less extensive than is indicated by the Description de l’Egypte. As to Cairo’s population, it probably did not exceed 200,000. Paris had a population of only 80,000 in 1328 (in a built-up area of 437 hectares), and London a population of 60,000 in 1377 (on 288 hectares). Of the cities in the West at this period, only Constantinople could claim a greater population." [2]
Suggested estimates: 200,000-250,000 CE in 1300 CE; 150,000-200,000 in 1400 CE; 140,000-180,000 in 1500 CE. [3]

[1]: (Modelski 2003, 183)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 136-137)

[3]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)


Polity Territory:
2,100,000 km2

KM2. [1]

[1]: (Turchin, Adams and Hall, 2006)


Polity Population:
[5,000,000 to 6,000,000] people

People.
Egypt (5 m), Levant (0.5m) and Syria (1.5m) in 1300 CE. [1]
Demographic decline from 1348 CE (plague). [2]
Population of Egypt 4 million in 1348 CE. [3]
Suggested estimates: 5-6 million in 1300 CE, 3.5 million in 1400 CE; 3.2 million in 1500 CE [4]
Famines in Egypt [5]
1284 CE, 1295 CE, 1296 CE, 1335 CE

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 116)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 120)

[4]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)

[5]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[6 to 7]

[1] [2] Pollack mentions cities, small towns, villages, and farming hamlets that are turned into villages once they become too populous. [3]
1. Cairo, capital.
2. Provincial capitals (e.g. Damascus)
3. Dependent cities (e.g. Mecca and Medina)
4. Large townships.
5. Small towns.
6. Villages
7. (Hamlets?) Tribes.

[1]: Luz, N. 2014. The Mamluk City in the Middle East: History, Culture, and the Urban Landscape. Cambridge University Press

[2]: Rabbat, N. 2010. Mamluk History through Architecture: Monuments, Culture and Politics in Medieval Egypt and Syria. Bloomsbury Publishing, 20

[3]: (39-40) Pollak, N. The General Organization of the Mamluk State. In, Hatwig, G. (ed) 2012. Muslims, Mongols and Crusaders. Routledge Press.


Religious Level:
3

Was previously coded as 4. AD
1. Sultan (Baybar was "Servant of the two Holy Cities")
2. Ulama - religious scholars [1]
3. Imams
Under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. All Mamluk sultans performed a ritual demonstration of manumission at an inaugural ceremony. Manumission was performed at about 18 years old, following the Mamluk’s training. [2]
"Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy. Never did the state attempt to define the content of religious teaching. Thus, the "Mamluks extended the Saljuq-Iranian pattern of organized religious life to Syria and Egypt." [3]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 153)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 249)


Military Level:
9


1. Sultan
2. Commander of Army
3. Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
4. Emirs of a thousand
5. Emirs of a hundred
6. Emirs of forty
7. Emirs of ten
8. Junior officer
9. Individual soldier
_ Nicolle (1996)_
Sultan
Commander of Army
Mamluk I: Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
Mamluk II: Atabak al-asakir (Father of the Leader of Soldiers)
Mamluk III: Other titles with largely non-military status functions
Mamluk IV: Regular Mamluks
Mamluk V: Junior officer.
Rajjala I: Janib unit infantry leader
Rajjala II: Tulb unit infantry leader
Rajjala III: Jarida unit infantry leader
Mamluk army "essentially the same" as Ayyubid.
Professional haqa with an elite of slave-recruited Mamluks, called Royal Mamluks. Under Ayyubids, infantry was organized within the Rajjala. There was a military unit called a janib. The tulb was a smaller unit. A jarida was a small unit. A sariya was used in ambushes. [1]
_ Oliver (1977) describes the army structure this way _
Royal Mamluks
Of the Former Sultan
Of the Reigning Sultan
Of the Bodyguard and Pages
Of the Amirs
Mamluks of the Amirs
Of 100
Of 40
Of 10
Sons of Amirs and local population: Halqa. Initially knights of non-slave origin but eventually disappeared as military became a force of purely slave origin soldiers. [2]
_ Army structure according to Raymond [3] _
Sultan’s Mamluks (elite corps)

The troops of the emirs
emirs ranked in a hierarchy rank determined how many men under thememirs of a thousand [4]
emirs of a hundred
emirs of forty
emirs of ten
The halqa

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 187)


Administrative Level:
7


1. Sultan (Cairo)
During his absence Egypt/Cairo was governed by a viceroy (na’ib al-saltana) [1]
_ Central government line _ [2]

2. Central administration"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks. High government officials were also recruited from their number." [3]
"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns." [4]
"although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands o Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors." [5]
_ Cairo line _
2cairo Magistracies. "The administration of Cairo and its inhabitants was in the hands of three traditional magistracies. The judges (qudah; sing. qadi) had a very broad jurisdiction that covered matters of civil law, and many urban problems were addressed in their courts.3cairo Chief of the Sergeants of the watch. Top police prefect.4cairo "The police prefects (wulah; sing. wali) saw to public order and security. They were particularly responsible for making the rounds at night and therefore also of fighting fires." [6]
Overseer of the market (muhtasib) [7]
"The quarter served as an important basis of communal association and as an essential administrative unit." [8]
_ Egyptian line _
2egypt "diwan (government bureau) of Salar" [9]
3egypt Na’ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [10]
4egypt Governor of a small town
5egypt. Village head.
_ Syrian line _
2syria Syrian chief governor [11] Viceroy?
3syria Na’ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [10] e.g. the bureaucracy niyaba of Safed contained:4. katib al-sirr/katib al-insha (chief secretary who wrote governor’s letters, read mail) [12] 5. muwaqqi (who ratified the governor’s letters) [12] 6. katib al-dast [12] 7. katib al-darj (minor correspondent) [12]
4. nazir (overseer who was responsible for financial management, expenditure, salaries) [13]
kashif (inspector of bridges, agricultural lands and irrigation canals) [14]
muhtasib (market inspector) [14]
nazir diwan al-jaysh (superintendant of fiefs) [14]
nazir al-mal (financial controller) [14]
4. governor also had a dawadar (personal assistant) often sent to the villages to represent the governor and an ustadar (private caretaker) [15]
4syria wali al-wulat of a niyaba [9] "The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [9]
often the wali al-wulat also doubled as the shadd or mushidd al-dawawin "whose duty it was to check and observe the collection of the Sultans’ dues and taxes from state estates." [9]
5syria Wali, officer of a small town"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [9]
6syria Village head.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 152)

[2]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)

[4]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[5]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[6]: (Raymond 2000, 153)

[7]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[8]: (Dols 1977, 153)

[9]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)

[10]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 169)

[11]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 176)

[12]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)

[13]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180)

[14]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)

[15]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 172)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1] "To understand the Mamluk army one must first understand the fragmented Ayyubid armies from which it emerged. The term ‘askar could refer to the unit garrisoning, or paid, by a town, as it would have done for centuries, and these early ‘askaris would not normally be considered part of the military elite. The ‘askar of an Ayyubid ruler, however, consisted of professional, full-time ‘askaris. The most highly regarded of them were by this time largely of mamluk origin, though their numbers could still be remarkably small. [2]
"For rank-and-file mamluks, military salaries were their main sources of income and it is clear that throughout the medieval period, military wages were almost always above those earned by skilled craftsmen." [2]
"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Mamluk state "paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Army funded by Mamluk elite through their iqta (estates). These iqta holders formed an aristocracy, and they usually lived in Cairo or Damascus (rather than on their estates). [1]
"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [2]
"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks." [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Government offices, customs offices, postal stations, offices of military administration.
Register of the army, in Cairo.


Merit Promotion:
present

"Promotions were granted according to precise rules and could lead to the highest positions in the government, both military (atabak al-asakir, general-in-chief; amir silah, director of the arsenal; amir akhur, supreme commander of the army) and administrative (amir majlis, emir of the audience; dawawar, chancellor), as well as to the governorship of the provinces. ... To be acclaimed sultan was naturally the chief career objective of a capable and ambitious emir. One might reach it through seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence." [1] However, from 1290-1382 CE the top position of sultan was inherited by 17 descendants of Sultan Qalawun. [2]
"Elite personnel of the regime, including the sultan, were slaves or former slaves. In principle, although there were important exceptions, no one could be a member of the military elite unless he was of foreign origin (usually Turkish or Circassian), purchased and raised as a slave, and trained to be a soldier and administrator. No native of Egypt or Syria could ever belong to this elite, nor, in principle, could the sons of slaves." [3]
"The Mamluks’ descendants, the awlad al-nas ... were in theory prohibited from holding political or military office. The rule, however, was subject to exceptions..." [4]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 113-114)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 247)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 113)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"Although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands of Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors." [1]
Professional bureaucrats recruited from the ranks of enslaved people and free people (e.g. tax administrators were mostly free Copts). [2]

[1]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)


Examination System:
absent

Mamluk slaves trained and likely tested and advanced on merit but career depended on master achieving office or being agreeable to the reigning Sultan. No centralized examination system for the government.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

four major schools of law
"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 249)


Chief judges. [1] "Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials." [2]
"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [3]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 248)

[2]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 249)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Slaves had "legal rights, almost as if they had been adopted as ‘foster sons’ by a master who accepted legal obligations as their ‘foster father’." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Prior to the Ottoman conquest in 1517, Egypt had no courts, and judges conducted business from their homes [1]

[1]: (Andrey Korotayev, personal communication, March 2018)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [1] "The markets were open structures on either side of a street at a crossroads, in most cases simply a series of shops. Generally grouped according to occupation, they were most often spontaneous developments, although some were built by powerful personages. ... The caravanserais, on the other and, were monumental structures." [2] Cairo "experienced a period of rapid development for businesses, shops, and caravanserais." [3] "The emir built a funduq, vast in area, and surrounded it with shops. He stipulated that the renter of any shop pay no more than five dirhams..." [4] Nasir Muhammad had a market built in Siriyaqus. [5]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 158)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 122-123)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 123 quote: Maqrizi)

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 124)


Irrigation System:
present

New canals and dams opened up irrigated land. [1] Nasiri canal "made it possible to install waterwheels for irrigating gardens." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 124)


Food Storage Site:
present

Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Four waterwheels installed on Nile 1313 CE. [1] However, these did not supply the water directly to the population? "For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." [2] "Sabil public water source north of Cairo’s Citadel. Dating from the mid-14th century, it is decorated with the heraldic motif of its sponsor, the Mamluk Amir al-Kabir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu al-Nasiri." [3] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 132)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[3]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

Four waterwheels installed on Nile 1313 CE. [1] However, these did not supply the water directly to the population? "For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." [2] "Sabil public water source north of Cairo’s Citadel. Dating from the mid-14th century, it is decorated with the heraldic motif of its sponsor, the Mamluk Amir al-Kabir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu al-Nasiri." [3] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 132)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[3]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Transport Infrastructure

"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [1] [2] In 1322 CE Simon Simeonis described the streets of Cairo as "narrow, tortuous, dark, rich in recesses, full of dust and other refuse, and unpaved." [3]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 65)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 154)



Alexandrian canal lengthened. Employed 40,000-100,000 workers per year. [1] New canal, the Khalij al-Nasiri, dug 1325 CE. [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 123)


Bridge:
present

Bridge over Abu’l Managga irrigation canal. [1] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [2] Seven bridges constructed over al-Nasiri canal between 1325 and 1376 CE. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

[2]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 125)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Arabic.



Non Phonetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Experimental weapons research, such as advanced pyrotechnics and a "rocket-powered torpedo". [1] Hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279-1290 CE) "included not only wards with a regular medical staff, lecture rooms, and laboratories but also an adjoining library of medical, theological, and legal books." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)

[2]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Sacred Text:
present

Koran.


Religious Literature:
present

Theological books. [1]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Practical Literature:
present

Exercise books. [1] Legal books. [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

[2]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Philosophy:
present

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE) resident in slightly later period which suggests the literate culture may have been producing philosophical works at this time.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Encyclopaedias and manuals: al-Umar (1301-1349 CE); al-Nuwaya (1279-1332 CE). [1] . Land registry 1316 CE. [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 66)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 120)


History:
present

Abul Fida (1273-1332 CE) [1] .

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 66)


Fiction:
present

Poet Ibn Daniyal (d. 1310 CE). [1] "Arabian Nights" folk literature. [1] . "The Mamluk court listened to Turkish and Circassian poetry." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 66)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 248)



Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

Visit of Mansa Musa 1325 CE is famous for the quantity of gold he spent in Cairo. [1]

[1]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 19) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.



Indigenous Coin:
present

Silver coinage. [1] dirhams. [2] dinars. [3] Gold coins. [4] Fluctuation in economy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which impacted the rise and fall of wages. Unskilled labourers made on average 3 dinars per month [5] [6] Plague and other factors in the 15th century caused fluctuation and decrease in wages for unskilled workers, some receiving 3 dinars each month and 33.3 dinars per year, some waqf workers as low as 7 gold dinars per year. [7]

[1]: (Levanoni 1995, 133)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 116)

[4]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 19) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[5]: Scheidel, W. 2010. Real Wages in Early Economies: Evidence for Living Standards from 1800 BCE to 1300 CE. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 53(3), 425-462.

[6]: Meloy, J. 2001. Copper Money in Late Mamluk Cairo: Chaos or Control? Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 44(3), 293-321

[7]: (42) Borsch, Stuart. 2014. "Subsisting or Succumbing? Falling Wages in the Era of Plague." Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg Working Papers 13 (May 2014): 1-46


Foreign Coin:
present

"In pre-modern times ... Geographically well-defined borders of currency zones hardly existed. If they did exist then it was for economic and fiscal reasons." [1]

[1]: (Heidemann 2009, 276 [1])


Article:
present

External trade: "From the fourteenth century on, Mamluk coins were minted in gold brought all the way from Bambuk and Bouré around the sources of the Niger and the Senegal. It was paid for mostly in Egyptian textiles which were greatly sought after in the western Sudan." [1]

[1]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 19) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 173)


General Postal Service:
present

Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 173)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

wall encompassing Cairo and Fustat in preceding Ayyubate Sultante [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 88)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate




Fortified Camp:
present

Ditch. Camp was a circle of tents with a ditch and an advance guard. [1] "A concern for morale and a tradition of efficient administration lay behind the cleanliness and good order of mamluk military camps, especially during sieges such as that of Acre in 1291. Such encampments had baths with warm water and professional attendants, along with latrines for the officers and probably for ordinary mamluks." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.



Walls of Cairo protected by ditch in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 88)


Complex Fortification:
present

Small forts used as coastal warning system. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Military use of Metals

"Though the iron mines of Lebanon had been virtually exhausted, craftsmen still made high quality arms in Damascus. Those who produced real steel were closely supervised by the Mamluk authorities to stop cheating or a decline in standards." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Iron mace. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Greek fire projected through copper tube. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 40) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Especially trimmings on weapons/armour. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchet.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Counter-weight mangonel/trebuchet common from 13th Century. [1] 92 counter-weight trebuchets destroyed crusader stronghold Acre in 1291 CE. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)

[2]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


No mention in sources so far consulted.


Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Upper Egypt.


no mention in sources so far consulted.


Handheld Firearm:
unknown

"A major development came around 1230 when knowledge of saltpetre reached the Middle East from Central Asia. A primitive form of gunpowder was soon in use, combining ten parts saltpetre, two of charcoal and one and a half of sulphur. ... Whether or not this primitive gunpowder was used as early as 1300 to propel a projectile, or (more probably) to spray a form of grapeshot from a fixed position, remains a hotly debated question." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 40) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Mounted crossbowmen. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)


Composite Bow:
present

Composite bows. [1] "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 167)


new world weapon


Handheld weapons

Mamluk ’askari had iron mace. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


"armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [1] Mamluk ’askari had a straight-bladed sword. [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 167)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Mamluk ’askari had spear. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.



Mamluk ’askari had a dagger. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Battle Axe:
present

Carried by Mamluk heavy cavaryman. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, Plate H) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)


The Mamluks did not use war elephants. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa’id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited." [1]

[1]: (Shehada 2013, 19) Housni Alkhateeb Shehada. 2013. Mamluks and Animals. Veterinary Medicine in Medieval Islam. BRILL. Leiden.



Camels used to carry baggage. "On major campaigns, 13th- and 14th-century mamluks each received one or two baggage camels whereas every two non-elite halqa soldiers shared three camels." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Illustration suggests wood used in shields. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


[1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Scaled Armor:
present

Mamluk qarqal (scale or lamellar coat). Small iron scales sewn into fabric. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Plate Armor:
absent

Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.


Limb Protection:
present

Mamluk ’askari: "The thigh defences are based upon pictorial sources because there is not yet archaeological evidence for this form of armour." [1] Arm protection for heavy cavalryman. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

[2]: (Nicolle 1986, Plate H) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

"Mamluk ‘askari wearing laminated leather ‘hoop armour’ and a leather helmet." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Laminar Armor:
present

Laminated leather cuirass. Rawhide lamellar cuirass. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Worn over a skull-cap padded with fibre to which helmet was fastened. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Chainmail:
present

Mail armour. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Breastplate:
absent

Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Mamluks did not like sea warfare. Lowly ranked within military. No permanent navy or naval administration. Contradicting this, the Mamluks had marines, lead by a qaid, and a rais al milaha who captained military ship and commanded sailors. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Inferred from necessity of Nile travel.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions