Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Ottoman Empire II

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  tr_ottoman_emp_2 / TrOttm3

Preceding:
1402 CE 1517 CE Ottoman Empire I (tr_ottoman_emp_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
1683 CE 1839 CE Ottoman Empire III (tr_ottoman_emp_3)    [continuity]
1637 CE 1805 CE Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty (ye_qasimid_dyn)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

In the 15th century CE, the Turkic Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, took from the last vestiges of the defeated Roman Empire the famous title ’caesar’, and added to it the grandiose title ’ruler of the two continents and the two seas’. [1] However, it was Suleiman I (1520-1566 CE) who earned his sobriquets ’the Magnificent’ and ’the Lawgiver’ when he reformed the Ottoman system of government, codified Ottoman secular law, and extended the Ottoman Empire into Europe as far as Vienna.
Population and political organization
The Ottoman Empire was a hereditary dynasty under the rule of an Ottoman Sultan. [2] The Ottoman ’slave-elite’ differed from that of the Mamluk Sultanate in that the Ottoman slaves could never achieve the position of sultan, which remained the hereditary property of the Osman dynasty. With its capital in Istanbul, the main organ of state power was the ’elaborate court, palace, and household government’. [3] Policy-making was weakly institutionalized: in theory, all decisions were made by the sultan himself, and so Ottoman policies were shaped by the sultan’s personal character and by the ’individuals or factions who had his ear’. [4] The sultans appointed their own staff and paid them with a wage or (increasingly after 1600 CE) a fief. [5] State funding came in large part from money raised by fief holders until Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha Kulliyesi (in office from 1718 CE) introduced a property tax. [6]
The administrative and military officials around the sultan were slaves educated in palace schools. [7] The source of this non-Turkish administrative class was the devsirme tribute, which began in 1438 CE; by the 16th century about 1,000 boys were taken per year per recruiting province in the Balkans and non-Muslim communities in Anatolia. The system divided these slaves into those who would serve the bureaucracy and those who would form the elite military corps known as janissaries. In 1582 CE, recruits of non-devsirme origin, including free Muslims, were permitted to join the janissaries and after 1648 CE the devsirme system was no longer used to recruit for the janissaries. [8] The imperial household together with its armies and administrative officials was truly vast, numbering about 100,000 people by the 17th century. [3] The renowned Ottoman architect Sinan was a tribute slave; he notably designed the Sehzade and Süleyman külliyes (complexes of buildings including mosques and mausoleums) and the Selim Mosque at Edirne (1569-1575 CE), with its four 83-metre-high minarets. [9] [10]
Ottoman sultans issued decrees through an imperial council (divan) [4] and the chief executive power below the sultan, the grand vizier. [11] Although certain regions (Egypt, for example) may have differed slightly in their governing structure, Ottoman regional government typically involved governors (beylerbeyi) [12] whose provinces were split into districts (sanjaks) under district governors (sanjak beyi). [13] The sanjak beyi also was a military commander. [14] Fief-holding soldiers were responsible for local law and order within their districts. [15] By the late 16th century, the lowest level of this system had transformed into a system of tax farms or fiefs given to non-military administrators. [16] In 1695 CE, these tax farms were ’sold as life tenures (malikane)’, and later shares in tax farms were sold to the public. [17]
Ottoman law was divided into religious - Islamic sharia - and secular kanun law. [18] Kanun law essentially served to fill the gaps left by the religious legal tradition, regulating ’areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable’. [18] In the Ottoman Empire, this included aspects of criminal law, land tenure and taxation; kanun law drew its legitimacy from precedent and custom. [18] Military judges (kadi’asker) were the heads of the empire’s judiciary and heard cases brought before the imperial council. [19]
Ottoman Anatolia further enhanced many aspects of Byzantine culture. In 1331, in an attempt to spread Islam to new territories, Iranian and Egyptian scholars were brought to Iznik in northwestern Anatolia to teach at the first Ottoman college. [20] Palace schools were created to train the next generation of Ottoman officials. During the 15th and 16th centuries CE, about 500 libraries were built by sultans and high Ottoman dignitaries. These were maintained by waqf religious foundations; the majority in Istanbul, Bursa and Erdine. Initially, these were madrassa libraries and specialist libraries, but the first independent Ottoman waqf libraries were founded by the Koprulu family in 1678 CE. [21]
The Ottoman postal system (ulak) structured around postal stations (similar to the Mongol yam) [22] spanned an empire of 5.2 million square kilometres at its greatest extent, [23] with a population of approximately 28 million people in 1600 CE. [24] Istanbul likely had a population of at least 650,000 in 1600 CE. [25]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 18) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’, in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Volume One: 1300-1600, edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert, 1-8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 87) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 437) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 154) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[5]: (Imber 2002, 171) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[6]: (Palmer 1992, 33-34) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire. London: John Murray.

[7]: (Nicolle 1983, 10) David Nicolle. 1983. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

[8]: (Nicolle 1983, 9-11, 20) David Nicolle. 1983. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

[9]: (TheOttomans.org 2002) TheOttomans.org. 2002. ’Architecture’. http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/architec.asp, accessed 3 April 2017.

[10]: (Freely 2011, 15, 29, 215, 269) John Freely. 2011. A History of Ottoman Architecture. Southampton: WIT Press.

[11]: (Imber 2002, 156) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[12]: (Imber 2002, 177-78) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[13]: (Imber 2002, 184) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[14]: (Imber 2002, 189) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[15]: (Imber 2002, 194) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[16]: (Imber 2002, 209, 215) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[17]: (Lapidus 2012, 473) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[18]: (Imber 2002, 244) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[19]: (Imber 2002, 157) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[20]: (Lapidus 2012, 440) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[21]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 333-34) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File.

[22]: (Królikowska 2013, 59) Natalia Królikowska. 2013. ’Sovereignty and Subordination in Crimean-Ottoman Relations (Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries)’, in The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, edited by Gábor Kármán and Lovro Kunčević, 43-66. Leiden: Brill.

[23]: (Turchin, Adams and Hall 2006) Peter Turchin, Jonathan M. Adams and Thomas D. Hall. 2006. ’East-West Orientation of Historical Empires’. Journal of World-Systems Research 12 (2): 219-29.

[24]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 137) Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Allen Lane.

[25]: (Bairoch 1988, 378) Paul Bairoch. 1988. Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 T  
Original Name:
Ottoman Empire II  
Capital:
Istanbul  
Alternative Name:
Ottoman Dynasty  
Osmanli Dynasty  
Othman Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,520 CE ➜ 1,566 CE]  
Duration:
[1,517 CE ➜ 1,683 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Turkish  
Succeeding Entity:
Ottoman Empire III  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Ottoman Empire III (tr_ottoman_emp_3)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty (ye_qasimid_dyn)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Ottoman Empire I (tr_ottoman_emp_1)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Turkic  
Language:
Turkish  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Hanafi  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sufi  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[650,000 to 700,000] people 1600 CE
Polity Territory:
4,836,000 km2 1600 CE
Polity Population:
28,000,000 people 1600 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
4  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
[9 to 10]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Ottoman Empire II (tr_ottoman_emp_2) was in:
 (1517 CE 1534 CE)   Upper Egypt     Konya Plain
 (1534 CE 1538 CE)   Upper Egypt     Southern Mesopotamia     Konya Plain
 (1538 CE 1636 CE)   Upper Egypt     Southern Mesopotamia     Konya Plain     Yemeni Coastal Plain
 (1636 CE 1682 CE)   Upper Egypt     Southern Mesopotamia     Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Ottoman Empire II


Alternative Name:
Ottoman Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Alternative Name:
Osmanli Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Alternative Name:
Othman Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,520 CE ➜ 1,566 CE]

Suleiman I, referred to as "The Magnificent" and "The Lawgiver."


Duration:
[1,517 CE ➜ 1,683 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Turkish

Succeeding Entity:
Ottoman Empire III

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[4,500,000 to 5,000,000] km2

km squared. Figure includes Anatolia, Transoxania, Persia, West Eurasian Steppe.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Ottoman Empire II [tr_ottoman_emp_2] ---> Ottoman Empire III [tr_ottoman_emp_3]
Preceding Entity:
TrOttm3 [tr_ottoman_emp_2] ---> Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty [ye_qasimid_dyn]

Zaydi imams expelled Ottoman forces with tribal support: ’In response to growing Portuguese strength in the Indian <?cean, a Circassian Mameluke army was sent to Yemen from Egypt In 15I 5· The Mamelukes destroyed the Tahirid state that ruled Lower Yemen at the time but were prevented from tackling the Zaydi Imam in his turn by the Ottoman invasion of Egypt (1517), and, when they withdrew, the Imam Sharaf al-Din extended his own influence down to Aden; but in 1538 the Ottomans themselves dispatched an army and within ten years conquered ~pper Ye~~n, beginning a century of often fiercely resisted occupation.’ [1]

[1]: Dresch, Paul 1989. "Tribes, Government and History in Yemen", 198

Preceding Entity:
Ottoman Empire I [tr_ottoman_emp_1] ---> Ottoman Empire II [tr_ottoman_emp_2]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Language

Language:
Turkish

On a regional non-governing basis: "in no province of the Empire was there a unique language." [1] Other languages: Slavonic, Greek, Albanian, romance-speaking Vlachs, Greek, Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic, Persian. [2] [3]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Cosgel, Metin. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. April 2020)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[650,000 to 700,000] people
1600 CE

Inhabitants. 660,000: 1550 CE; 680,000: 1580 CE; [650,000-700,000]: 1600 CE; 700,000: 1650 CE
Istanbul
1600 CE: 650,000. 1700 CE: 700,000. 1800 CE: 570,000. [1]
1550 CE: 660,000. 1580 CE: 680,000. 1600 CE: 700,000. 1650 CE: 700,000. 1700 CE: 700,000. [2]
Cairo
150,000-200,000 in 1517 CE. Increased in size "by about 50 percent during the Ottoman period." [3]
Aleppo
67,344: 1519 CE; 56,881: 1520-1530 CE; 45,331: 1571-1580 CE [4]
Damascus
57,326: 1520-1530 CE; 42,779: 1595 CE [4]

[1]: (Haywood 2011, 116)

[2]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 225)

[4]: (Dols 1977, 196)


Polity Territory:
4,836,000 km2
1600 CE

3,400,000: 1520 CE; 3,833,000: 1540 CE; 4,267,000: 1560 CE; 4,745,000: 1580 CE; 4,836,000: 1600 CE; 4,927,000: 1620 CE; 5,018,000: 1640 CE; 5,109,000: 1660 CE; 5,200,000: 1680 CE in squared kilometers [1]
5.2 million KM2 at greatest territorial extent. [2]

[1]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Turchin, Adams and Hall 2006) Peter Turchin. Jonathan M Adams. Thomas D Hall. 2006. ’East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.’ Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 219-229


Polity Population:
28,000,000 people
1600 CE

People. 22,000,000: 1550 CE; 28,000,000: 1600 CE; 27,500,000: 1650 CE
Population of Ottoman Empire [1]
1,000,000: 1325 CE
2,500,000: 1350 CE
5,000,000: 1400 CE
7,000,000: 1450 CE
9,000,000: 1500 CE
22,000,000: 1550 CE
28,000,000: 1600 CE
27,500,000: 1650 CE
24,000,000: 1700 CE
24,000,000: 1750 CE
24,000,000: 1800 CE
25,000,000: 1850 CE
25,000,000: 1900 CE
Population growth in Anatolia. 1520-1530 CE: 872,610. 1570-1580 CE: 1,360,474. [2]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 137)

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 28) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’ in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Volume One: 1300-1600 edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels.
1. Capital city (Istanbul)
2. Provincial city3. District cityBy 16th century Sanjaks based around a town with a population of about 100,000. [1]
4. Town5. Village6. Nomadic tribes (Turcomans) [2]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 184 Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 34) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’ in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Volume One: 1300-1600 edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Religious Level:
4

[1]
1. Sultan
Suleiman I called himself "caliph of all the Muslims in the world" [2]
2. Chief Mufticalled seyhulislam. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
3. Inner Circlecalled ilmiye. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
4. Imams
"The population of the Empire was heterogenous in religion, language and social structure. As the Faith of the sultans and of the ruling elite, Islam was the dominant religion, but the Greek and Armenian Orthodox Churches retained an important place within the political structure of the Empire, and ministered to large Christian populations which, in many areas, outnumbered Muslims." There were also Jews (especially after expelled from Spain 1492), Maronites and Druzes. [3]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 20) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’ in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Volume One: 1300-1600 edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (Imber 2002, 1-2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Military Level:
9

"On mobilization, one of every ten sipahis remained at home to maintain law and order. The rest formed into alay regiments under their çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers. These led them to theş local sancak bey’s two-horse-tail standard. The men of each sancak then assembled around a provincial governor or beylerbeyi before riding to the Sultan’s camp." [1]
Janissaries were organized into ortas (regiments) of 100 - 3,000 men. [2]
1. Sultan
2. Commander in chief3. Beylerbeyi4. Sancak bey5. çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers of the alay (regiment)6.7.8. Individual sipahissipahis (timar holders).
9. cebeluslarger timar holders of zeamets could equip mounted retainers (cebelus). [1]
Version based on Shaw (the following structure was the same for the administration and military) [3] implies that the çeribaşi and subaşi Nicolle mentions are below the alay beys.
1. Sultan
2. Commander in chief3. eyalets lead by beylerbeyis or "beys of beys", ruled provinces4. sancak or liva commanded by sancek bays (who ruled local administration. They appointed police chiefs. Religious judges - kadis - oversaw justice).5. alay regiment, commanded by alay beys6. sipahitimar or fief holder (mounted soldier). Siphai had no rights of ownership, he was the Sultan’s representative, whose job was to maintain order, over-see agriculture and collect taxes from the peasants. Distribution most concentrated in Balkans and Anatolia.
7. Man-at-armsAccording to an Albanian register of 1431-1432 CE one timar holder had to be present on campaign together with one man-at-arms. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 12)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[3]: (Shaw 1976, 24)

[4]: (Imber 2002, 198) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Administrative Level:
[9 to 10]

levels.
1. Sultan
Mehmet II also took the title "caesar" and "ruler of the two continents and the two seas" [1]
The Ottoman Empire was a dynastic state. Rule was passed on to male heir. [2]
Sultans "ruled the Empire through members of their own household, whom they had appointed to government office. This was a tendency which began probaby in the late fourteenth century, and had become very pronounced by the late fifteenth." [3]
"The sultans ruled the Empire through their court as much as through formal organs of government" and sometimes by-passed formal structures of government such as in diplomatic negotiations. "There never, it seems, was a formal mechanism for policy making. All decisions in theory were the sultan’s own. What mattered, therefore, was the character of the sultan, and the individuals or factions who had his ear." [4] "At the center of the centralizing Ottoman state was an elaborate court, palace, and household government." [5]
_ Central government line _
2. Imperial Council (divan) under presidency of the grand vizier [4] Issued decrees of Sultan and made less important and administrative policy decisions. [4] According to Ottoman tradition, grand vizirate may have come about after Mehmed II stopped attending meetings. [6]
3. Military judges (kadi’asker) [7]
3. Treasurers (defterdar) [7] of the Imperial Treasury of the Porte4. Clerks under the TreasurerPages of the treasury were responsible to a eunuch. [8] Heads of treasury administration, chancery services etc. [9] Officials rotated. [10]
5. Clerks under the Treasurer6. Clerks under the TreasurerAccording to a register the suites of the Treasurers and Chancellor had a total of 18 clerks in 1527-1535 CE; 23 in 1531 CE; 34 in 1561 CE; 50 in 1605 CE; 64 by 1609 CE; 115 in 1627-1628 CE. [11] These numbers suggest more levels within these departments compared to previous periods.
7. Apprentice in the TreasuryTreasury documents in Persian not Turkish and used form of numbers "incomprehensible to the uninitiated." Clerks required apprenticeship. [12]
3. Chancellor (nishanji) [7] "it was the chancellor who oversaw the clerks who drew up decrees and other documents" [7]
4. Clerks under the Chancellor5. Clerks under the Chancellor6. Clerks under the Chancellor
3. Controller of Registers headed the land registry [11] 4. Clerks of the land registry inferred
3. Head Clerk (reisu’l-kuttab) [11] Head clerk was in charge of the clerks. Office dates from early 16th century. [11]
4. memorandum writer (tezkereji) under the Head Clerk [13]
_ Provincial line _
2. Provinces with governors (beylerbeyi) [14] 32 provinces by 1609 CE according to list of Ayn Ali. [15] Governor-generals (beylerbeyi) were the Sultan’s appointees and they could be moved or changed at his request. They were not hereditary positions and not held for life. [16]
3. Judgeship of a town or city judge"The judge, unlike the sanjak governor, had authority throughout his area, with judgeships forming what has been called ’a parallel system’ of administration [17]
3. Districts (Sanjaks) under district governor (Sanjak beyi) [18] who was also a military commander [19] Role of sanjak included law and order (with fief holder), pursuing bandits, investigating heresy, supplying army, materials for shipbuilding, and those on the frontier special military duties. [20]
4. Fief-holding soldiers responsible for local law and order [21] -- system declined late 16th century, reassigned as tax farms or to non-military nominees of Palace [22] "The troops of each sanjak, under the command of their governor, would then assemble as an army and fight under the banner of the governor-general of the province. In this way, the structure of command on the battlefield resembled the hierarchy of provincial government." [16] [20]
Fiefs were only one form of land-holder in Sanjacks. Other land was privately owned, formed part of a trust, or controlled by the Sultan. Beglik or miri land was given out by Sultan as fiefs. [23]
By 1500 CE the smallest fiefs were called timar (village or group of villages and their fields). Larger ones subashilik (or zeamet). Largest called a hass. [24]
Egypt: 1517-1608 CE [25]
3. Imperial Treasury of the Portelocated at Ottoman central government
4. beylerbey (governor) Vali/Pasha in Egyptin 1527 Ottoman Grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha "issued an edict which, legally at least, was to regulate the civil and military administration of the province until the end of Ottoman rule in 1798. ... Henceforward, the governor was to be a wali, and his council a diwan" [26]
beylerbey also held the title Pasha and was a minister in the Ottoman government [27]
5. diwan council membersa diwan al-Ali (High Council) and Ordinary Council contained the establishment (officers, ulama, others of high status) and could advise and obstruct the beylerbey in the event of "arbitrary or tyrannical actions. [28]
6. Scribe in the council inferred
4. Nazir-i Emval, or Defterdar "Keeper of the Books" (Chief Treasurer)position "held by men sent from the Imperial Treasury of the Porte to represent the interest of the Sultan in Egypt." Initially appointed by Ottoman central government)
authority of the beylerbey was limited by the daftardar (treasury official appointed from Istanbul), the qadi (judge who had "direct links to Istanbul"), and the agha (appointed from Istanbul) of the janissary militia (odjaq) [28]
5. Principal executive officer for the Defterdar (Emin-i Sehir, or "Emin of the City" of Cairo)
6. Mamluk Mutahaddis, Emin or Efendieach province had an inspector
7. Ruznameji department head (before 1608 CE the Ruznameji was the lowliest of the Efendis)
8. Scribe in Ruznameji inferred
7? beys (provincial governor) of a mamlakaRun by Mamluks. Following the Ottoman conquest mamluks had "kept control of administration in the provinces" [29] In Egypt "beneath the top level of Ottoman administration the old institutional structure remained intact." [30]
"The title "bey" (bak or bayk), which originally denoted a rank and not specific function, was equivalent to the Mamluk title "emir of one hundred" (amir mi’a). There were in principle twent-four beys, just as there had been twenty-four first-class emirs. The title kashif for the governors of the provinces was also an inheritance from the Mamluk sultanate." [31]
In Cairo there were "no specialized municipal administration or public institutions." [28]
8? timar holders [32]
9? Wali, governor of a small town
10? Village leader / tribal leader inferred’
Egypt: 1608-1718 CE [25]
3. Imperial Treasury of the Portelocated at Ottoman central government
4. beylerbey (governor) Vali/Pasha in Egyptin 1527 Ottoman Grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha "issued an edict which, legally at least, was to regulate the civil and military administration of the province until the end of Ottoman rule in 1798. ... Henceforward, the governor was to be a wali, and his council a diwan" [26]
beylerbey also held the title Pasha and was a minister in the Ottoman government [27]
5. diwan council membersa diwan al-Ali (High Council) and Ordinary Council contained the establishment (officers, ulama, others of high status) and could advise and obstruct the beylerbey in the event of "arbitrary or tyrannical actions. [28]
6. Scribe in council inferred
4. Nazir-i Emval, or Defterdar "Keeper of the Books" (Chief Treasurer)position "held by men sent from the Imperial Treasury of the Porte to represent the interest of the Sultan in Egypt." Initially appointed by Ottoman central government)
authority of the beylerbey was limited by the daftardar (treasury official appointed from Istanbul), the qadi (judge who had "direct links to Istanbul"), and the agha (appointed from Istanbul) of the janissary militia (odjaq) [28] 6. Ruznameji department head "the director of the Efendis and scribes of the Treasury"previously the lowliest of the Efendis, now at the top
7. Ruznameji Chief Clerk (Bas Halife)8. Ruznameji Three Halife (Clerks)
7. Efendis who headed other departments8. Specialised assistants of the Efendis (Halife or Mubasir).
9. Apprentices (Sakird, plural Sakirdan) who did menial scribal work in departments.
7? beys (provincial governor) of a mamlakaRun by Mamluks. Following the Ottoman conquest mamluks had "kept control of administration in the provinces" [29] In Egypt "beneath the top level of Ottoman administration the old institutional structure remained intact." [30]
"The title "bey" (bak or bayk), which originally denoted a rank and not specific function, was equivalent to the Mamluk title "emir of one hundred" (amir mi’a). There were in principle twent-four beys, just as there had been twenty-four first-class emirs. The title kashif for the governors of the provinces was also an inheritance from the Mamluk sultanate." [31]
In Cairo there were "no specialized municipal administration or public institutions." [28]
8. Millet?"Christians and Jews were expected to have their own laws. Everyone was organised in the so-called ’millets’, communities based on faith, and as long as the millet did not come into conflict with Islamic organisation and society, paid its taxes and kept the peace, its leaders were largely left to run their own affairs." [33]
8? timar holders [32]
9? Wali, governor of a small town
10? Village leader / tribal leader inferred’
Other provinces [34] [35]
2. beylerbeyliks [36] or BeylerbikProvince run by a beylerbey.
1500 CE four central provinces: Rumelia, Anatolia, Rum and Karaman under direct rule. [36]
3. sanjak beyliks [36] or sanjakCounty run by a bey
4. timarliks [36] "districts assigned to military officiers in lieu of salary" 37,500 timar holders in 1527 CE [37] timar holder was chief law enforcement officer on his lands. [36] "In the early seventeenth century, they replaced assignment of tax revenues to timar holders with direct taxation. Timars were sold to wealthy investors as tax farms." 1597 CE. in 1695 CE tax farms "sold as life tenures (malikane). [38]
5. Council of Elders / Intermediaries of timar holders [36] run by headman or mayor [39] "timar holders themselves used intermediaries to oversee their domains. Local landowners, merchants, and village notables or headmen were important in tax collection and the administration of local affairs." [36]
3. Vassal provinces"In matters of provincial government, the empire was never truly centralized. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it was still common for newly conquered regions to remain vassal provinces, under the control of their former lords, often Christians, in return for tribute and military manpower." [40]
"The experience of Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik is a good illustration of the accommodating method operating on both sides. Its citizens had petitioned the Pope for permission to trade with infidels right after the Turks’ first serious victory in Europe. By the 15th century the Ottomans had turned Ragusa into their own Venice, to every successive doge’s fury and despair! The Ragusans’ behaviour was so mild and noble that by 1347 they had erected an old people’s home. By the mid-15th century they had abolished slave trading, forbidden torture, organised a dole, a public health service, a town planning institute and several schools." [33]
"Less compliant Ottoman vassal rulers were subjected to a number of requirements. They were forced to send their sons to the Ottoman court as hostages, had to pay tribute and to take part in the Ottoman wars either in person or represented by their sons. Control over their compliance was exercised by the watchful beys of the marches." [33]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 18) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’ in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Volume One: 1300-1600 edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 87) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Imber 2002, 148) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 154) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[5]: (Lapidus 2012, 437)

[6]: (Imber 2002, 156) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[7]: (Imber 2002, 157) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[8]: (Imber 2002, 149) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[9]: (Lapidus 2012, 439)

[10]: (Lapidus 2012, 444)

[11]: (Imber 2002, 169) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[12]: (Imber 2002, 170) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[13]: (Imber 2002, 169-170) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[14]: (Imber 2002, 177-178) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[15]: (Imber 2002, 178) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[16]: (Imber 2002, 182) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[17]: (Imber 2002, 191) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[18]: (Imber 2002, 184) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[19]: (Imber 2002, 189) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[20]: (Imber 2002, 190) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[21]: (Imber 2002, 194) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[22]: (Imber 2002, 209, 215) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[23]: (Imber 2002, 193) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[24]: (Imber 2002, 193-194) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[25]: (Shaw 1962, 338-348)

[26]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 28) Oliver R, Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press.

[27]: (Raymond 2000)

[28]: (Raymond 2000, 238)

[29]: (Raymond 2000, 195-196)

[30]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)

[31]: (Raymond 2000, 203)

[32]: (Shaw 1962)

[33]: (Turnbull 2003, 77)

[34]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

[35]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[36]: (Lapidus 2012, 443)

[37]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[38]: (Lapidus 2012, 473)

[39]: (Shaw and Shaw 1977, 90)

[40]: (Lapidus 2012, 442)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Salaried personnel increased from about 24,000 in 1527 CE to just under 100,000 in 1660 CE. [1]
"By 1400, therefore, most of the troops in the Ottoman army served on a contractual basis, allowing the sultan to levy a predictable number of reliable troops year after year." [2]
Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [3] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions." [3]
Janissaries were paid a monthly salary. [4]
In Egypt, "janissaries and the azab drew a large part of their income ... from urban tax-farms (muqata’at) and from the payment they received for the protection of artisans and shopkeepers in the city." [5]

[1]: (Murphey 1999, 16) Murphey, Rhoads. 1999. Ottoman warfare 1500-1700. UCL Press. Taylor & Francis Group.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 256-257) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Nicolle 1983, 9)

[4]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 204)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"Religious employees included the imams , the hatibs and the muezzin, who led daily prayers and served in local mosques. Some state employees, such as the muftis, the kadıs and the muderris, had both a legal and religious identity. The Ulema, scholars of the Quran and the holy law, are not priests in the sense of rituals etc." [1]

[1]: (Cosgel, Metin. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. April 2020)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [1] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 9)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Customs house at Suez. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 107)


Merit Promotion:
present

Bureaucracy was staffed mostly from a slave class of boys raised from the devsirme tribute system, every five years, from Christian families (mostly from the Balkans region). They were taught Turkish, converted to Islam and educated from childhood to work in the military and government, excluding sons of most Muslim fathers within the Empire. [1]
"Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [2]
Present in the Egyptian financial administration: "All the positions of Efendi in the Treasury were established as Muqata’at which were distributed when vacant at auctions held in the house of the Ruznameji to the highest bidder from amongst those members qualified to hold them, and whose price was delivered to the Vali as part of his Hulvan revenues. For that reason, the departments were also called Muqata’a and the Efendis Muqata’a’i, "holder of the Muqata’a",in the registers. Only those possessing the requisite qualifications, as manifested by prior membership in the scribal corporation of an Imperial Treasury, whether in Egypt or elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, could bid for these positions." [3]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[3]: (Shaw 1962, 346)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

[1] "By the seventeenth century, the imperial household, including the armies and the administration, numbered about 100,000 people." [2]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 437)


Examination System:
present

"Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [1]
"The iç oğlani were trained forup to seven years in palace schools which concentrated on character-building, leadership, military and athletic prowess, languages, religion, science, and a creative art of the pupil’s choosing. Three further examinations selected men for the Kapikulu cavalry, to be Kapikulu officers and, at the top of the tree, to become military or administrative leaders. All remained bachelors until their training ended, when most married women who had been through a parallel schooling in the Palace harem." [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

"The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)


Called a Kadi. [1]
"The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [2] Military judges (kadi’asker) were the "chief judges of the Empire, who were responsible for judicial matters that came before the council." [3] Judges in towns. [4]

[1]: (Finkel 2012)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 157) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 171) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Formal Legal Code:
present

From 15th century Ottomans had secular law called kanun which coexisted with the religious law, shari’a. [1]
"Kanun regulated areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable. These, in the Ottoman Empire as in other Islamic polities, were above all in the areas of criminal law, land tenure, and taxation. The origins of the secular law lay in custom, and it was long usage that in the first place gave it legitimacy." [1]
Justice system was the seriat, Islamic law, decided by the ulema religious establishment. [2]
Mehmet II "promulgated the first systematic legal codes dealing with the organization of the state and the obligations of subjects." [3]
"In matters of government administration, Ottomman law applied to all subjects, but in matters of family and business law, it applied only to Muslims. Non-Muslims had their own communal law and courts. In practice, however, Jews and Christians commonly had recourse to Ottoman courts in order to assure enforcement, or to have state guarantees for commercial and property transactions, or to win an advantage in marital and inheritance disputes." [4]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 244) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Palmer 1992)

[3]: (Ira Lapidus with Lena Salaymeh 2012, 442)

[4]: (Lapidus 2012, 442)


State courts. [1] Ottoman Cairo had fifteen courts of justice. [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 441)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 194)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Mehmet II built commercial centres including a covered bazaar in the Old City of Istanbul. [1] Endowment funds were invested in bazaars and shops. [2] Fixed economy in Istanbul. "The state required traders to guarantee the delivery wheat, salt, meat, oil, fish, honey, and wax directly to the palace and the capital city at fixed prices. Merchants were thus made agents of the state to meet the fiscal and provisioning needs of the capital." [3] In Cairo, the waqf instigated urban development of Ridwan Bey (a "powerful emir" in the late seventeenth century) over one hectare included a "commercial structure" containing shops. [4]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 18)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 449)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 450)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 237)


Irrigation System:
present

Rebuilt Egyptian irrigation systems. [1] Maintained Egyptian irrigation systems with wood brought from Anatolia. [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)

[2]: (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/v043/43.1.greene.html)



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Aqueducts in Istanbul. [1] 111 drinking fountains built in Cairo during three centuries of Ottoman rule, 46 between 1626 and 1775 CE. Western area of Cairo two fountains built between 1517 and 1725 CE. [2] Water was brought to fountains or to the door of residents manually, via camel and water carriers (up to 10,000 daily), and the fountains were built by waqf foundations and individuals rather than a municipal authority. [3]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 172) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 220, 223)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 245-250)


Transport Infrastructure

Network expanded under Bayezid II (1481-1512 CE) [1] In Cairo, according to Jean de Thevenot in 1658 CE "There is not one fine street in Cairo, but a great number of small ones that twist and turn, showing that the houses in Cairo were all built without benefit of a city plan." [2]

[1]: (Hodgson 1961, 563)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 242)


Istanbul. 1525 CE rebuilt naval base at Suez. 1530 CE added dockyard and warships at Basra. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 24)


In Egypt, Maqsud Pasha (1642-1643 CE) "ordered the dredging of two canals, the Khalij al-Hakimi and the Khalij al Nasiri, which were threatened with silting." [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 227)


Bridge:
present

Bridge building. [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 449)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System

Script:
present

In Egypt financial registers "were written in the special Siyaqat script, developed for financial purposes out of the Arabic script and introduced into the Treasury during the 10/16th century by the scribes who were sent to it from the Porte. The concise and regular nature of this script made it ideal for use in the limited space available in the registers, and is lack of the normal Arabic diacritical marks and violation of the usual rules for the formation and connection of Arabic letters made it incomprehensible to all but those especially initiated into the secrets of its formation and use." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 341)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

[1] Ali Kuscu 1403-1474 CE. Samarkand tradition. Twelve works on mathematics and astronomy. Kadizade-i Rumî 1337-1437 CE. Mirim Celebi (d. 1525) mathematics and astronomy. Musa b. Hamun (d. 1554) Jewish physician. Nasuh al-Silahi al-Matraki (d. 1564) mathematics and geography. Taki al-Din al-Rasid (d. 1585) "wrote more than thirty books in Arabic on the subjects of mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, and medicine." [2] Piri Reis (d. 1553 CE) - maps.

[1]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 338) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.

[2]: (http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/science.asp)


Sacred Text:
present

[1]

[1]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 338) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.


Religious Literature:
present

[1]

[1]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 338) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.


Practical Literature:
present

Piri Reis geography, first map 1511 CE. The Book of Bahriye (Book of Navigation). Admiral Seydi Ali Reis (d. 1562) maritime geography. [1] "Legal and financial records." [2]

[1]: (http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/science.asp)

[2]: (Imber 2002, 149) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Philosophy:
present

[1]

[1]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 338) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Molla Lutfi (Bayezid II period) classification of sciences and geometry. [1] "Legal and financial records." [2]

[1]: (http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/science.asp)

[2]: (Imber 2002, 149) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


History:
present

Ibn Kemal. [1] Unknown author wrote Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi (History of Western India). Presented to Sultan Murad III in 1583 CE. [2]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 19)

[2]: (http://www.theottomans.org/english/art_culture/science.asp)


Fiction:
present

16th Century considered the Golden Age for Ottoman literature. [1] Poetry: Baki (d. 1600 CE). Panegyrist and satirist: Nef’i (d. 1636 CE). [2] Efendi (d. 1644 CE). [2]

[1]: (Agoston and Masters 2009, 338) Gabor Agoston and Bruce Masters. 2009. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc.

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 445)



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

[1] Ottoman coinage introduced by Sultan Orhan Bey in 1328 CE. [2] Unified currency from 17th century. [3]

[1]: (Pamuk 2000)

[2]: (kultur.gov.tr [1])

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 473)


Foreign Coin:
present

Unified currency from 17th century. [1] c1580 CE "Ottoman markets flooded were with European silver and counterfeit currency." [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 473)

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 25)


Article:
present

In Egypt the Imperial Treasury received and stored assets in kind. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 338)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Postal system called ulak. System of postal stations was similar to the Mongol yam. [1]

[1]: (Karman and Kunevi 2013, 59)


General Postal Service:
absent

Not until 1841 CE. Late development because foreign services permitted to operate within the Empire. For example, Austrians since 1721 CE. [1]

[1]: (Shaw and Shaw 1977, 229)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present



Fortified Camp:
present

In the field the tabur fortification system was used, waggons would be chained together to protect artillery and manned by Janissaries. [1] "Ottoman strategy relied on mobility and offensive tactics during their era of expansion, but from the second half of the 17th century, as they lost the tactical initiative, the Turks were increasingly obliged to rely on elaborate field fortifications." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 6)



"By the 16th century Ottoman tactics had reached their classic form. Within a formidable system of entrenchments..." [1] "At the battle of Varna in 1444 the formidable Janissaries occupied the centre positions with a ditch around them." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)

[2]: (Turnball 2003, 20) Turnball, S. 2003. The Ottoman Empire 1326-1699. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Complex Fortification:
present

Grand Vizier Mehmet Koprulu ordered the building of Seddulbahr and Kumkale castles. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003, 82)


Projectiles


Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)



Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)


Handheld Firearm:
present

Janissaries. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

"War in the Balkans also brought the Ottomans up against the Hungarians, from whom they adopted the tabur field fortification of en with hand-guns in waggons chained together to protect primitive artillery." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)


Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1] Magaharibad, north African marines, used a crossbow. [2] At some stage crossbow came into use, mainly for use in fortresses. [3] Janissaries, founded in second half of the 14th century, were less numerous. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 267) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 257) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Composite Bow:
present

Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1] In the early 17th century Tartar cavalrymen used a bow. [2] Turkish bow fired from horseback. [3] Janissaries, founded in second half of the 14th century, were less numerous. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate G)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 267) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 257) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.



Handheld weapons

akinji (raiders) carried a mace. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2003, 18) Turnball, S. 2003. The Ottoman Empire 1326-1699. Osprey Publishing Ltd.


Naval Janissary carried a curved sword. [1] Sipahi cavalry carried two swords. [2] Timar-holding cavalrymen also carried short sword. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate E)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F + 37)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 267) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Illustration shows "Deli scout, c.1600" with a spear. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Illustration shows "Arab auxiliary, early 17th C" with a very long spear. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Curved daggers. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plates E, G)


Battle Axe:
present

Illustration shows Peyk, messenger, with a battle axe. [1] Azabs carried a small axe. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate G)

[2]: (Imber 2002, 267) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Animals used in warfare

Light cavalry. Mounted archers. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003)



Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa’id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited." [1]

[1]: (Shehada 2013, 19) Housni Alkhateeb Shehada. 2013. Mamluks and Animals. Veterinary Medicine in Medieval Islam. BRILL. Leiden.



Used for transport. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003, 21)


Armor

Shields. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plates F, G)



Plate Armor:
present

"Arab auxiliary, early 17th C." with mail-and-plate cuirass and coif" [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F + 37)


Limb Protection:
present

Limb armour worn by kapikulu cavalry. [1] Sipahi cavalry armour had limb armour. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Leather Cloth:
present

Magahāribad, north African marines, carried a moorish leather shield. "Deli scout, c.1600" wore animal skins. [1] [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)



Magahāribad, north African marines, wore a salet helmet. [1] Helmets worn by kapikulu cavalry [1] and sipahi. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Chainmail:
present

Mail and plate korazin early 16th century [1] worn by Sipahi cavalry. [2] Magahāribad, north African marines, wore a mail shirt. [3] Sipahi cavalry armour had chain mail. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 6)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 37)

[3]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)

[4]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Breastplate:
present

Sipahi cavalry armour had breastplate in early 17th century. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

In the 17th century "The Mediterranean fleet now consisted of three squadrons based in North Africa, Egypt and the Aegean. But a serious decline did set in with financial corruption in the Istanbul naval yards and the loss of direct control over Algeria and Tunisia." Magahāribad, North African corsairs, "were first recruited as marines in the 17th century." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 25)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions