Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Mongol Empire

EQ 2020  mn_mongol_emp / MnMngKh

The Mongols began as one of a group of nomadic tribes living on the Central Asian Steppe. Temujin or Temuchin (later called Chinggis Khan) became Khan (king), united the different Mongol families and incorporated other tribes such as the Tatars into the ’Mongols’. He was acknowledged as the leader of all the Central Asian tribes in 1206 CE. With this force he moved out of the Steppe in search of new territory. First, the Mongols attacked northern China between 1211 and 1215 CE. In 1218 they moved west into Iran, attacking the main cities of the region. They attacked southern Russia in 1240 and the German lands in 1241. The empire did not expand any further into Europe, but turned its attention back to China and the Middle East. Khubilai Khan moved into southern China; Hulegu captured Baghdad and destroyed the Abbasid caliphate. This represented the height of the Empire in terms of territory and achievement. Indeed, so vast was this empire that the Mongols split it into four regions under four Khans: the Golden Horde in Russia, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Great Yuan in China and the Ilkhanate in Iran and Iraq, c. 1300. Over time this became independent dynasties and states. [1] The Mongols were able to mobilise large numbers of troops for their armies. All adult males under 60 were eligible for mass mobilization. All were required to provide their own horses and equipment. This meant that even though Mongol soldiers may not have been the best troops in terms of ability or equipment, they had advantages of size and discipline over their opponents. This was strengthened by Chinggis Khan reforms which introduced a decimal system of organising the army - diving up troops up into units from ten to 10, 000. [2]

[1]: Hugh Kennedy,’Mongols or Moghuls’ in The Oxford Companion to Military History eds. Richard Holmes, Charles Singleton, and Dr Spencer Jones (Oxford University Press, 2001).

[2]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p.83.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
48 T  
50 S  
Original Name:
Mongol Empire  
Capital:
Khanbaliq  
Karakorum  
Alternative Name:
Mongolian Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,251 CE ➜ 1,259 CE]  
Duration:
[1,206 CE ➜ 1,270 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Succeeding Entity:
Great Yuan  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation  
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
Early Mongols  
Degree of Centralization:
uncoded  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Sino-Tibetan  
Kartvelian  
Language:
Chinese  
Mongolian  
Persian  
Latin  
Russian  
Georgian  
Armenian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Mongolian Shamanism  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
25,221,806 km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
5  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent 1206 CE 1271 CE
present 1272 CE 1368 CE
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent 1206 CE 1273 CE
present 1274 CE 1368 CE
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred present  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Mongol Empire (mn_mongol_emp) was in:
 (1206 CE 1300 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Khanbaliq

Karakorum [1206- 1259]; Khanbaliq [1260-1368] Kublai Khan (Khubilai; r.1260-94) moved the capital of Mongol empire to Khanbaliq (Beijing) when he had completed the conquest of China. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p. 79.

Capital:
Karakorum

Karakorum [1206- 1259]; Khanbaliq [1260-1368] Kublai Khan (Khubilai; r.1260-94) moved the capital of Mongol empire to Khanbaliq (Beijing) when he had completed the conquest of China. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p. 79.



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,251 CE ➜ 1,259 CE]

The reign of Möngke saw Mongol rule at its most unified and including all of China, the South-east Asia peninsula, in addition to large parts of the Islamic world, India, and Europe. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.78.


Duration:
[1,206 CE ➜ 1,270 CE]

1206 CE. Date at which Genghis Khan (originally known as Temujin or Temuchin) became the leader over all the Turkic tribes of Central Asia at a meeting next to the Onon river. This began the expansion of Mongol rule. [1]
1270 CE. Series of Civil Wars between dependents of Temuchin for control of different parts of Mongol Empire. After a series of military campaigns, Kublai Khan took control of China and established a new Mongolian dynasty based in the territory of the former Jin empire. This polity, ruling from China, was to be known as the Yuan Dynasty, and lasted from 1271 CE until its eventual demise in 1368. [2]

[1]: Kennedy, Hugh, ‘Mongols or Moghuls’, The Oxford companion to military history, ed. by Richard Holmes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

[2]: (Atwood 2004, 603) Christopher P. Atwood. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none

An independent empire.


Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Mongols; Steppe peoples; Steppe shamanism


Succeeding Entity:
Great Yuan

GOLDEN HORDE; Chagatai Khanate; Great Yuan; Ilkhanate


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation

"Hülegü took with him an enormous army, supposedly two out of every ten Mongol soldiers, who were accompanied by families and herds. This, then, was not just a military campaign but also the mass migration of a large portion of the Mongol nation to Persia and the surrounding countries." [1]

[1]: REUVEN AMITAI, ’IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/il-khanids-i-dynastic-history

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

"Hülegü took with him an enormous army, supposedly two out of every ten Mongol soldiers, who were accompanied by families and herds. This, then, was not just a military campaign but also the mass migration of a large portion of the Mongol nation to Persia and the surrounding countries." [1]

[1]: REUVEN AMITAI, ’IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/il-khanids-i-dynastic-history


Preceding Entity:
Early Mongols

Saljuq kingdom of Rum; the Nezāri Esmāʿilis; the Abbasid caliphate the Nezāri Esmāʿilis = ’the Assassins’. The Mongol Empire covered territory that had been ruled by many different polities from the Saljuq kingdom of Rum to the .. [1]

[1]: REUVEN AMITAI, ’IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY’ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/il-khanids-i-dynastic-history


Degree of Centralization:
uncoded

"During his lifetime Čengiz Khan had allotted to his kinsfolk specific grazing-grounds, together with the nomadic troops and bodies of the subject people—the units called ulus (olus) in the sources." [1]

[1]: Peter Jackson, ’MONGOLS’ in Encyclopædia Iranica http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mongols


Language

Language:
Chinese

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Mongolian

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Persian

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Latin

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Russian

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Georgian

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.

Language:
Armenian

Mongolian the spoken, and later written, language of the Mongols. The extent of the empire meant a range of other languages were in use, including within administrative structures. [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.5, pp.11-14, pp.96-97.


Religion



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
25,221,806 km2

The Empire at its largest extent. [1]

[1]: (Kradin, Nikolay. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. May 2020. Email)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels.
1)Capital in Mongolia
2) Regional capitals e.g. of Persia or Korea
3) Cities
4) Towns
5) Villages
The basic economic unit of Mongols was the nomadic camp [ayil], "normally consisting of a single extended family with its own tent (ger) and herds". [1]

[1]: Thomas Allsen, ‘The Rise of the Mongolian Empire’, in Herbert. Franke and Denis C. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China. Volume 6. Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1995), p. 325.


Religious Level:
3

levels.
1) Khan - He was "declared to have a mandate from Möngke Tengri (Everlasting Heaven). [1]
2) The chief shaman - The office of beki, the highest religious authority. Instructed ‘to ride on a white horse, wear white raiment’ and ‘choose a good year and moon’. [1]
3) Shaman. Inferred from there being a chief shaman. [1]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. pp.255-256.


Military Level:
5

levels.
1) Khan. Both the personal guard and the tribal soldiers owed allegiance to the Khan. [1] [2]
2) Khan’s personal guard, or kesigten. The were appointed initially from the Khan’s retinue. Chingis raised their strength to 10,000 men. made up of kebte’ul (night guards), qorchin (day guards) and turgha’ud (bodyguards). [3] "it was also a sort of military school which allowed the Khan personally to test the future leaders of his military forces." [3]
3) Commander - regular army, larger unit [3] “Chinggis adopted the decimal system of organization … creating military units whose notional size ranged from ten to 10, 000 although the larger units were never fully up to strength.” [4]
4) Commander - regular army, smaller unit [3] “Chinggis adopted the decimal system of organization … creating military units whose notional size ranged from ten to 10, 000 although the larger units were never fully up to strength.” [4]
5) Soldier. Those men who had to serve through tribal obligations [all males under 60 had to serve in the army if mobilised] or local auxiliary troop employed in particular campaigns. [5]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. pp.255-256

[2]: Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.75.

[3]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. pp.255-256.

[4]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.81-83.

[5]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. pp.75, 79.


Administrative Level:
5

levels.
“Patrimonial in nature, Mongol administration grew out of the ruler’s household.” Positions in the household such as ‘cook’ (ba’urchi) actually responsible for testing for poisoning, provisioning for retainers.Mongke: central secretariat in Mongolia. Titles: ‘chief judge’ ‘chief scribe’. “Khubilai’s orders to rulers of Annam and Korea made clear that was expected from dependent rulers; they had to pay court in person, register their populations, raise militia units, establish postal relay stations, and have a Mongol resident to take charge of affairs. Tributary rulers also had to send sons or younger brothers as hostages - another way to expand the ruler’s household into a system of control for a complex empire” [1]
1) Khan. The Khan had sovereign power over the empire. [2]
2) Royal household, containing chamberlains, stewards, quiver bearers, doorkeepers, grooms. There was strong overlap with his body guard, in terms of personnel. Both came form his retinue of military commanders. They travelled wherever the Khan went. [3] Also Chinggis Khan appointed a chief judge (yeke jarghuchi) "to supervise and coordinate the activities of the recently expanded administrative system" [4] Allsen says that both the household and the guard came from the nokod - companions or warrior commanders.
3) Dependent and tributary rulers, e.g of Annam and Korea. [1]
4) Darugha or darughaci - “all-purpose Mongol official in conquered territory" or provincial governor. [5] They oversaw census taking, tax collection, military recruitment. Initially came from the Khan’s retinue of commanders. [6]
5) Local administrators - There is evidence that the Mongols absorbed the existing bureaucrats and structures in areas they conquered such as Persia. [5]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.80-82.

[2]: Thomas Allsen, ‘The Rise of the Mongolian Empire’, in Herbert. Franke and Denis C. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China. Volume 6. Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1995), p.347.

[3]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp.80-82; Thomas Allsen, ‘The Rise of the Mongolian Empire’, in Herbert. Franke and Denis C. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China. Volume 6. Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1995), p.344

[4]: Thomas Allsen, ‘The Rise of the Mongolian Empire’, in Herbert. Franke and Denis C. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China. Volume 6. Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1995), p.344.

[5]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. p.97

[6]: Thomas Allsen, ‘The Rise of the Mongolian Empire’, in Herbert. Franke and Denis C. Twitchett (eds), The Cambridge History of China. Volume 6. Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1995), p.373.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

e.g. in the Khan’s personal guard. [1]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. 255-256


Professional Priesthood:
present

Buddhist shaman [e.g. the beki, the highest religious authority] and in the Islamic societies conquered by the Mongols, imams. [1]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. pp.255-256.


Professional Military Officer:
present

e.g. in the Khan’s personal guard. [1]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, Paris: Unesco, 1998. 255-256


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

e.g. royal treasury.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

In Persia "the Mongols increasingly entrusted the day-to-day administration of government to Persian bureaucrats" [1]

[1]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), p.89.


Examination System:
present

The Mongols initially stopped the examinations to enter the Chinese bureaucracy. These were revived in 1315 although they were not used in other parts of the empire. [1]

[1]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), p.97.


Law

Chief Judge (yeke jardhuchi) who had two roles: "to oversee the apportionment of subject peoples and to preserve Chinggis Khan’s legislative pronouncements, known as jasaghs." [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p.131.


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Morgan argues that the evidence does not support that claim that the Mongols had a written legal code - Chingiz Khan’s ’Great Yasa’. He argues instead that they had "a body of unwritten Mongol customary law" and that Chingis’ maxims or utterances were recorded and used in customary law. [1] There is also disagreement about how Mongol customary law and Shari’ia law may have co-existed in Muslim territories. Successful coexistence seems to depend on the particular Khan. [2]

[1]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), pp.85-87

[2]: 1. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 161.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

In Karakorum: "Markets were in the Muslim sector and outside the four gates." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 446)


Irrigation System:
present

"In northwestern Mongolia irrigation systems existed with channels and even simple aqueducts made of hollow logs (onggocha/ongots). Many of these irrigation systems were ancient, dating back to the military farms created under the Mongol Empire (see CHINQAI; QARA-QORUM; SIBERIA AND THE MON- GOL EMPIRE)." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 175)


Food Storage Site:
present

“To levy taxes in these new administrative units, each was also to receive a tax office managed by two officials recruited from among traditional Chinese scholars. These officers are noticed in the Secret History where they are called balaqaci (q.v.), "storehouse managers," and amuci (q.v.), "granary officers." Some of the tax offices may have been in existence before Ögödei, but the main system was of his making." [1]

[1]: (Buell 1993, 39)


Transport Infrastructure

"To prepare for his arrival, Mas’fid-beg, Arqan-aqa, and other Mongol officials situated along Hule’u’s line of march were instructed to prepare. They repaired roads, bridged rivers, and established ferries where there were no bridges. They also had to find and reserve pasturage of the flocks following Hule’u’s army." [1]

[1]: (Buell 2003, 51)


"During and after the conquest of the Song, Bayan Chingsang (Grand Councillor Bayan) achieved legendary status. Chinese songs and folklore spoke of him as “Hun- dred Eyes” (bai yan in Chinese), and his red banner could incite panic in Song troops by its sudden appearance. Even so, Qubilai’s chief mandate to Bayan was to kill no more than necessary, and Changzhou was the only city where he ordered wholesale massacre. In 1311 a temple was dedicated to him in Lin’an by imperial decree. During his stay in the south, the development of water transport, both inland and overseas, had impressed him, and in 1282 he advocated both the construction of canals in the north and the overseas transportation of southern grain to the capital. These proposals bore fruit, however, only after he had been dispatched to the Mongolian frontier." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 38)


Bridge:
present

"To prepare for his arrival, Mas’fid-beg, Arqan-aqa, and other Mongol officials situated along Hule’u’s line of march were instructed to prepare. They repaired roads, bridged rivers, and established ferries where there were no bridges. They also had to find and reserve pasturage of the flocks following Hule’u’s army." [1]

[1]: (Buell 2003, 51)


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

e.g ’Manghal un Niuca Tobca’an (The Secret History of the Mongols). A Chinese version the Sheng-wu ch’in-chneg lu was also produced. [1] [2]

[1]: Leeming, David. "Secret History of the Mongols." In The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press, 2005

[2]: Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, P.11.


Script:
present

The Mongolian script. Chingiz Khan had a Mongolian script “adapted from the Uighur variety of Turkish” [1]

[1]: Morgan, David. The Mongols. 2nd ed. The Peoples of Europe. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p.9.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Tsi’s influential work on planetary astronomy" [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 155.


Practical Literature:
present

Astronomical and star tables were intended for practical use. [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 155.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

e.g. star tables produced at the astronomy in Maragha. [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 155.


History:
present

Manghal un Niuca Tobca’an (The Secret History of the Mongols). [1]

[1]: Leeming, David. "Secret History of the Mongols." In The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. : Oxford University Press, 2005.


Calendar:
present

Chinese astronomers "used Middle Eastern astronomical tables to revise Chinese calendars and produce a new calendar for the Mongol rulership." [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 155.


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Gold and silver dinars minted.


Paper Currency:
absent

Chinese paper currency was present, but no indigenous [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
present

Taxation within the empire moved from payment in kind to payment to cash, this encouraged expansion of the coinage. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p.83.


Foreign Coin:
present

Through trade and through tribute, for example from the Seljuks who paid partly in cash. [1]

[1]: Melville, Charles. “Anatolia under the Mongols.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, 51-101. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.p.54, p.60


Article:
present

Used in the tribute paid to the Mongols by the Seljuks for example, who paid partly with items.. [1] Articles were used when tribute was paid to the Mongols. As taxation increased within the empire there was a movement from payment in kind to payment to cash, encouraging expansion of the coinage. Gold and silver dinars were minted and used. [2] The Mongols also had a sophisticated postal network [the Yan system], including runners and postal stations around a days journey part from each other. This was used to send royal communications around the empire. [3]

[1]: Fleet, Kate. “The Turkish Economy, 1071-1453.” In The Cambridge History of Turkey, edited by Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, and Reşat Kasaba, 227-65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. P.244

[2]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p.83.

[3]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), p.90-91.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Post stations were erected at distances of one day’s journey between them. Marco Polo said that this was 25-30 miles distance. [1]

[1]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), p.91.


General Postal Service:
present

The extensive Yam system was used to communicate royal orders and royal envoys across the empire. [1]

[1]: David Morgan, The Mongols (Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed. 2007), p.90-91.


Courier:
present

Mongols required non-fighting people to perform labour duties, including service in postal relays. [1]

[1]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p.83.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

"The emperor urged his relatives to build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site, thus starting the city of Qara-Qorum. Its mud walls were completed in summer 1251." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 446)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

"The emperor urged his relatives to build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site, thus starting the city of Qara-Qorum. Its mud walls were completed in summer 1251." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 446)




Khirkhira town had a citadel surrounded by a rampart and a moat. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2010, 261)



Earth Rampart:
present

Khirkhira town had a citadel surrounded by a rampart and a moat. [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2010, 261)


[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Complex Fortification:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)



Military use of Metals

Used for helmets. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Used for the scaled body armour. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Copper:
present

[1]

[1]: (Xie, Liye. North China Workshop 2016)


Bronze:
present

[1]

[1]: (Xie, Liye. North China Workshop 2016)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Catapults. [1] Mangonels used in siege warfare. [2] Mongols recruited 1, 000 Chinese catapult operators in 1253. [3] "The Mongols made extensive use of traction trebuchets during their campaigns in Korea, notably at the sieges of Kuju and Chukju." [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). p.296

[3]: Findley, Carter V., The Turks in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005),p.83.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent
1206 CE 1271 CE

The propulsion mechanism of Mongolian siege engines utilized tension not gravity until "the extent of the Mongol conquests allowed them to bring new siege weapons to China, of which the most important was the Muslim counterweight trebuchet, first used at Xiangyang in 1272." [1] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
present
1272 CE 1368 CE

The propulsion mechanism of Mongolian siege engines utilized tension not gravity until "the extent of the Mongol conquests allowed them to bring new siege weapons to China, of which the most important was the Muslim counterweight trebuchet, first used at Xiangyang in 1272." [1] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.




Javelin:
present

Depictions of Mongol soldiers with javelins. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.246.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent
1206 CE 1273 CE

Exploding bombs used in the failed 1274 CE invasion of Japan. [1] Often said that Chinggis "used gunpowder in siege warfare, sapping and mining operations, during his western campaigns.” [2] Although Raphael disputes the evdience for this. [3]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, 248-64. Paris: Unesco, 1998. p.259.

[3]: Raphael, Kate. “Mongol Siege Warfare on the Banks of the Euphrates and the Question of Gunpowder (1260-1312).” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, 19, no. 3 (July 1, 2009): 355-70.

Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present
1274 CE 1368 CE

Exploding bombs used in the failed 1274 CE invasion of Japan. [1] Often said that Chinggis "used gunpowder in siege warfare, sapping and mining operations, during his western campaigns.” [2] Although Raphael disputes the evdience for this. [3]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, 248-64. Paris: Unesco, 1998. p.259.

[3]: Raphael, Kate. “Mongol Siege Warfare on the Banks of the Euphrates and the Question of Gunpowder (1260-1312).” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, 19, no. 3 (July 1, 2009): 355-70.


Crossbow:
present

“Large framed mounted crossbows" used in sieges. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). p.296 .


Composite Bow:
present

The main weapon of the Mongol cavalry. [1]

[1]: Hugh Kennedy, ’Mongols or Moghuls’ in The Oxford Companion to Military History eds. Richard Holmes, Charles Singleton, and Dr Spencer Jones (Oxford University Press, 2001)



Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Mongol soldiers used maces. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Mongol soliders had sabres. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Depictions of Mongol soldiers with spears [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.243


Polearm:
present

Depictions of Mongol soldiers with hooked ’spears’ for pulling riders from their horses. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.243


Dagger:
present

Depictions of Mongol soldiers with daggers. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.243


Battle Axe:
present

Depictions of Mongol soldiers with axes. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.243


Animals used in warfare

As used by Mongol cavalry, the main fighting force. [1] As with other armies of the Steppe the main force of the Mongol army was mounted cavalry. Not all Mongol horsemen were heavily armoured, but a variety of armour and weapons can be seen in the sources. The Mongols also absorbed local influences in military technology as their empire spread. So they employed Chinese siege engineers, used gunpowder and made use of naval forces when they needed to. They were not great builders however, often destroying fortresses in areas they moved into. [2] [3] [4]

[1]: Bira, Sh. “THE MONGOLS AND THEIR STATE IN THE TWELFTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.” In History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century. Part I The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by C. E. Bosworth, Muhammad S. Asimov, and Yar Muhammad Khan, 248-64. Paris: Unesco, 1998. p.259.

[2]: Stackpole Books, 1999)

[3]: Thomas T. Allsen, ‘The Circulation of Military Technology in the Mongolian Empire’ in Nicola Di Cosmo (ed.), Warfare in Inner Asian History: 500-1800 (Leiden

[4]: Boston: Brill, 2002). pp.265-93.


Elephant:
present

Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Donkey:
present

Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Camel:
present

Possibly used in warfare as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

e.g. Willow-wood shields. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 53.


Shield:
present

Willow-wood shields were carried by some soldiers. Tortoise shell shields used assaults on fortifications. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Scaled Armor:
present

Iron scaled body armour worn by some soldiers. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.



Limb Protection:
present

Arm defences made of flaps of metal armour. P.243 [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.241


Leather Cloth:
present

Helmets had flaps made of leather. Some Mongol armour was made of hide, which "consisted of six layers tightly sewn together and shaped, after being softened by boiling,to fit the body." [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52-53.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Full-length lamellar cuirass of central Asian style shown in Ilk-Kanid manuscripts. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.241


Helmet:
present

Made of steel and leather. [1]

[1]: Martin, H. Desmond. “The Mongol Army.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1 (April 1, 1943): 52.


Chainmail:
present

Attached to helmets as neck protection only. [1]

[1]: David Nicolle, Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia, rev. and updated ed (London : Mechanicsburg, Pa: Greenhill Books ; Stackpole Books, 1999). P.241



Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

The Mongols recruited Chinese and Song sailors to serve in a navy to defeat the Southern Song [1] [2] " Korea was finally vanquished in 1273, suffering the indignity of having its entire navy requisitioned for Khubilai Khan’s first attempt at an invasion of Japan." [3]

[1]: Thomas T. Allsen, ‘The Circulation of Military Technology in the Mongolian Empire’ in Nicola Di Cosmo (ed.), Warfare in Inner Asian History: 500-1800 (Leiden

[2]: Boston: Brill, 2002), p.265.

[3]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.





Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.