Home Region:  Turkestan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Chagatai Khanate

EQ 2020  uz_chagatai_khanate / UzChagt

"Under Kebeg’s successor Tarmashirin Khan (1326-1334) the khan’s more conservative and nomadic followers rebelled against his policy of assimilation with the settled population, and deposed the khan. In the disturbances which followed Tarmashirin’s downfall the Chaghadayid khanate split into two parts; the western section, Transoxiana, became known as the Ulus Chaghatay, and the eastern section as Moghulistan.5" [1]

[1]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 82)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 T  
Original Name:
Chagatai Khaganate  
Capital:
Bukhara  
Alternative Name:
Chaghatay  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,263 CE ➜ 1,402 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Islam  
Succeeding Entity:
Timurid Empire  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Mongolian Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Mongolic  
Language:
Middle Mongolian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Mongolian Shamanism  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sunni  
Alternate Religion:
Hanafi  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
3,500,000 km2 1300 CE
Polity Population:
[1,500,000 to 2,500,000] people 1300 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Religious Level:
[1 to 2]  
Military Level:
[4 to 6] 1300 CE
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
present  
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
present  
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
inferred absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
inferred present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
unknown  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
unknown  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
unknown  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Chagatai Khanate (uz_chagatai_khanate) was in:
 (1263 CE 1361 CE)   Sogdiana
Home NGA: Sogdiana

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Bukhara

Chagatai khans ruled from Bukhara. [1]

[1]: (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.



Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,263 CE ➜ 1,402 CE]

Genghis Khan divided territories of the Mongol conquests into four ulus in 1227 CE. [1]

[1]: (Khan 2003, 31) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.


Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Islam

The Chagatai khans who ruled from Bukhara "converted to Islam and adopted a Muslim lifestyle, characterized by a more settled existence. In contrast, the eastern khanate, known as Mughulistan ... maintained ancient nomadic traditions." [1]

[1]: (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.



Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
11,000,000 km2

km squared.




Degree of Centralization:
nominal

"At the time of Temur’s rise to power, politics in the Ulus Chaghatay was controlled by the tribes who made it up. With the decline of central leadership, control over the territory and wealth of the Ulus had fallen to them. They provided most of the military manpower of the Ulus, either from their own tribesmen or from the armies of the regions under their control. No one therefore could either become or remain leader of the Ulus wihout the backing of the tribal leaders. Tribal chiefs naturally were not eager to strengthen the position of a central leader; they were intolerant of claims to sovereignty over them,and if a leader displeased them, they were quick to switch their loyalties to a rival candidate. Under these circumstances, central leadership was often contested, sometimes even after a leader had been acclaimed by the tribes of the Ulus." [1]

[1]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 79-80)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
3,500,000 km2
1300 CE

in squared kilometers
1310 CE: 3,500,000; 1320 CE: 2,500,000; 1350 CE: 3,500,000; 1370 CE: 2,500,000; 1390 CE: 0
[1] In the mid-thirteenth century CE: "The Chaghadayid khanate originated as the territory of Chinggis Khan’s second son, Chaghadai, whose lands centered on the Issyk Kul and the Ili river, and included the Muslim territory of Central Asia." [2] After Tarmashirin Khan’s downfall in 1334 CE: "Although the eastern part of the Chaghadayid Khanate was now lost, the Ulus Chaghatay contained large new territories south of the Oxus: northeastern Khorasan and the regions of Qunduz, Baghlān, Kabul and Qandahar. Most of this area was the region of the Qara’unas, a large body of Turco-Mongolian troops (probably three tümens), which had originated as the garrison troops of Qunduz and Baghlān." [3]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)

[2]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)

[3]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 82)


Polity Population:
[1,500,000 to 2,500,000] people
1300 CE

People.
McEvedy and Jones estimated 3 million for Russian Turkestan 1300 CE. [1] Chagatai Khanate included what likely was the most populous region (Zavastan basin) of this area? at this time (after the Mongol genocides).

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Metropolitan centre
2. Town3. Village


Religious Level:
[1 to 2]

levels.
Many religions.


Military Level:
[4 to 6]
1300 CE

levels. typically decimal system used.
1. Khan
2. General of 10,000 soldiers3. (General of 1,000 soldiers?)4. 1005. 106. Individual soldier
"In accordance with Mongol tradition, Kebek Khan divided Transoxania into military-administrative districts, or tümens (in Per- sian orthography, tu ̄ma ̄n), that is, ‘10,000’ (the original meaning being a group of 10,000 fighting men or a territory providing that number of warriors). The holdings of many local landowners became tümens, and the landowners themselves hereditary governors." [1]
"Along with this land Chaghadai was given a portion of the army,including four regiments of a thousand, each led by an important tribal commander.2" [2]
"The early Chaghadayid khans and their followers lived out in the steppe, but in the early fourteenth century the Chaghadayid Khan Kebeg (1318-1326) took up his residence in Transoxiana and began to take a more direct interest in the settled population. Kebeg undertook a number of reforms and is credited with organizing Transoxiana into tümens, regions supporting ten-thousand soldiers, of which seven were in the Samarqand region and nine in Ferghana.3" [2]

[1]: (Ashrafyan 1998, 324)

[2]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
1. Kaghan
2. Governors for the settled regions.3. Princes - rulers of provincial districts. Representatives of Mongol power."The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [1]
4. darugachi or tammachi5. assistants for darugachi?
4. Head of mint inferred5. Mint worker inferred
Split into Eastern and Western Khanate in mid-14th Century [2]
"The Chagatai khans ruled from the eastern side of the Khanate, an area that had gained the nickname Mughulistan, ’Land of the Mongols’; they had never been able to wield very much power in the western reaches of the kingdom, Transoxania (the lands just east of the Oxus river). There, amirs (local Mongol chiefs) wielded the real power. [3]
"The administrative reform divided the country around Bukhara and Samarkand into tümens, and in Ferghana and East Turkistan into orchins (literally ‘near’, ‘around’, ‘surrounding’), i.e. a region located around the capital. " [1]
"The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [1]
"At the time of Temür’s rise to power, politics in the Ulus Chaghatay was controlled by the tribes who made it up. With the decline of central leadership, control over the territory and wealth of the Ulus had fallen to them. They provided most of the military manpower of the Ulus, either from their own tribesmen or from the armies of the regions under their control. No one therefore could either become or remain leader of the Ulus wihout the backing of the tribal leaders. Tribal chiefs naturally were not eager to strengthen the position of a central leader; they were intolerant of claims to sovereignty over them,and if a leader displeased them, they were quick to switch their loyalties to a rival candidate. Under these circumstances, central leadership was often contested, sometimes even after a leader had been acclaimed by the tribes of the Ulus." [4]
"The early Chaghadayid khans and their followers lived out in the steppe, but in the early fourteenth century the Chaghadayid Khan Kebeg (1318-1326) took up his residence in Transoxiana and began to take a more direct interest in the settled population. Kebeg undertook a number of reforms and is credited with organizing Transoxiana into tümens, regions supporting ten-thousand soldiers, of which seven were in the Samarqand region and nine in Ferghana.3" [5]

[1]: (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)

[2]: (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.

[3]: (Wise Bauer 2013, 557) Wise Bauer, S. 2013. The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople. W. W. Norton & Company.

[4]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 79)

[5]: (Forbes Manz 1983, 81)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

As with Mongols.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Full-time specialists. Coexistence of various religions including Islam, Catholicism, Buddhism and shamanism. The presence of Catholic missionaries is attested [1] and several Khans followed Islam. Hence the presence of full-time religious specialists can be inferred.

[1]: (Grousset 1970, 341)


Professional Military Officer:
present

As with Mongols.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

darughachi were specialist administrators.
"The Chaghatay ulus was a decentralized state, with governors appointed by the Kaghan (for the settled regions, until 1289) and rulers of provincial districts, i.e. princes assisted by special officials, the darughachi or tammachi, the representatives of Mongol power." [1]

[1]: (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)



Law

"There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan." [1]

[1]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.

"There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan." [1]

[1]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Chagatai khans observed the yasaq [1] . Hence the same applies as in the Mongol Empire: Morgan argues that the evidence does not support that claim that the Mongols had a written legal code - Chingiz Khan’s ’Great Yasa’. He argues instead that they had "a body of unwritten Mongol customary law" and that Chingis’ maxims or utterances were recorded and used in customary law. [2] There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan. [3]

[1]: (Grousset 1970, 341)

[2]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), pp.85-87

[3]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.


"There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan." [1]

[1]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.

"There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan." [1]

[1]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
present

much damage to irrigation systems in Mongol conquest but not entirely destroyed.



Transport Infrastructure

Present in Mongolian Empire.


Present in Mongolian Empire, this region landlocked.


Present in Mongolian Empire, unknown in this region


Bridge:
present

Present in Mongolian Empire.


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Rich literary corpus.



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Chinggis Khan had a Mongolian script “adapted from the Uighur variety of Turkish” [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p.9.


Nonwritten Record:
present

Rich literary corpus.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Ali Qushji (1402-1474 CE): "Son of Ulughbeg’s falconer and later a renowned astronomer, founder of Ottoman astronomy, and author of a ringing defense of astronomy’s autonomy from philosophy." [1] "Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274 CE). "Polymath native of Tus in Khurasan and founder of the Maragha observatory under the Mongols. He challenged Aristotle’s notion that all motion is either linear or circular." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.



Religious Literature:
present

"Bahaudin al-Din Naqshband Bukhari (1318-1389 CE): "Founder of a major Sufi order who helped bring about a reunion between Sufism, traditionalist Islam, and the state." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.



Philosophy:
present

Ali Qushji (1402-1474 CE): "Son of Ulughbeg’s falconer and later a renowned astronomer, founder of Ottoman astronomy, and author of a ringing defense of astronomy’s autonomy from philosophy." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

"Ulughbeg, a grandson of Timur, briefly ruled Central Asia and was an educator and astronomer. His tables of the movements of stars were long unsurpassed for accuracy". [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


History:
present

"Rashidu’d Din’s History, of the World, produced at Tabriz between 1306 and 1312." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Fiction:
present

Rumi (c.1207-1273 CE): "Common name of the hugely popular poet Jalaluddin (Jalal al-Din) Muhammad Balkhi, from Balkh, Afghanistan." [1]

[1]: (Starr 2013) Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.


Calendar:
present

Islamic calendar.


Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

"Kebek Khan (who succeeded his brother and ruled from 1318 to 1326) holds a special place in the history of the Chaghatay ulus. For example, his name is linked to the currency and administrative reforms which played an important role in the development of feudal statehood in Central Asia. [...] As for the monetary reforms, the systems of Il Khanid Iran and the Golden Horde were utilized as models. The weight of 1 kebek dinar was 2 mithqa ̄ls and 1 kebek dirham was equal to 1/3 of a mitbqa ̄l. The administrative and currency reforms of Kebek Khan were only superficial, however, and internal problems remained. The new monetary unit became known as kebek, a term that survives in the Russian word kopek." [1]

[1]: (Akhmedov and Sinor 1998, 269)


Article:
present

e.g. tribute may have been paid in kind.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

The yam horse relay communication system. [1]

[1]: (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.



Courier:
present

The yam horse relay communication system. [1]

[1]: (Khan 2003, 32) Khan, A. 2003. A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan. The Rosen Publishing Group.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications



Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown

"When Chagatai inherited Ganghis Khan’s land and established the Chagatai Khanate, ranging from the area north of the Tian Shan Mountains to Samarkand, Almaliq was made the capital city." [1]

[1]: Jeong Su-Il. 20016. The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. Irvine.





Earth Rampart:
present

Qarshi, built by Kebek, was about 40 hectares in area "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents. This layout is typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards." [1] 4.5 meter thick wall, in the region of Central Asia where walls (e.g. Samarkand) were usually built out of earth rather than stone.

[1]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.


Qarshi, built by Kebek, was about 40 hectares in area "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents. This layout is typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards." [1]

[1]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.




Military use of Metals

Steel bosses on shields. [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Iron plate armour. [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.




Projectiles








Composite Bow:
present

Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show bows. [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.



Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Presence of round conical helmet [1] suggests use of war clubs/maces in warfare.

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show swords. [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.




Dagger:
present

"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)



Animals used in warfare

Illustrations of Persian miniature art of Mongol warriors show them on horses. [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.



Donkey:
present

"Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [1]

[1]: R K Koslowsky. 2004. A World Perspective through 21st Century Eyes. Trafford. Victoria.




Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

"The bark of white poplar ... was highly prized as a covering for shields." [1] "The Tatar foot-soldier carried a bow, an axe, a dagger, a sabre and a small round shield, wooden with an iron rim" [2]

[1]: (Marozzi 2004, 67) Marozzi, J. 2004. Tamerlane. HarperCollinsPublishers. London.

[2]: (Marozzi 2004, 100) Marozzi, J. 2004. Tamerlane. HarperCollinsPublishers. London.


Shield:
present

"Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide - small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses. By the late fourteenth century many more shields are represented and often clearly depict concentric rings of cane woven with silk thread into a light but firm convex defence, usually fitted with a central steel boss. Several colours of silk thread were used and remarkable geometric patterns produced. They were lined with fabric and had a leather cushion behind the central boss, over which was braced a plaited leather grip, the ends of which were secured to four iron rings riveted through to four ornamental washers." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Scaled Armor:
present

Used on horses. Up to late fifteenth century "scale horse armour which had changed little from those found at Dura Europos." [1] "The miniatures of the Timurids and Safavids show us a fully developed system of bardings completely armouring the horse and made up of many specialized pieces of scale armor." [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Brown 1936, 447) Brown, Frank Edward. 1936. The house in Block E4, Block F3: the Roman baths; discoveries in the Temple of Artemisnanaia; arms and armor. Yale University Press.


Plate Armor:
present

"In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested". [1] "In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Limb Protection:
present

"In the late-fourteenth- and early-fifteenth-century miniatures, plate armour for the limbs makes its reappearance in the form of tubular vambraces, consisting of two hinged plates tapered towards the wrist, the lower one extended into a point to protect the elbow." [1] "The legs - always vulnerable parts of a horseman’s anatomy - were protected with separate knee-plates of ‘pot-lid’ form, set in mail or mounted upon fabric which extended up the thigh (rānāpanō). Usually, boots were worn below these; but sometimes a tubular greave of two plates opening upon hinges encased the shins and calves. These are clearly represented in a miniature painted at Shiraz, c.1433—4, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Leather Cloth:
present

Illustration in Rashidu’d Din’s "History of the World": "helmets are rounded, with a central ornamental spike, and frequently have a turned-up peak or reinforce over the brow. Nape guards are of mail, leather or fabric, as are probably the deep collars of the lamellar coats." [1] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah), with helmets and cuirasses of velvet-covered iron plates - a form of brigandine is suggested - and their horses protected by a kind of cuirass made of quilted silk." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Laminar Armor:
present

"One of the earliest illustrated Persian manuscripts to survive dates from the early fourteenth century. This is Rashidu’d Din’s History, of the World, produced at Tabriz between 1306 and 1312. The warriors wear long coats of lamellar armour barred in alternating colours, every other row bearing scroll patterns which could well be a convention to represent rows of lacquered hide lamellae with engraved ornament." [1] "Early-fourteenth-century miniatures depict warriors generally wearing lamellar armour, with aventails of mail attached to their simple helmets of low, rounded, conical form." [1] "Lamellar armour continued to be represented in miniatures into the second half of the fifteenth century, and this is well shown in a manuscript in the F. Cleveland Morgan collection at Montreal (Fig. 19E)." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Helmet:
present

Illustration in Rashidu’d Din’s "History of the World": "helmets are rounded, with a central ornamental spike, and frequently have a turned-up peak or reinforce over the brow. Nape guards are of mail, leather or fabric, as are probably the deep collars of the lamellar coats." [1] "A helmet of rounded conical form, formerly in the collection of Count Krasinski of Poland, dating from the late thirteenth or early fourteenth centuries, retained many features in common with that on the Tāq-i-Bōstān relief. ... This form of helmet is distinctly Persian in origin." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Chainmail:
present

Lamellar coats "remained popular in Persia, particularly in the north and east, for a very long time, while the alternative - mail - still persisted, it would seem, in central and southern areas." [1] "In 1393 we hear of Persian soldiers dressed in mail (zirih baktah)". [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Breastplate:
present

"metal disc worn on the breast and sometimes the back of warriors" [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
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