Home Region:  Northeast Africa (Africa)

Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  eg_mamluk_sultanate_2 / EgMamCP

Preceding:
1260 CE 1348 CE Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I (eg_mamluk_sultanate_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1412 CE 1517 CE Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III (eg_mamluk_sultanate_3)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Between 1348 and 1412 CE, a ’great crisis’ struck Mamluk Egypt and Syria under the Bahri Dynasty sultan, precipitating the rise of the Burji (Circassian) Dynasty from 1382 CE. Instead of the traditional chronological division of the Mamluk Sultanate into two dynasties, we have therefore included a crisis period encapsulating the end of the Bahri and beginning of the Burji periods. [1] Indeed, the crisis period persisted until the assassination of Sultan Faraj in Damascus in 1412 CE. In addition to the plague of 1348 CE, which for many Egyptians brought a period of spectacular prosperity to an end, other natural disasters in this period included an abnormally high Nile flood in 1354, famine in 1375, the return of the plague between 1379 and 1381, a low Nile flood and grain shortage in 1394 and again in 1403 CE, followed by yet another famine between 1403 and 1404 CE. In the midst of these environmental crises, and perhaps sparked by them, the region also experienced civil war in 1389 CE, [2] effectively ending the period of Turkish rule in Egypt.
Population and political organization
Since the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks, [3] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign ’slave-elite’ that had to be constantly replaced by new ’slave’ recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role. Manumission was essential because under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. The sultan performed a ritual manumission at his inaugural ceremony but the legal manumission would usually have occurred when he was about 18 years old, following the mamluk training. [4] In the Bahri period the Mamluks were of Turkish origin (like those recruited by the last Ayyubid sultan), but later sultans recruited mostly Circassians from the Caucasus. [5] Mamluk recruits were employed in the central government, the military and as governors in the provinces. While promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was ’granted according to precise rules’, succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest in which ’seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence’ all jostled for prominence. [6] Nevertheless, the deck was stacked such that from 1290 to 1382 CE, the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun. [7]
The Mamluk sultan ruled from Cairo and during his absence from the capital, Egypt was governed by his viceroy, the na’ib al-saltana. [8] The bureaucracy did not tightly control the countryside. Rather, influence was projected informally through ’iqta holdings (allotments of land along with the right to their tax revenue) - first used in Egypt during the preceding Ayyubid Dynasty period. These were assigned as a way to remunerate the slave soldiers of the centrally organized professional military, [9] as well as more formally through the na’ib, governor of a mamlaka administrative district. [10] The Mamluk elite controlled the appointment of ’judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy’. [11] In Cairo, Islamic law was kept by three traditional magistracies called qadi (pl. qudah), whose courts had a wide remit over civil law. A law-enforcement official called the chief of the sergeant of the watch oversaw wulah (sg. wali) policemen who kept watch at night and also fought fires. [12]
Revenue and Public Services
The Bahri Dynasty was highly effective at drawing revenue. In the 14th century CE, the annual revenue was 9.5 million dinars, which was ’higher than at almost any other time since the Arab conquest’. [13] This paid for the Al-Barid postal system initiated by Baybars (1260‒1277 CE), which was extremely expensive to set up. Horses were used for first time on routes such as Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; and Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [14] The Syrian region of the Mamluk Sultanate was run by a chief governor, who had governors below him. [10] Imperial communications via Palestine were reportedly so efficient that ’Baybars boasted that he could play polo in Cairo and Damascus in the same week, while an even more rapid carrier-pigeon post was maintained between the two cities’. [15]
The Black Death reached Alexandria in Egypt, probably from the Crimea, in the autumn of 1347 CE before slowly spreading throughout northern Egypt in 1348 and peaking in the autumn and winter of that year. [16] As a result of the epidemic, the Egyptian population, previously between 4.2 and 8 million, ’may have declined by about one-quarter to one-third’ by the mid- to late 14th century. [17] The total population of the sultanate fell from perhaps 6-7 million to 4.8 million during this period. [18]
The troubled times did little to prevent the Mamluk ruling class from carrying out extravagant construction projects, for which they mostly used corvée labour. [4] Between 1341 and 1412 CE, 49 mosques were built in the southern zone of Cairo. [19] One of them was the ’gigantic’ Sultan Hasan Mosque (built 1356‒1361 CE), which cost an astonishing 20 million dirhams and has been called ’one of the most remarkable monuments of the Islamic world’. [20] Sultan Sha’ban Mosque, built in 1375 but destroyed in 1411, may have been comparable. [21] The Mamluk-period mosques added to a city already studded with public baths, [22] caravanserais, [22] libraries, [23] madrasas [4] and hospitals. [24]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 116-17) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 116-17, 138-46) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[3]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[4]: (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. ’Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts’, in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 112) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[6]: (Raymond 2000, 113-14) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[7]: (Raymond 2000, 114) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[8]: (Raymond 2000, 152) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[9]: (Lapidus 2012, 250) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[10]: (Drory 2004, 169) Joseph Drory. 2004. ’Some Remarks Concerning Safed and the Organization of the Region in the Mamluk period’, in The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society, edited by Michael Winter and Amalia Levanoni, 163-90. Leiden: Brill.

[11]: (Lapidus 2012, 249) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[12]: (Raymond 2000, 153) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[13]: (Raymond 2000, 116) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[14]: (Silverstein 2007, 173) A. J. Silverstein. 2007. Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[15]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 17) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[16]: (Dols 1977, 154-55) M. W. Dols. 1977. The Black Death In The Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[17]: (Dols 1977, 218) M. W. Dols. 1977. The Black Death In The Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[18]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 227) Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Allen Lane.

[19]: (Raymond 2000, 145) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[20]: (Raymond 2000, 141) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[21]: (Raymond 2000, 144) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[22]: (Hrbek 1977, 65) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. ’Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts’, in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[23]: (Lapidus 2012, 248) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[24]: (Raymond 2000, 52) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
36 R  
Original Name:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II  
Capital:
Cairo  
Alternative Name:
Turkish Dynasty  
Mamluk Sultanate  
Bahri Dynasty  
Empire of the Turks  
Dawlat al Atrak  
State of Turkey  
Dawla al Turkiyya  
Circassian Mamluks  
Burji Mamluks  
Mamluk Sultanate  
Bahri Dynasty  
State of Turkey  
Dawla al Turkiyya  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,348 CE  
Duration:
[1,348 CE ➜ 1,412 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Islam  
Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III (eg_mamluk_sultanate_3)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I (eg_mamluk_sultanate_1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Afro-Asiatic  
Language:
Arabic  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Hanafi  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sufi  
Alternate Religion:
Shadhil  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[150,000 to 350,000] people  
Polity Territory:
2,100,000 km2  
Polity Population:
3,500,000 people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[6 to 7]  
Religious Level:
[3 to 4]  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
7  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
unknown  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II (eg_mamluk_sultanate_2) was in:
 (1348 CE 1411 CE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Upper Egypt

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II


Alternative Name:
Turkish Dynasty

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Mamluk Sultanate

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Bahri Dynasty

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Empire of the Turks

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Dawlat al Atrak

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
State of Turkey

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Dawla al Turkiyya

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Circassian Mamluks

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Burji Mamluks

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Mamluk Sultanate

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Bahri Dynasty

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
State of Turkey

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

Alternative Name:
Dawla al Turkiyya

Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya. Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawla_al-Turkiyya "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)." [3]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 112)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,348 CE

Just prior to the arrival of the plague and the "Great Crisis". [1] "Barquq’s reign (1382-1399) was relatively prosperous." [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 137-138)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 141)


Duration:
[1,348 CE ➜ 1,412 CE]

"The traditional division of the Mamluk period into a Bahri/Turkish dynasty (1250-1382) and a Burji/Circassian one (1382-1517) is an inheritance from medieval chroniclers, but it corresponds to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state or in Egypt’s fortunes. A chronological division responsive to the vagaries of history seems preferable: first, a period of expansion and prosperity, encompassing particularly the reign of Nasir Muhammad, which may be said to end conveniently (if somewhat arbitrarily) in 1348. Next comes a period of crisis starting with the great plague epidemic of 1348, encompassing Tamerlane’s expedition, which brought ruin to Syria and decline to Egypt, and ending with the crisis of 1403 and the disastrous reign of Faraj. There follows a period of relative recovery, with a return to normality and periods of brilliance, even as the factors of decline (demographic stagnation in particular) continued to exercise their effects..." [1]
The Great Crisis [2]
Plague of 1348 CE
Abnormally high Nile flood of 1354 CE
Plague of 1374-1375 CE
Famine of 1375 CE
Plague of 1379-1381 CE
civil war 1389 CE
Low Nile flood and grain shortage of 1394 CE
Tamerlane’s invasion of Syria 1400 CE
Low Nile flood 1403 CE followed by famine 1403-1404 CE [3]
"disastrous" reign of Faraj Sultan 1399-1412 CE
civil war
assassination of Faraj Sultan in Damascus in 1412 CE "marked the end of the crisis."
Black Death reached Egypt autumn of 1357 CE "then slowly spread throughout Lower Egypt from the beginning of Muharram 749/April 1348. The epidemic reached its peak during the months of Sha’ban, Ramadan, and Shawwal 749/October 1348 to Janurary 1349, and ceased in the middle of Dhu l-Qa’dah/the beginning of February. The first Egyptian city to be struck by plague was Alexandria, and we might expect this if we assume that the pandemic was transmitted by the important trade from the Crimea." [4]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 116-117)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 138-141)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 146)

[4]: (Dols 1977, 154-155)


Political and Cultural Relations


Succeeding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2

km squared.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II [eg_mamluk_sultanate_2] ---> Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III [eg_mamluk_sultanate_3]
Preceding Entity:
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I [eg_mamluk_sultanate_1] ---> Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II [eg_mamluk_sultanate_2]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[150,000 to 350,000] people

People. Cairo.
Older estimates for Cairo [1]
Marcel Clerget: 600,000: 1350 CE
Janet Abu-Lughod: 500,000 maximum
360,000: 1400 CE [2]
Fourteenth century Cairo - Raymond [3]
"The data available to us (location of mosques) suggests that the built-up area in 1348 was more extensive than can be supposed from Maqrizi’s information, but less extensive than is indicated by the Description de l’Egypte. As to Cairo’s population, it probably did not exceed 200,000. Paris had a population of only 80,000 in 1328 (in a built-up area of 437 hectares), and London a population of 60,000 in 1377 (on 288 hectares). Of the cities in the West at this period, only Constantinople could claim a greater population."
Demographic decline from 1348 CE (plague). [4]
"Michael Dols concludes that the total number of deaths came to one-third or two-fifths of the population of the city, a proposition that seems plausible given what we know about mortality from the Black Death in other localities (Europe, for example) and from other epidemics in other periods. We may therefore estimate that a reasonable figure would be 100,000 dead." [5]
Fifteenth century Cairo - Raymond [6]
"total built-up area of no more than 450 hectares. If we estimate the population density at 400 residents per hectare - a plausible average for classical Arab cities - we obtain a total population in the neighborhood of 150,000 residents, a distinctly lower estimate than the (Admittedly hypothetical) estimate we reached for the city in the middle of the fourteenth century."
Suggested estimates: 200,000-250,000 CE in 1300 CE; 150,000-200,000 in 1400 CE; 140,000-180,000 in 1500 CE. [7]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 136)

[2]: (Modelski 2003, 183)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 136-137)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 116)

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 139-140)

[6]: (Raymond 2000, 152)

[7]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)


Polity Territory:
2,100,000 km2

KM2. [1]

[1]: (Turchin, Adams and Hall, 2006)


Polity Population:
3,500,000 people

People.
4,800,000: 1400 CE. Egypt (2.8m), Levant (0.5m) and Syria (1.5m). [1]
Demographic decline from 1348 CE (plague). [2]
Egypt: 4 million prior to the Black Death in the middle of the 14th Century. [3]
As a result of the Black Death "an Egyptian population of between 4.2 and 8 million may have declined by about one-quarter to one-third." [4]
Suggested estimates: 5-6 million in 1300 CE, 3.5 million in 1400 CE; 3.2 million in 1500 CE [5]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 227)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 116)

[3]: (Dols 1977, 149)

[4]: (Dols 1977, 218)

[5]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[6 to 7]

[1] [2] Pollack mentions cities, small towns, villages, and farming hamlets that are turned into villages once they become too populous. [3]
1. Cairo, capital.
2. Provincial capitals (e.g. Damascus)
3Dependent cities (e.g. Mecca and Medina)
4. Large townships.
5. Small towns.
6. Villages
7. Hamlets and Tribes.

[1]: Luz, N. 2014. The Mamluk City in the Middle East: History, Culture, and the Urban Landscape. Cambridge University Press

[2]: Rabbat, N. 2010. Mamluk History through Architecture: Monuments, Culture and Politics in Medieval Egypt and Syria. Bloomsbury Publishing, 20

[3]: (39-40) Pollak, N. The General Organization of the Mamluk State. In, Hatwig, G. (ed) 2012. Muslims, Mongols and Crusaders. Routledge Press.


Religious Level:
[3 to 4]


Ulama - religious scholars [1]
1. Sultan
2. Ulama3. Imams(4. ?)

[1]: (Dols 1977, 153)


Military Level:
9


1. Sultan

2. Commander of Army
3. Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
4. Emirs of a thousand
5. Emirs of a hundred
6. Emirs of forty
7. Emirs of ten
8. Junior officer
9. Individual soldier
_ Nicolle (1996)_
Sultan
Commander of Army
Mamluk I: Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
Mamluk II: Atabak al-asakir (Father of the Leader of Soldiers)
Mamluk III: Other titles with largely non-military status functions
Mamluk IV: Regular Mamluks
Mamluk V: Junior officer.
Rajjala I: Janib unit infantry leader
Rajjala II: Tulb unit infantry leader
Rajjala III: Jarida unit infantry leader
Mamluk army "essentially the same" as Ayyubid.
Professional haqa with an elite of slave-recruited Mamluks, called Royal Mamluks. Under Ayyubids, infantry was organized within the Rajjala. There was a military unit called a janib. The tulb was a smaller unit. A jarida was a small unit. A sariya was used in ambushes. [1]
_ Oliver (1977) describes the army structure this way _
Royal Mamluks
Of the Former Sultan
Of the Reigning Sultan
Of the Bodyguard and Pages
Of the Amirs
Mamluks of the Amirs
Of 100
Of 40
Of 10
Sons of Amirs and local population: Halqa. Initially knights of non-slave origin but eventually disappeared as military became a force of purely slave origin soldiers. [2]
_ Army structure according to Raymond [3] _
Sultan’s Mamluks (elite corps)

The troops of the emirs
emirs ranked in a hierarchy rank determined how many men under thememirs of a thousand [4]
emirs of a hundred
emirs of forty
emirs of ten
The halqa

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 187)


Administrative Level:
7


1. Sultan (Cairo)
During his absence Egypt/Cairo was governed by a viceroy (na’ib al-saltana) [1]
_ Central government line _ [2]

2a. Central administration"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks. High government officials were also recruited from their number." [3]
"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns." [4]
_ Cairo line _
2cairo Magistracies. "The administration of Cairo and its inhabitants was in the hands of three traditional magistracies. The judges (qudah; sing. qadi) had a very broad jurisdiction that covered matters of civil law, and many urban problems were addressed in their courts.3cairo Chief of the Sergeants of the watch. Top police prefect.4cairo "The police prefects (wulah; sing. wali) saw to public order and security. They were particularly responsible for making the rounds at night and therefore also of fighting fires." [5]
Overseer of the market (muhtasib) [6]
"The quarter served as an important basis of communal association and as an essential administrative unit." [7]
_ Egyptian line _
2egypt "diwan (government bureau) of Salar" [8]
3egypt Na’ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [9]
4egypt Governor of a small town
5egypt. Village head.
_ Syrian line _
2syria Syrian chief governor [10] Viceroy?
3syria Na’ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [9] e.g. the bureaucracy niyaba of Safed contained:4. katib al-sirr/katib al-insha (chief secretary who wrote governor’s letters, read mail) [11] 5. muwaqqi (who ratified the governor’s letters) [11] 6. katib al-dast [11] 7. katib al-darj (minor correspondent) [11]
nazir (overseer who was responsible for financial management, expenditure, salaries) [12]
kashif (inspector of bridges, agricultural lands and irrigation canals) [13]
muhtasib (market inspector) [13]
nazir diwan al-jaysh (superintendant of fiefs) [13]
nazir al-mal (financial controller) [13]
4. governor also had a dawadar (personal assistant) often sent to the villages to represent the governor and an ustadar (private caretaker) [14]
4syria wali al-wulat of a niyaba [8] "The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [8]
often the wali al-wulat also doubled as the shadd or mushidd al-dawawin "whose duty it was to check and observe the collection of the Sultans’ dues and taxes from state estates." [8]
5syria Wali, officer of a small town"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [8]
6syria Village head.

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 152)

[2]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)

[4]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 153)

[6]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[7]: (Dols 1977, 153)

[8]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)

[9]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 169)

[10]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 176)

[11]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)

[12]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180)

[13]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)

[14]: (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 172)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1]
"For rank-and-file mamluks, military salaries were their main sources of income and it is clear that throughout the medieval period, military wages were almost always above those earned by skilled craftsmen." [2]
"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 41)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Mamluk state "paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Army funded by Mamluk elite through their iqta (estates). These iqta holders formed an aristocracy, and they usually lived in Cairo or Damascus (rather than on their estates). [1]
"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [2]
"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks." [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 113)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Government offices, customs offices, postal stations, offices of military administration.
Register of the army, in Cairo.


Merit Promotion:
present

"Promotions were granted according to precise rules and could lead to the highest positions in the government, both military (atabak al-asakir, general-in-chief; amir silah, director of the arsenal; amir akhur, supreme commander of the army) and administrative (amir majlis, emir of the audience; dawawar, chancellor), as well as to the governorship of the provinces. ... To be acclaimed sultan was naturally the chief career objective of a capable and ambitious emir. One might reach it through seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence." [1] However, from 1290-1382 CE the top position of sultan was inherited by 17 descendants of Sultan Qalawun. [2]
"Elite personnel of the regime, including the sultan, were slaves or former slaves. In principle, although there were important exceptions, no one could be a member of the military elite unless he was of foreign origin (usually Turkish or Circassian), purchased and raised as a slave, and trained to be a soldier and administrator. No native of Egypt or Syria could ever belong to this elite, nor, in principle, could the sons of slaves." [3]
"The Mamluks’ descendants, the awlad al-nas ... were in theory prohibited from holding political or military office. The rule, however, was subject to exceptions..." [4]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 113-114)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 114)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 247)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 113)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"Although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands of Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors." [1]
Professional bureaucrats recruited from the ranks of enslaved people and free people (e.g. tax administrators were mostly free Copts). [2]

[1]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)


Examination System:
absent

unknown? originally coded as uncertain_absent_present


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

four major schools of law
"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 249)


Chief judges. [1]
"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [2]
Judges. [3]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 248)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 249)

[3]: (Dols 1977, 153)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Slaves had "legal rights, almost as if they had been adopted as ‘foster sons’ by a master who accepted legal obligations as their ‘foster father’." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Prior to the Ottoman conquest in 1517, Egypt had no courts, and judges conducted business from their homes [1]

[1]: (Andrey Korotayev, personal communication, March 2018)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [1] "The markets were open structures on either side of a street at a crossroads, in most cases simply a series of shops. Generally grouped according to occupation, they were most often spontaneous developments, although some were built by powerful personages. ... The caravanserais, on the other and, were monumental structures." [2] "Several commercial structures were built, among them the caravanserai that, taking the name of its builder, Emir Jaharkas al-Khalili al-Yalbughawi, was to become the most famous center of commerce in Cairo, and the present-day symbol of its old suqs, the Khan al-Khalili (before 1389)." [3]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 152)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 158)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 142)


Irrigation System:
present

New canals and dams opened up irrigated land. [1] Nasiri canal "made it possible to install waterwheels for irrigating gardens." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 124)


Food Storage Site:
present

Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." [1] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.

Drinking Water Supply System:
absent

"For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." [1] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 154)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Transport Infrastructure

"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [1]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 152)



Alexandrian canal lengthened. Employed 40,000-100,000 workers per year. [1]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 39-67)


Bridge:
present

Seven bridges constructed over al-Nasiri canal between 1325 and 1376 CE. [1] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity." [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 125)

[2]: (Dols 1977, 152)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Experimental weapons research, such as advanced pyrotechnics and a "rocket-powered torpedo". [1] Hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279-1290 CE) "included not only wards with a regular medical staff, lecture rooms, and laboratories but also an adjoining library of medical, theological, and legal books." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)

[2]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Sacred Text:
present

Qur’an


Religious Literature:
present

Theological books. [1]

[1]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Practical Literature:
present

Exercise books. [1] Legal books. [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

[2]: (Dols 1977, 177)


Philosophy:
present

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE) resident in this period.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Land registry of 1376 CE. [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 142)


History:
present

Al-Maqrizi (1364-1442 CE), historian of Cairo [1] . Abul Fida (1273-1332 CE) [2] .

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 117)

[2]: (Oliver 1977, 66)


Fiction:
present

Poet Ibn Daniyal (d. 1310 CE). [1] "Arabian Nights" folk literature. [1] . "The Mamluk court listened to Turkish and Circassian poetry." [2]

[1]: (Oliver 1977, 66)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 248)



Information / Money



Indigenous Coin:
present

Silver coinage. [1] dirhams. [2] dinars. [3] Fluctuation in economy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which impacted the rise and fall of wages. Unskilled labourers made on average 3 dinars per month [4] [5] Plague and other factors in the 15th century caused fluctuation and decrease in wages for unskilled workers, some receiving 3 dinars each month and 33.3 dinars per year, some waqf workers as low as 7 gold dinars per year. [6]

[1]: (Levanoni 1995, 133)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 112)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 116)

[4]: Scheidel, W. 2010. Real Wages in Early Economies: Evidence for Living Standards from 1800 BCE to 1300 CE. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 53(3), 425-462.

[5]: Meloy, J. 2001. Copper Money in Late Mamluk Cairo: Chaos or Control? Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 44(3), 293-321

[6]: (42) Borsch, Stuart. 2014. "Subsisting or Succumbing? Falling Wages in the Era of Plague." Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg Working Papers 13 (May 2014): 1-46


Foreign Coin:
present

"In pre-modern times ... Geographically well-defined borders of currency zones hardly existed. If they did exist then it was for economic and fiscal reasons." [1]

[1]: (Heidemann 2009, 276 [1])



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 173)


General Postal Service:
present

Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [1]

[1]: (Silverstein 2007, 173)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

wall encompassing Cairo and Fustat in preceding Ayyubate Sultante [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 88)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate




Fortified Camp:
present

Ditch. Camp was a circle of tents with a ditch and an advance guard. [1] "A concern for morale and a tradition of efficient administration lay behind the cleanliness and good order of mamluk military camps, especially during sieges such as that of Acre in 1291. Such encampments had baths with warm water and professional attendants, along with latrines for the officers and probably for ordinary mamluks." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.



Walls of Cairo protected by ditch in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 88)


Complex Fortification:
present

Small forts used as coastal warning system. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Military use of Metals

"Though the iron mines of Lebanon had been virtually exhausted, craftsmen still made high quality arms in Damascus. Those who produced real steel were closely supervised by the Mamluk authorities to stop cheating or a decline in standards." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Iron mace. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Greek fire projected through copper tube. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 40) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Especially trimmings on weapons/armour. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchet - were they still in use?


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Counter-weight mangonel/trebuchet common from 13th Century. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


No mention in sources so far consulted.



no mention in sources so far consulted.


Handheld Firearm:
unknown

"A major development came around 1230 when knowledge of saltpetre reached the Middle East from Central Asia. A primitive form of gunpowder was soon in use, combining ten parts saltpetre, two of charcoal and one and a half of sulphur. ... Whether or not this primitive gunpowder was used as early as 1300 to propel a projectile, or (more probably) to spray a form of grapeshot from a fixed position, remains a hotly debated question." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, 40) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Mounted crossbowmen. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)


Composite Bow:
present

Composite bows. [1] "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 167)


new world weapon


Handheld weapons

Mamluk ’askari had iron mace. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


"armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [1] Mamluk ’askari had a straight-bladed sword. [2]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 167)

[2]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Mamluk ’askari had spear. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.



Mamluk ’askari had a dagger. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Battle Axe:
present

Carried by Mamluk heavy cavaryman. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1986, Plate H) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996,135-181)


The Mamluks did not use war elephants. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa’id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited." [1]

[1]: (Shehada 2013, 19) Housni Alkhateeb Shehada. 2013. Mamluks and Animals. Veterinary Medicine in Medieval Islam. BRILL. Leiden.



Camels used to carry baggage. "On major campaigns, 13th- and 14th-century mamluks each received one or two baggage camels whereas every two non-elite halqa soldiers shared three camels." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Illustration suggests wood used in shields. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


[1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Scaled Armor:
present

Mamluk qarqal (scale or lamellar coat). Small iron scales sewn into fabric. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Plate Armor:
absent

Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.


Limb Protection:
present

Mamluk ’askari: "The thigh defences are based upon pictorial sources because there is not yet archaeological evidence for this form of armour." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Leather Cloth:
present

"Mamluk ‘askari wearing laminated leather ‘hoop armour’ and a leather helmet." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Laminar Armor:
present

Laminated leather cuirass. Rawhide lamellar cuirass. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Worn over a skull-cap padded with fibre to which helmet was fastened. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Chainmail:
present

Mail armour. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Breastplate:
absent

Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Mamluks did not like sea warfare. Lowly ranked within military. No permanent navy or naval administration. Contradicting this, the Mamluks had marines, lead by a qaid, and a rais al milaha who captained military ship and commanded sailors. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Inferred from necessity of Nile travel.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions