Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

Atlantic Complex

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  fr_atlantic_complex / FrAtlBA

Preceding:
3200 BCE 2000 BCE Beaker Culture (fr_beaker_eba)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1000 BCE 900 BCE Hallstatt A-B1 (fr_hallstatt_a_b1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Early Bronze Age on the Atlantic seaboard of Western Europe lasted from around 1800 to 1300 BCE. [1] Several technological and social changes marked this period, taking place in an area expanding over what is now the south of England, west and central France, and Flanders, [2] but also Portugal and Spain. [3] Metals were used to craft new types of weapons and ornaments, beginning with copper and then bronze axes, used for working wood and individual defence, [4] and culminating in more complex forms of weaponry like swords, daggers and halberds. [5] However, most of the artefacts characterizing this period were items of personal jewellery such as torcs, anklets, and pins. [6] The trade of these materials formed a vast European network of exchange. [6]
Population and political organization
Over the course of the Early Bronze Age, several trends originating in the Beaker period were reinforced: political integration was one of them. Two tiers of social hierarchy can be inferred from burial patterns. While most of these differences were tied to individual achievements over one’s lifetime, social status could also be inherited. Indeed, children have been found in elite burials containing prestigious items, contrasting with the much simpler tombs of commoners. [6]
The construction of fortified settlements intensified, following a two-tiered settlement hierarchy. Simple hamlets corresponded to one or more extended families. Elsewhere, small fortified towns were built on raised areas of land and surrounded by walls and ditches. [7]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412) Peregrine, P. N. 2001. Western European Earlier Bronze Age. In Peregrine, P.N. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 4: Europe, pp.412-414. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XHZC4QMJ.

[2]: (Mordant 2013, 573) Mordant, Claude. 2013. The Bronze Age in France. In Fokkens, H. and A. Harding (eds) The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age, pp. 571-593. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QX9UG55P.

[3]: (Otte 2008, 276) Otte, Marcel. 2008. La protohistoire, 2è édition. Bruxelles: de Boeck. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2PQEDZ2I.

[4]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al. 2005, 23) Cyril Marcigny, Cécile Colonna, Emmanuel Ghesquière, Guy Verron (eds) 2005. La Normandie à l’aube de l’Histoire. Les découvertes archéologiques de l’âge du Bronze 2300-800 av. J.C. Somogy, Paris. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3ZA57Q27

[5]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23) Marcigny, Cyril, Cécile Colonna, Emmanuel Ghesquière, and Guy Verron. 2005. La Normandie à L’aube de L’histoire : Les Découvertes Archéologiques de L’âge Du Bronze 2300-800 Av. J.-C. Paris: Somogy éd. d’art. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3ZA57Q27.

[6]: (Peregrine 2001, 413) Peregrine, P. N. 2001. Western European Earlier Bronze Age. In Peregrine, P.N. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 4: Europe, pp.412-414. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XHZC4QMJ.

[7]: (Peregrine 2001, 412-413) Peregrine, P. N. 2001. Western European Earlier Bronze Age. In Peregrine, P.N. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 4: Europe, pp.412-414. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XHZC4QMJ.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
Atlantic Complex  
Capital:
none  
Alternative Name:
Western European Earlier Bronze Age  
Bronze ancien  
Bronze moyen  
Bronze tardif  
Channel North Sea Province  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[2,200 BCE ➜ 1,000 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Bronze Age Europe  
Succeeding Entity:
Hallstatt A-B1  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Beaker Culture (fr_beaker_eba)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Hallstatt A-B1 (fr_hallstatt_a_b1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,000 to 2,000] people  
Polity Population:
[1,000 to 2,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Religious Level:
-  
Military Level:
-  
Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
unknown  
Script:
unknown  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown  
Sacred Text:
unknown  
Religious Literature:
unknown  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
unknown  
Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown  
History:
unknown  
Fiction:
unknown  
Calendar:
unknown  
Information / Money
Token:
inferred present  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred absent  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred absent  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
inferred absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
inferred absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Atlantic Complex (fr_atlantic_complex) was in:
 (2200 BCE 1001 BCE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Atlantic Complex


Alternative Name:
Western European Earlier Bronze Age

Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age. [1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as ’Channel-North Sea’, which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 354)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[3]: (Mordant 2013, 573)

Alternative Name:
Bronze ancien

Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age. [1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as ’Channel-North Sea’, which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 354)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[3]: (Mordant 2013, 573)

Alternative Name:
Bronze moyen

Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age. [1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as ’Channel-North Sea’, which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 354)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[3]: (Mordant 2013, 573)

Alternative Name:
Bronze tardif

Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age. [1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as ’Channel-North Sea’, which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 354)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[3]: (Mordant 2013, 573)

Alternative Name:
Channel North Sea Province

Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age. [1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as ’Channel-North Sea’, which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 354)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[3]: (Mordant 2013, 573)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[2,200 BCE ➜ 1,000 BCE]

1800-1300 BCE [1]
Dates and periodizations for the Bronze Age in Atlantic Europe [2]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

[2]: (Harding 2000, 15)


Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Bronze Age Europe

Succeeding Entity:
Hallstatt A-B1

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"Two major changes take place in the earlier Bronze Age to differentiate it from the preceding Bell Beaker and earlier traditions is (I) the use of bronze, primarily for weapons and ornaments; (2) the burial in single graves (i.e., noncom- munal), and in many areas under a small mound of earth; and (3) the construction of fortified settlements, particularly in central Europe." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)


Preceding Entity:
Beaker Culture [fr_beaker_eba] ---> Atlantic Complex [fr_atlantic_complex]

"Two major changes take place in the earlier Bronze Age to differentiate it from the preceding Bell Beaker and earlier traditions is (I) the use of bronze, primarily for weapons and ornaments; (2) the burial in single graves (i.e., noncom- munal), and in many areas under a small mound of earth; and (3) the construction of fortified settlements, particularly in central Europe." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412)

Preceding Entity:
Atlantic Complex [fr_atlantic_complex] ---> Hallstatt A-B1 [fr_hallstatt_a_b1]

Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,000 to 2,000] people

"Towns began to appear in the late first millennium over much of Europe, with considerable populations and large-scale industrial activity." [1] - from this quote I estimate 1000-2000 on basis that we have already about 1000 for Beaker Culture.

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 155)


Polity Population:
[1,000 to 2,000] people

"Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [1] - from this quote I estimate 1000-2000 on basis that we have already about 1000 for Beaker Culture.

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412-413)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

levels. "Towns began to appear in the late first millennium over much of Europe, with considerable populations and large-scale industrial activity." [1] From this we can infer that most settlements before the 1st millennium BCE were villages or hamlets. "Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [2]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 155)

[2]: (Peregrine 2001, 412-413)




Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]

levels. "The production of bronze objects has suggested to many scholars that, just as trade became more complex, sociopolitical organization may have become more complex as well. This idea seems to be reinforced by the presence of fortified towns, suggesting some degree of political integration, at least at a local level. Unfortunately, there is little formal data on sociopolitical organization for the Earlier Bronze Age. Scholars analyzing the contents of burials have suggested a two-tiered division was present in Earlier Bronze Age society, with one tier being "elites" buried with considerable wealth, the other being commoners buried with very few goods. Most scholars believe that such differences were probably achieved during the life of the individual, particularly since many of the "elite" burials contain goods associated with warriors. However, both women and men, and even some children, were buried in the "elite" style, suggesting that ascribed status differences may have been present." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Professional Priesthood:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Professional Military Officer:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Merit Promotion:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Examination System:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


No information found in sources so far.


Formal Legal Code:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


No information found in sources so far.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Irrigation System:
present

Coded as present for primitive irrigation systems on Beaker Culture.


Food Storage Site:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Transport Infrastructure

"Clearly there must have been routeways along which people traveled, if only to move their animals or visit their neighbors. But were these ways formalized? Were their surfaces prepared to facilitate the passage of animals and vehicles? Only rarely is it possible to answer that question. The most famous cases are where wooden tracks were laid down across wet or boggy ground, as above all in the Somerset Levels of south-west England, but also in several other parts of Britain, in Ireland, Holland, and north-west Germany." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2002, 311)


No information found in sources so far.


No information found in sources so far.


Bridge:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs)." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Script:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Non Phonetic Writing:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Mnemonic Device:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Sacred Text:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Religious Literature:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Practical Literature:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Philosophy:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Lists Tables and Classification:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


History:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Fiction:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Calendar:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Information / Money
Token:
present

are these true tokens or do they come under articles? "While trade in raw materials such as stone and shell had been in place for thousands of years before the Bronze Age, the bronze trade networks seem more substantial. Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs). Bronze ingots were traded to local artisans who worked them into objects, which were then traded to consumers." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Precious Metal:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Paper Currency:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Indigenous Coin:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Foreign Coin:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Article:
present

"While trade in raw materials such as stone and shell had been in place for thousands of years before the Bronze Age, the bronze trade networks seem more substantial. Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs). Bronze ingots were traded to local artisans who worked them into objects, which were then traded to consumers." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


General Postal Service:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Courier:
unknown

No information found in sources so far.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

"Hill forts were common throughout much of central and western Europe in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age..." France is mentioned in text no earlier than a sixth century BCE context. "In Scotland and northern Wales the earliest forts were built in the Late Bronze Age with timber palisades constructed on hilltop sites from ca. the eighth century BC onwards". [1] Text is not conclusive. Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected." [2]

[1]: (Champion and Karl 2012, 666) Timothy Champion. Raimund Karl. Hill Forts. Neil Asher Silberman. ed. 2012. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Volume 1. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Dietler 2010, 169) Michael Dietler. 2010. Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. Berkeley.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

In Mediterranean France ramparts of stone or stone/mud appear to date with the arrival of colonialists (i.e. Greeks) and were close to Massalia. [1]

[1]: (Dietler 2010, 169) Michael Dietler. 2010. Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. Berkeley.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

In Mediterranean France ramparts of stone or stone/mud appear to date with the arrival of colonialists (i.e. Greeks) and were close to Massalia. [1]

[1]: (Dietler 2010, 169) Michael Dietler. 2010. Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. Berkeley.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Clearly identifiable but often not well dated, upland settlements are regarded as central sites in the pattern of land occupation. This is true of sites such as Fort-Harrouard on the Eure, or St-Pierre-en-Chastres, at the confluence of the Oise and the Aisne, Carsac on the Aude, and Camp Allaric on the Clain. [1]

[1]: (Mordant 2013, 579)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Fortified Camp:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Earth Rampart:
present

"Excavations have shed much light on the ramparts, the first of which are established during the Middle Neolithic, with successive rebuilding taking place during the Late Neolithic, the Early Bronze Age, the Late Bronze Age, and finally the Iron Age. Etaules is a good example of such a sequence, with houses built for the most part along the inside of the house." [1] Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected. Aside from a few sides with impressive ditches (such as Carsac in western Languedoc), the Late Bronze Age settlements at Le Baou Roux (in Provence), La Joufee (at Montmirat in eastern Languedoc), and Le Cros (in western Languedoc) are among the very few examples known with geniune ramparts during this early period." [2]

[1]: (Mordant 2013, 579)

[2]: (Dietler 2010, 169) Michael Dietler. 2010. Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. Berkeley.


Not mentioned in the literature. "Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [1] However, this description comes from a description of Western Europe as a whole and might not correspond to the Atlantic zone specifically. Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected. Aside from a few sides with impressive ditches (such as Carsac in western Languedoc), the Late Bronze Age settlements at Le Baou Roux (in Provence), La Joufee (at Montmirat in eastern Languedoc), and Le Cros (in western Languedoc) are among the very few examples known with geniune ramparts during this early period." [2]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 412-413)

[2]: (Dietler 2010, 169) Michael Dietler. 2010. Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press. Berkeley.


Complex Fortification:
present

Inferred from previous quasi-polity.



Military use of Metals


The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and indidivual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [1]

[1]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23)


"Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, but its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


"The story of the Bronze Age is also to some extent the story of the inven- tions that occurred during it. High up on the list of these come the series of new weapons created during the period. The bow and arrow had existed since at least the Mesolithic, the dagger since the Neolithic." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 275)


"Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and par- ticularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 298)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Composite Bow:
absent

Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Handheld weapons

Inferred from previous quasi-polity.


"Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, but its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [1] At the end of the Middle Bronze Age and especially in the Late Bronze Age, Normandy saw an evolution in war practices, which could have been linked to population growth. Spear heads and swords appeared and multiplied. They do not seem to have been used for hunting, but most likely for single combat or pitched battles. "À partir de la fin du Bronze moyen et surtout au Bronze final se dessine en Normandie une évolution des pratiques guerrières, peut-être liée à un accroissement démographique. Les pointes de lance et les épées qui apparaissent et se multiplient ne semblent guère avoir été utilisées pour la chasse (cat. 12-16), mais très probablement pour des combats singuliers ou en batailles rangées." [2] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old." [3]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)

[2]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23)

[3]: (https://twitter.com/europeshistory/status/630725341313548288)


At the end of the Middle Bronze Age and especially in the Late Bronze Age, Normandy saw an evolution in war practices, which could have been linked to population growth. Spear heads and swords appeared and multiplied. They do not seem to have been used for hunting, but most likely for single combat or pitched battles. "À partir de la fin du Bronze moyen et surtout au Bronze final se dessine en Normandie une évolution des pratiques guerrières, peut-être liée à un accroissement démographique. Les pointes de lance et les épées qui apparaissent et se multiplient ne semblent guère avoir été utilisées pour la chasse (cat. 12-16), mais très probablement pour des combats singuliers ou en batailles rangées." [1] Reference is not specific to Paris Basin cultures so more research is needed.

[1]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23)


The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and individual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [1] Reference is not specific to Paris Basin cultures so more research is needed.

[1]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23)


The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and indidivual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [1]

[1]: (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23)


Battle Axe:
present

"Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, b u t its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [1]

[1]: (Peregrine 2001, 413)


Animals used in warfare

Horses were widespread in Normandy in the Bronze Age, as seen in faunal evidence and the presence of horse bits. Horses were probably used for warfare and facilitated the emergence of a warrior class. "À l’âge du Bronze, son usage est généralisé et il est présent dans tous les assemblages fauniques* conséquents. [...] Par ailleurs, la découverte des éléments de mors (cat. 94) ou d’éléments de harnachement suggère un usage monté, avec un rôle qui peut se décliner entre moyen de déplacement, communication et échange, et arme de guerre. [...] Sa probable généralisation durant l’âge du Bronze a pu bouleverser de manière importante l’art de la guerre (chars de combat, cavalerie) et assurer la suprématie d’une petite élite guerrière, en même temps que permettre un accès rapide à des secteurs géographiques jusqu’alors isolés du réseau maritime et fluvial. " [1]

[1]: (Macigny et al 2005, 74)


Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Not mentioned in the literature.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

"The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


"Until recently, this was an isolated example at such an early date, but a recently obtained radiocarbon date for the wooden shield mould from Kilmahamogue, Co. Antrim, was 3445 ± 70 BP (1950-1540 cal BC).42 Perhaps the only surprising thing about this result is that it is still unique at so early a date. It appears to indicate that shields of organic materials were present in the Early Bronze Age, which need not in itself be surprising; its form - with concentric ribs interrupted by a V-shaped notch - is, however, otherwise only known in the Late Bronze Age (the Herzsprung type)." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 285)


Scaled Armor:
absent

"The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


Plate Armor:
absent

"The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


Limb Protection:
absent

"With greaves, too, the earliest examples date to the early Urnfield period, as with the hoards from Cannes-Ecluse (Seine-et-Marne) and Rinyaszentkiraly (Somogy), as well as a number in the Sava valley of Croatia."


Leather Cloth:
present

"The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


Laminar Armor:
absent

"The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


"With greaves, too, the earliest exam- ples date to the early Urnfield period, as with the hoards from Cannes-Ecluse (Seine-et-Marne) and Rinyaszentkiraly (Somogy), as well as a number in the Sava valley of Croatia.50 And the same story may also be told for helmets." [1]

[1]: (Harding 2000, 287)


Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples. [1] The French Chronocarto database mentions "Chaîne de suspension" for the later Hallstatt periods. Either way, the technology was not present at this time.

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
absent

Inferred from previous quasi-polity.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

Not mentioned in the literature.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.