Home Region:  Pontic-Caspian (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Golden Horde

EQ 2020  ru_golden_horde


The Golden Horde – or Ulug Ulus (‘Great State’) – was originally a northwest sector of the Mongol Empire, which became one of four independent khanates after the fragmentation of the empire in 1259, led by the son of Ghengis Khan, Jochi.
Our Golden Horde polity begins in 1240 when Khan Batu, the grandson of Ghengis Khan, sacked and burned the city of Kiev, conquering and subjugating the region of the Russian steppe and its principalities.
The merging of the nomadic, shamanist, mongol-turkic Gold Horde, with the devoutly Christian and settled people of the Russian steppes, brought about many changes for both sides.
From the fourteenth century the Horde officially converted to Islam under the rule of Öz Beg (Uzbek) Khan
At its greatest extent, around 1330, the Golden Horde territory ran from the Carpathian Mountains to the steppes of Siberia, while the south bordered the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains and the Iranian territory of the Il-Khans.
[1] [2]

[1]: “Golden Horde”. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VXQGWC6R

[2]: Atwood 2004: vii. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
39 N  
Original Name:
Golden Horde  
Capital:
Sarai Batu (also Sarai or Saray or Old Sarai)  
Sarai Berke (also New Sarai or New Saray)  
Alternative Name:
Ulug Ulus  
Kipchap Khanate  
Ulus of Jochi  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,312 CE ➜ 1,341 CE]  
Duration:
[1,240 CE ➜ 1,440 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Language
Religion
Religious Tradition:
Shamanism  
Islam  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
75,000 people  
Polity Territory:
6,000,000 km2 1310 CE
Polity Population:
[400,000 to 600,000] people  
Largest Communication Distance:
300  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Source Of Support:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Communal Building:
present  
Utilitarian Public Building:
present  
Symbolic Building:
present  
Knowledge Or Information Building:
present  
Entertainment Building:
present  
Special Purpose House:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Trading Emporia:
present  
Special Purpose Site:
present  
Enclosure:
present  
Ceremonial Site:
present  
Burial Site:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred Transitional (Present -> Absent)  
Sacred Text:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Religious Literature:
inferred Transitional (Present -> Absent)  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred Transitional (Present -> Absent)  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
inferred Transitional (Present -> Absent)  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)  
Article:
present  
Store Of Wealth:
present  
Debt And Credit Structure:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present  
Volume Measurement System:
unknown  
Time Measurement System:
inferred present  
Length Measurement System:
present  
Geometrical Measurement System:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)  
Area Measurement System:
present  
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Golden Horde (ru_golden_horde) was in:
Home NGA: None

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Sarai Batu (also Sarai or Saray or Old Sarai)

The first Golden Horde capital was established by Batu Khan on the lower banks of the Volga River. Under the reign of Berke Khan, the capital was moved upstream and renamed. In the fourteenth century the capital of Sarai was described as a typical Muslim city, having running water, mosques, meddress’ (higher learning), palaces, merchants’ quarters and inns for travellers. [1] [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Schamiloglu 2018: 23. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX

Capital:
Sarai Berke (also New Sarai or New Saray)

The first Golden Horde capital was established by Batu Khan on the lower banks of the Volga River. Under the reign of Berke Khan, the capital was moved upstream and renamed. In the fourteenth century the capital of Sarai was described as a typical Muslim city, having running water, mosques, meddress’ (higher learning), palaces, merchants’ quarters and inns for travellers. [1] [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Schamiloglu 2018: 23. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Alternative Name:
Ulug Ulus

It was not until the sixteenth-century that the name Golden Horde was given to this independent entity of the Mongols. Prior to this they were referred to as Dasht-I Qifchaq¸ ‘Qipchaq Steppe’, or Ulus (realm) of Jochi, the ancestor of the Golden Horde khans. . [1]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 201. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

Alternative Name:
Kipchap Khanate

It was not until the sixteenth-century that the name Golden Horde was given to this independent entity of the Mongols. Prior to this they were referred to as Dasht-I Qifchaq¸ ‘Qipchaq Steppe’, or Ulus (realm) of Jochi, the ancestor of the Golden Horde khans. . [1]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 201. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

Alternative Name:
Ulus of Jochi

It was not until the sixteenth-century that the name Golden Horde was given to this independent entity of the Mongols. Prior to this they were referred to as Dasht-I Qifchaq¸ ‘Qipchaq Steppe’, or Ulus (realm) of Jochi, the ancestor of the Golden Horde khans. . [1]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 201. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,312 CE ➜ 1,341 CE]

Öz Beg (Uzbek) Khan is considered to be the greatest ruler of the Golden Horde. During his reign the polity reached the height of its power and Islam became the official state religion. The khan’s court was full of scholars, theologians, mathematicians and astronomers. During the reign of his son and successor, Jani Beg Khan, the Black Death hit the Horde. Jani Beg was later assassinated in 1357. As the Golden Horde would not return to its height of power again, the end of Öz Beg’s reign is considered to mark the beginning of the decline and gradual disintegration of the Golden Horde. [1] [2] [3]

[1]: “Golden Horde”. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VXQGWC6R

[2]: Halperin 1987: 27. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[3]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 460. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Duration:
[1,240 CE ➜ 1,440 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Language

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
75,000 people

Inhabitants.Sarai Berke on the Volga River (previously named Sarai Batu and located downstream) was the capital of the Golden Horde. At its peak it had around inhabitants. [1]

[1]: “Golden Horde”. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VXQGWC6R


Polity Territory:
6,000,000 km2
1310 CE

in squared kilometers.The peak date of the Golden Horde’s territorial expanse was in 1310 when they held six million square kilometres of territory. [1]

[1]: Turchin, Adams and Hall 2006: 222. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8J2YS3HC


Polity Population:
[400,000 to 600,000] people

People.“The size of the Horde’s population can be approximately calculated by a widely used method: the numerical strength of the army, known from the sources, is multiplied by 4 or 5. It is believed that upon full military mobilisation, some 3/4 or 4/5 of the total population of the nomads—women, children, feeble old men and horseless poor—stayed at home.” [1] Therefore the estimated population of the Golden Horde is around 400,000 – 600,000 inhabitants by the end of this period. [2]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 829. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Trepavlov 2016: 427. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/PUGWXUCR


Largest Communication Distance:
300

in kilometers.The distance between the city of Bulgar and the farthest east sites at the Alatyr and Issa rivers is 300km; more than one week of land travel. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 311. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels. Types of settlements varied between regions as the nomadic Horde conquered and settled in regions which had towns and villages. [1] [2] [3] [4] : 1. Capital city (Sarai) :: 2. Major cities (Astrakhan, Ükek, Bulğar) ::: 3. Towns :::: 4. Villages ::::: 5. Hamlets :::::: 6. Nomadic camps

[1]: Halperin 1987: 35, 36, 77, 84. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Atwood 2004: 36. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

[3]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 150. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[4]: Schamiloglu 2018: 19. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Religious Level:
1

levels.With the official conversion to Islam in the fourteenth century came the change of the religious structure in the Golden Horde. [1] There is no official structure or hierarchy in the religion of Islam. Though there are scholars and preachers (imams).

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Military Level:
6

levels.“Characteristic of the Jochid Ulus army was the designation of a military service class chosen primarily from among the Horde’s social elite. The Jochids formed its upper crust, followed by ulus begs and darugh begs, then emirs in command of thousands, hundreds, and dozens, to whom the title beg also applied.. Commanders from the Jochi clan were known as oghlans on the army’s right and Left wings… Therefore, most scholars agree that the organizational structure of the military consisted of a rigid hierarchy based on the decimal system, in which tens were the smallest units and a tumen of ten thousand warriors—the largest unit.” [1] : 1. Khan :: 2. ulus begs and darugh begs ::: 3. Emirs :::: 4. Military Governor (Voevoda) ::::: 5. Commander (Noyan) :::::: 6. Soldiers and horsemen.

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 259-260. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels. [1] [2] Prior to Islamic conversion : 1. Khan (head of state) :: 2. Family Council (quriltai) :: 2.1. Commander in chief / Deputy to the Khan (beglerbegi) :: 2.2. Vizier ::: 3. Ulus khans (a minor khan within each state, ulus, of the wider empire) :::: 4. Ulus Emirs ::::: 5. Lesser administrative posts. After Islamic conversion With the official conversion to Islam in the fourteenth century came the adoption of the Persian diwan system of governance. [3] _Regions with direct administration_ : 1. Khan :: 2. Central Council ::: 3. Vizier (head of the treasury) :::4. Baskaki (local official, tax collector, supervisor, military commander) (changed to darugi in the fourteenth century) ::::: 5. Lesser administrative posts. _Regions with local administration_ The Golden Horde chose not to have direct administration in Russian or Armenia-Georgia due to the expense, and so allowed local rulers, such as princes, to administer the region. Although they initially had resident Mongol officials (baskaki) in Russia, this was later changed so that envoys (posoly) relayed direct orders from the Khan to the local Russian princes. [4] : 1. Khan :: 2. Posoly (official envoys, important aristocrats) ::: 3. Local nobility (e.g. a foreign prince) :::: 4. Lesser administrative posts.

[1]: Atwood 2004: 205. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

[2]: Halperin 1987: 26, 30-39. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[3]: Halperin 1987: 26, 36-39. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[4]: Halperin 1987: 30-31, 34. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown

All able-bodied males in the Golden Horde were considered warriors but not necessarily professionals. The sources have not confirmed this. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 260. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8



Professional Military Officer:
unknown

The elite classes made up the officer ranks of the army but they were not necessarily professionals. The sources have not confirmed this. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 259-260. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Source Of Support:
unknown

Probably a salary but this is not confirmed in the sources.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Courts, archives, offices etc. [1] [2]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 177, 216. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.



Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The Golden Horde had a permanent bureaucratic centre in the capital of Sarai. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Examination System:
present

It appears that bureaucrats needed to be “qualified” and undertook many roles such as taxation, administration. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 65, 919. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

The khans had professional lawyers who worked alongside his officials. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 243, 896. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Judge:
present

Judges were elected and appointed to decide the outcome of criminal case based on imperial law and their own knowledge. However Kkans were considered the supreme judge. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 176-177, 185-189. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Formal Legal Code:
present

Prior to Islamisation in the fourteenth century, the Golden Horde’s legal system was Mongol customary law and its nomadic laws were codified. After the conversion to Islam, the Horde followed the Muslim religious laws of Shar’iat. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 93. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Court:
present

From 1320 Islamic qadi courts were functioning alongside the jargu courts. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 177. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

There were markets all across the polity, as they were already established in settlements of their conquered territory, and the Golden Horde then controlled the trade route through Eurasia.


Irrigation System:
present

Remains have been found of irrigation canals in sites near rivers, and canals directed water to irrigate fields. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 545, 645, 653. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Food Storage Site:
present

It is likely that there was food storage especially in the cities and larger towns but the sources have not mentioned them. . [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 724. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Cities in the Golden Horde territories had running water supplied by aqueducts, water pipes and wells. [1] . [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 652-653. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Communal Building:
present

Mosques. Caravanserai (inns for travellers) [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.



Symbolic Building:
present

Mosques and churches. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2018: 22. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Knowledge Or Information Building:
present

The Golden Horde had archives in the capital which were destroyed when Tamerlane sacked the city in 1390s. There were also meddresses (higher learning institutes) in the capital. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Entertainment Building:
present

Public baths were places of recreation and where clubs met. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 651. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8



Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present

Trading routes had roads. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2018: 2122. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Port:
present

Trading ports such as the Black Sea ports. [1] [2]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 203. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 584, 754, 757. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Canal:
present

Canals were dug to supply water to settlements and to redirect water to irrigate fields. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 545, 645, 653. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Bridge:
present

There were manned river crossing stations in the territory. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2018: 21. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Silver mines were present in Central Asia and the conquered Russian principalities. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 179, 620. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Trading Emporia:
present

Towns and marketplaces grew along the trading routes that ran through the territory. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2018: 21. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX



Enclosure:
present

Some cities had walled enclosures. [1] In the capital, and possibly other large cities, the merchants questers were surrounded by a wall to protect their goods. [2]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 66. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Schamiloglu 2018: 23-24. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/4DIB5VCX


Ceremonial Site:
present

Depending on the religion of the region there were cemeteries, Christian churches or Islamic mosques. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 123, 125. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Burial Site:
present

Cemeteries, tombs, mausoleums. [1] [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 125. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Atwood 2004: 190. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

The Golden Horde used paper records for all administrative documents. Correspondence both internal and foreign, was via a paper trail. To their allies, the Mamluks, they observed the Islamic diplomacy rules whereby all correspondence was “on paper of the correct size, written in the proper scripts with the right pens and inks and special gold letters, and expressed in elaborate formulas that only poets and scholars could fully master.” [1] Chronicles and records were kept by official scholars. [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 27. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Halperin 1987: 34-35. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.




Nonwritten Record:
present

Insignia, imperial seals, stamps. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 40, 90. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

Arabic writing from at least the fourteenth century. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 123. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)

The were many scientists and scientific scholars in the golden Horde. There was a disruption of literary works in the Turkic languages following the Black Death. After 1360 there appear to be no literary or religious works written in the Golden Horde language until the fifteenth century in Central Asia. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2017: 337. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/YI8W94QB


Sacred Text:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

Conversion to Islam in the fourteenth century introduced the Qu’ran to the Golden Horde.


Religious Literature:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)

During the plague year of 1358 an Islamic-Turkic religious work was produced called, The Clear Path to Heaven. [1] However, there seems to have been a disruption of literary works in the Turkic languages following the Black Death. After 1360 there appear to be no literary or religious works written in the Golden Horde language until the fifteenth century in Central Asia. [2] . [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 684. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Schamiloglu 2017: 337. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/YI8W94QB


Practical Literature:
present

Between the thirteenth-sixteenth centuries, there were many Arab-Kipchak language grammar books, glossaries, and language guides written. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 510. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Philosophy:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)

Öz Beg Khan’s son and successor, Jani Beg (Islamic name, Jalal ad-Din Mahmud), was a patron of philosophy he had many philosophical works written by Islamic scholars. [1] There was a disruption of literary works in the Turkic languages following the Black Death. After 1360 there appear to be no literary or religious works written in the Golden Horde language until the fifteenth century in Central Asia. [2]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 460. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Schamiloglu 2017: 337. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/YI8W94QB


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Census records were kept. [1] The second census was carried out in 1274-75. [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 42, 50. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Atwood 2004: 78. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.


History:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)

There was a disruption of literary works in the Turkic languages following the Black Death. After 1360 there appear to be no literary or religious works written in the Golden Horde language until the fifteenth century in Central Asia. [1]

[1]: Schamiloglu 2017: 337. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/YI8W94QB


Fiction:
present

Mongolian poetry was written on birchbark. [1] Romantic and philosophical poetry was especially popular. [2]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 206. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 507, 510. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Calendar:
present

The Turkic version of the Chinese zodiac calendar was used by the mongols, which was a twelve-year animal calendar. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 535. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Information / Money

Precious Metal:
present

Gold and silver were common in the Golden Horde. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 27. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Paper Currency:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

From 1339 onwards the Golden Horde khans received payments from the Yuan dynasty in paper currency (ding). [1]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 206. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.


Indigenous Coin:
present

The Khans of the Golden Horde coined their own silver currency. [1]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26, 27. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.


Foreign Coin:
Transitional (Present -> Absent)

Regions which had been conquered by the Mongol forces often had their own coins, such as Russian rubles. [1] However, by 1310 the minting of silver coins from Mokhshi only created a closed system and coins from foreign states were not permitted. [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 76. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 623. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Article:
present

In the early years of this polity (1240-50s) cloth bolts and squirrel pelts were used as currency in parts of the steppe and Russia. [1]

[1]: Atwood 2004: 205. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/SJXN6MZD.


Store Of Wealth:
present

Coin hoards and treasure troves have been found in settlements which were hidden by local inhabitants. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 400, 430, 439, 613, 615, 621. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Debt And Credit Structure:
unknown

The sources consulted have not mention credit and debit structures.


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

On average, postal stations were situated every forty kilometres. Managers were employed to maintain the stations and they supplied lodging, food and horses for messengers and officials. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 65. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


General Postal Service:
present

The Golden Horde had a postal system (yam) based on that of the Mongol Empire which had been established in 1235. [1] [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 65. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Courier:
present

Messengers and official envoys were used to deliver orders and communication across Golden Horde territory using the post stations. [1] [2]

[1]: Halperin 1987: 26. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/VCPWVNM.

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 65. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Information / Measurement System
Weight Measurement System:
present

Coins were minted across the region and were weighed and measured. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 621-622. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Volume Measurement System:
unknown

The sources consulted have not mentioned a measurement of volume.


Time Measurement System:
present

Clocks, among other rare and expensive items, were gifted between the wealthy elite of the east (such as China and India) and the west (such as the Venetians), so they may have passed through the trade routes and possibly been gifted to a khan, but this is not confirmed in the sources. [1] Calendars were also used. [2]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 584. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8

[2]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 535. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Length Measurement System:
present

Buildings such as mosques were built on a geometric fashion and therefore a measurement of length must have been used. . [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 479. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Geometrical Measurement System:
Transitional (Absent -> Present)

With the Islamisation of the Golden Horde came the geometrical buildings of mosques. Geometrical patterns on items such as belt buckles, drinking cups, decorative bowls, and wall decorations were also used. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 434, 476, 497. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8


Area Measurement System:
present

the Tatars had a land measurement system. [1]

[1]: Khakimov and Favereau 2017: 197. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/QL8H3FN8



Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Military use of Metals
Projectiles
Handheld weapons
Animals used in warfare
Armor
Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.