Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Ottoman Empire III

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  tr_ottoman_emp_3 / TrOttm4

Preceding:
1517 CE 1683 CE Ottoman Empire II (tr_ottoman_emp_2)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Ottoman Empire during the period between 1683 and 1839 CE was at its most powerful, but was frequently beset by revolts that threatened to break it apart, particularly in Egypt. However, the dynasts in Istanbul successfully retained power behind a protective veil of elite slaves, acquired by tribute from conquered provinces and raised and educated to run the government and military. The Ottoman ’slave-elite’ differed from that of the Mamluk Sultanate in that the Ottoman slaves could never achieve the position of sultan, which remained the hereditary property of the Osman dynasty. Although this failed to prevent palace intrigues or succession crises, the sultans of this period made progress toward greater unification of the empire’s dense patchwork of languages and ethnicities. Trading on their successful military conquests, the Ottoman sultans claimed the title of ’caliph of all the Muslims in the world’. [1]
Population and political organization
The Ottoman Empire was a hereditary dynasty under the rule of an Ottoman Sultan. [2] The Ottoman ’slave-elite’ differed from that of the Mamluk Sultanate in that the Ottoman slaves could never achieve the position of sultan, which remained the hereditary property of the Osman dynasty. With its capital in Istanbul, the main organ of state power was the ’elaborate court, palace, and household government’. [3] Policy-making was weakly institutionalized: in theory, all decisions were made by the sultan himself, and so Ottoman policies were shaped by the sultan’s personal character and by the ’individuals or factions who had his ear’. [4] The sultans appointed their own staff and paid them with a wage or (increasingly after 1600 CE) a fief. [5] State funding came in large part from money raised by fief holders until Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha Kulliyesi introduced a property tax around 1718 CE. [6]
The administrative and military officials around the sultan were slaves educated in palace schools. [7] The source of this non-Turkish administrative class was the devsirme tribute, which began in 1438 CE; by the 16th century about 1,000 boys were taken per year per recruiting province in the Balkans and non-Muslim communities in Anatolia. The system divided these slaves into those who would serve the bureaucracy and those who would form the elite military corps known as janissaries. In 1582 CE, recruits of non-devsirme origin, including free Muslims, were permitted to join the janissaries and after 1648 CE the devsirme system was no longer used to recruit for the janissaries. [8] The imperial household together with its armies and administrative officials was truly vast, numbering about 100,000 people by the 17th century. [3]
Ottoman sultans issued decrees to their approximately 24 million subjects through an imperial council (divan) [4] and the chief executive power below the sultan, the grand vizier. [9] Although certain regions (Egypt, for example) may have differed slightly in their governing structure, Ottoman regional government typically involved governors (beylerbeyi) [10] whose provinces were split into districts (sanjaks) under district governors (sanjak beyi). [11] The sanjak beyi also was a military commander. [12] Fief-holding soldiers were responsible for local law and order within their districts. [13] By the late 16th century, the lowest level of this system had transformed into a system of tax farms or fiefs given to non-military administrators. [14] In 1695 CE, these tax farms were ’sold as life tenures (malikane)’, and later shares in tax farms were sold to the public. [15]
Ottoman law was divided into religious - Islamic sharia - and secular kanun law. [16] Kanun law essentially served to fill the gaps left by the religious legal tradition, regulating ’areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable’. [16] In the Ottoman Empire, this included aspects of criminal law, land tenure and taxation; kanun law drew its legitimacy from precedent and custom. [16] Military judges (kadi’asker) were the heads of the empire’s judiciary and heard cases brought before the imperial council. [17]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 20) Halil Inalcik and Donald Quataert. 1997. ’General Introduction’, in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Volume One: 1300-1600, edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert, 1-8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 87) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 437) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 154) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[5]: (Imber 2002, 171) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[6]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire. London: John Murray.

[7]: (Nicolle 1983, 10) David Nicolle. 1983. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

[8]: (Nicolle 1983, 9-11, 20) David Nicolle. 1983. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

[9]: (Imber 2002, 156) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[10]: (Imber 2002, 177-78) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[11]: (Imber 2002, 184) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[12]: (Imber 2002, 189) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[13]: (Imber 2002, 194) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[14]: (Imber 2002, 209, 215) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[15]: (Lapidus 2012, 473) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[16]: (Imber 2002, 244) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

[17]: (Imber 2002, 157) Colin Imber. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 T  
Original Name:
Ottoman Empire III  
Capital:
Istanbul  
Alternative Name:
Ottoman Dynasty  
Osmanli Dynasty  
Othman Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,683 CE  
Duration:
[1,683 CE ➜ 1,839 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Turkish  
Succeeding Entity:
Ottoman Empire IV  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Ottoman Empire II (tr_ottoman_emp_2)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Turkic  
Language:
Turkish  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Hanafi  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion Family:
Sufi  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
700,000 people 1700 CE
570,000 people 1800 CE
Polity Territory:
4,920,000 km2 1700 CE
[4,640,000 to 4,780,000] km2 1718 CE
Polity Population:
24,000,000 people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
4  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
[9 to 10]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
inferred present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Ottoman Empire III (tr_ottoman_emp_3) was in:
 (1683 CE 1798 CE)   Crete     Upper Egypt     Southern Mesopotamia     Konya Plain
 (1798 CE 1838 CE)   Crete     Southern Mesopotamia     Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Ottoman Empire III


Alternative Name:
Ottoman Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Alternative Name:
Osmanli Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Alternative Name:
Othman Dynasty

Western, Turkish, Arabic derived spelling of the name. [1]

[1]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,683 CE

[1]

[1]: (Cosgel, Metin. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. April 2020)


Duration:
[1,683 CE ➜ 1,839 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Turkish

Succeeding Entity:
Ottoman Empire IV

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Ottoman Empire II [tr_ottoman_emp_2] ---> Ottoman Empire III [tr_ottoman_emp_3]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Language

Language:
Turkish

On a regional non-governing basis: "in no province of the Empire was there a unique language." [1] Other languages: Slavonic, Greek, Albanian, romance-speaking Vlachs, Greek, Armenian, Kurdish, Arabic, Persian. [2] [3]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Cosgel, Metin. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. April 2020)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
700,000 people
1700 CE

Inhabitants.
Istanbul
1700 CE: 700,000. 1800 CE: 570,000. [1]
1700 CE: 700,000. [2]

[1]: (Haywood 2011, 116)

[2]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
570,000 people
1800 CE

Inhabitants.
Istanbul
1700 CE: 700,000. 1800 CE: 570,000. [1]
1700 CE: 700,000. [2]

[1]: (Haywood 2011, 116)

[2]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)


Polity Territory:
4,920,000 km2
1700 CE

in squared kilometers [1]

[1]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
[4,640,000 to 4,780,000] km2
1718 CE

in squared kilometers [1]

[1]: (Chase Dunn Spreadsheet)


Polity Population:
24,000,000 people

People.
Population of Ottoman Empire [1]
1,000,000: 1325 CE
2,500,000: 1350 CE
5,000,000: 1400 CE
7,000,000: 1450 CE
9,000,000: 1500 CE
22,000,000: 1550 CE
28,000,000: 1600 CE
27,500,000: 1650 CE
24,000,000: 1700 CE
24,000,000: 1750 CE
24,000,000: 1800 CE
25,000,000: 1850 CE
25,000,000: 1900 CE

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 137)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels.
1. Capital city (Istanbul)
2. Provincial city3. District cityBy 16th century Sanjaks based around a town with a population of about 100,000. [1]
4. Town5. Village6. Nomadic tribes (Turcomans) [2]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 184 Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 34)


Religious Level:
4

[1]
1. Sultan
Suleiman I called himself "caliph of all the Muslims in the world" [2]
2. Chief Mufticalled seyhulislam. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
3. Inner Circlecalled ilmiye. Part of the ulema religious establishment.
4. Imams
"The population of the Empire was heterogenous in religion, language and social structure. As the Faith of the sultans and of the ruling elite, Islam was the dominant religion, but the Greek and Armenian Orthodox Churches retained an important place within the political structure of the Empire, and ministered to large Christian populations which, in many areas, outnumbered Muslims." There were also Jews (especially after expelled from Spain 1492), Maronites and Druzes. [3]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 20)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 1-2) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Military Level:
9

"On mobilization, one of every ten sipahis remained at home to maintain law and order. The rest formed into alay regiments under their çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers. These led them to theş local sancak bey’s two-horse-tail standard. The men of each sancak then assembled around a provincial governor or beylerbeyi before riding to the Sultan’s camp." [1]
Janissaries were organized into ortas (regiments) of 100 - 3,000 men. [2]
1. Sultan
2. Commander in chief3. Beylerbeyi4. Sancak bey5. çeribaşi, subaşi and alay bey officers of the alay (regiment)6.7.8. Individual sipahissipahis (timar holders).
9. cebeluslarger timar holders of zeamets could equip mounted retainers (cebelus). [1]
Version based on Shaw (the following structure was the same for the administration and military) [3] implies that the çeribaşi and subaşi Nicolle mentions are below the alay beys.
1. Sultan
2. Commander in chief3. eyalets lead by beylerbeyis or "beys of beys", ruled provinces4. sancak or liva commanded by sancek bays (who ruled local administration. They appointed police chiefs. Religious judges - kadis - oversaw justice).5. alay regiment, commanded by alay beys6. sipahitimar or fief holder (mounted soldier). Siphai had no rights of ownership, he was the Sultan’s representative, whose job was to maintain order, over-see agriculture and collect taxes from the peasants. Distribution most concentrated in Balkans and Anatolia.

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 12)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[3]: (Shaw 1976, 24)


Administrative Level:
[9 to 10]

levels.
1. Sultan
Mehmet II also took the title "caesar" and "ruler of the two continents and the two seas" [1]
The Ottoman Empire was a dynastic state. Rule was passed on to male heir. [2]
Sultans "ruled the Empire through members of their own household, whom they had appointed to government office. This was a tendency which began probaby in the late fourteenth century, and had become very pronounced by the late fifteenth." [3]
"The sultans ruled the Empire through their court as much as through formal organs of government" and sometimes by-passed formal structures of government such as in diplomatic negotiations. "There never, it seems, was a formal mechanism for policy making. All decisions in theory were the sultan’s own. What mattered, therefore, was the character of the sultan, and the individuals or factions who had his ear." [4] "At the center of the centralizing Ottoman state was an elaborate court, palace, and household government." [5]
_ Central government line _
2. Imperial Council (divan) under presidency of the grand vizier [4] Issued decrees of Sultan and made less important and administrative policy decisions. [4] According to Ottoman tradition, grand vizirate may have come about after Mehmed II stopped attending meetings. [6]
3. Military judges (kadi’asker) [7]
3. Treasurers (defterdar) [7] of the Imperial Treasury of the Porte5. Clerks under the Treasurer6. Clerks under the TreasurerAccording to a register the suites of the Treasurers and Chancellor had a total of 18 clerks in 1527-1535 CE; 23 in 1531 CE; 34 in 1561 CE; 50 in 1605 CE; 64 by 1609 CE; 115 in 1627-1628 CE. [8] These numbers suggest more levels within these departments compared to previous periods.
3. Chancellor (nishanji) [7] "it was the chancellor who oversaw the clerks who drew up decrees and other documents" [7]
4. Clerks under the Chancellor5. Clerks under the Chancellor6. Clerks under the Chancellor
3. Controller of Registers headed the land registry [8] 4. Clerks of the land registry inferred
3. Head Clerk (reisu’l-kuttab) [8] Head clerk was in charge of the clerks. Office dates from early 16th century. [8]
4. memorandum writer (tezkereji) under the Head Clerk [9]
_ Provincial line _
2. Provinces with governors (beylerbeyi) [10] Governor-generals (beylerbeyi) were the Sultan’s appointees and they could be moved or changed at his request. They were not hereditary positions and not held for life. [11]
3. Judgeship of a town or city judge"The judge, unlike the sanjak governor, had authority throughout his area, with judgeships forming what has been called ’a parallel system’ of administration [12]
3. Districts (Sanjaks) under district governor (Sanjak beyi) [13] who was also a military commander [14] Role of sanjak included law and order (with fief holder), pursuing bandits, investigating heresy, supplying army, materials for shipbuilding, and those on the frontier special military duties. [15]
4. Fief-holding soldiers responsible for local law and order [16] -- system declined late 16th century, reassigned as tax farms or to non-military nominees of Palace [17] "The troops of each sanjak, under the command of their governor, would then assemble as an army and fight under the banner of the governor-general of the province. In this way, the structure of command on the battlefield resembled the hierarchy of provincial government." [11] [15]
Fiefs were only one form of land-holder in Sanjacks. Other land was privately owned, formed part of a trust, or controlled by the Sultan. Beglik or miri land was given out by Sultan as fiefs. [18]
By 1500 CE the smallest fiefs were called timar (village or group of villages and their fields). Larger ones subashilik (or zeamet). Largest called a hass. [19]
Egypt: 1608-1718 CE [20]
3. Imperial Treasury of the Portelocated at Ottoman central government
4. beylerbey (governor) Vali/Pasha in Egyptin 1527 Ottoman Grand vizier Ibrahim Pasha "issued an edict which, legally at least, was to regulate the civil and military administration of the province until the end of Ottoman rule in 1798. ... Henceforward, the governor was to be a wali, and his council a diwan" [21]
beylerbey also held the title Pasha and was a minister in the Ottoman government [22]
5. diwan council membersa diwan al-Ali (High Council) and Ordinary Council contained the establishment (officers, ulama, others of high status) and could advise and obstruct the beylerbey in the event of "arbitrary or tyrannical actions. [23]
6. Scribe in council inferred
4. Nazir-i Emval, or Defterdar "Keeper of the Books" (Chief Treasurer)position "held by men sent from the Imperial Treasury of the Porte to represent the interest of the Sultan in Egypt." Initially appointed by Ottoman central government)
authority of the beylerbey was limited by the daftardar (treasury official appointed from Istanbul), the qadi (judge who had "direct links to Istanbul"), and the agha (appointed from Istanbul) of the janissary militia (odjaq) [23] 6. Ruznameji department head "the director of the Efendis and scribes of the Treasury"previously the lowliest of the Efendis, now at the top
7. Ruznameji Chief Clerk (Bas Halife)8. Ruznameji Three Halife (Clerks)
7. Efendis who headed other departments8. Specialised assistants of the Efendis (Halife or Mubasir).
9. Apprentices (Sakird, plural Sakirdan) who did menial scribal work in departments.
7? beys (provincial governor) of a mamlakaRun by Mamluks. Following the Ottoman conquest mamluks had "kept control of administration in the provinces" [24] In Egypt "beneath the top level of Ottoman administration the old institutional structure remained intact." [25]
"The title "bey" (bak or bayk), which originally denoted a rank and not specific function, was equivalent to the Mamluk title "emir of one hundred" (amir mi’a). There were in principle twent-four beys, just as there had been twenty-four first-class emirs. The title kashif for the governors of the provinces was also an inheritance from the Mamluk sultanate." [26]
In Cairo there were "no specialized municipal administration or public institutions." [23]
8? timar holders [27]
9? Wali, governor of a small town
10? Village leader / tribal leader inferred’
Other provinces [28] [29]
2. beylerbeyliks [30] or BeylerbikProvince run by a beylerbey.
1500 CE four central provinces: Rumelia, Anatolia, Rum and Karaman under direct rule. [30]
3. sanjak beyliks [30] or sanjakCounty run by a bey
4. timarliks [30] "districts assigned to military officiers in lieu of salary" 37,500 timar holders in 1527 CE [31] timar holder was chief law enforcement officer on his lands. [30] "In the early seventeenth century, they replaced assignment of tax revenues to timar holders with direct taxation. Timars were sold to wealthy investors as tax farms." 1597 CE. in 1695 CE tax farms "sold as life tenures (malikane). [32]
5. Council of Elders / Intermediaries of timar holders [30] run by headman or mayor [33] "timar holders themselves used intermediaries to oversee their domains. Local landowners, merchants, and village notables or headmen were important in tax collection and the administration of local affairs." [30]
2. Vassal provinces
"In matters of provincial government, the empire was never truly centralized. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it was still common for newly conquered regions to remain vassal provinces, under the control of their former lords, often Christians, in return for tribute and military manpower." [34]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 18)

[2]: (Imber 2002, 87) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Imber 2002, 148) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 154) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[5]: (Lapidus 2012, 437)

[6]: (Imber 2002, 156) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[7]: (Imber 2002, 157) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[8]: (Imber 2002, 169) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[9]: (Imber 2002, 169-170) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[10]: (Imber 2002, 177-178) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[11]: (Imber 2002, 182) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[12]: (Imber 2002, 191) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[13]: (Imber 2002, 184) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[14]: (Imber 2002, 189) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[15]: (Imber 2002, 190) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[16]: (Imber 2002, 194) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[17]: (Imber 2002, 209, 215) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[18]: (Imber 2002, 193) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[19]: (Imber 2002, 193-194) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[20]: (Shaw 1962, 338-348)

[21]: (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 28) Oliver R, Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press.

[22]: (Raymond 2000)

[23]: (Raymond 2000, 238)

[24]: (Raymond 2000, 195-196)

[25]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)

[26]: (Raymond 2000, 203)

[27]: (Shaw 1962)

[28]: (Palmer 1992) Alan Palmer. 1992. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

[29]: (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)

[30]: (Lapidus 2012, 443)

[31]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[32]: (Lapidus 2012, 473)

[33]: (Shaw and Shaw 1977, 90)

[34]: (Lapidus 2012, 442)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

In 1660 CE just under 100,000 salaried personnel. [1]
"By 1400, therefore, most of the troops in the Ottoman army served on a contractual basis, allowing the sultan to levy a predictable number of reliable troops year after year." [2]
Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [3] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions." [3]
Janissaries were paid a monthly salary. [4]
In Egypt, "janissaries and the azab drew a large part of their income ... from urban tax-farms (muqata’at) and from the payment they received for the protection of artisans and shopkeepers in the city." [5]

[1]: (Murphey 1999, 16) Murphey, Rhoads. 1999. Ottoman warfare 1500-1700. UCL Press. Taylor & Francis Group.

[2]: (Imber 2002, 256-257) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[3]: (Nicolle 1983, 9)

[4]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)

[5]: (Raymond 2000, 204)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"Religious employees included the imams , the hatibs and the muezzin, who led daily prayers and served in local mosques. Some state employees, such as the muftis, the kadıs and the muderris, had both a legal and religious identity. The Ulema, scholars of the Quran and the holy law, were not priests in the sense of rituals." [1]

[1]: (Cosgel, Metin. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. April 2020)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Emir Orhan: "A regularly paid force of Muslim and Christian cavalry and infantry was created by his vizier, Allah al Din. The horsemen were known as müsellems (tax-free men) and were organised under the overall command of sancak beys into hundreds, under subaşis, and thousands, under binbaşis. The foot-soldiers, or yaya, were comparably divided into tens, hundreds and thousands. These infantry archers occasionally fought for Byzantium, where they were known as mourtatoi. Müsellems and yayas were at first paid wages, but by the time of Murat I (1359) they were normally given lands or fiefs in return for military service, the yayas also having special responsibility for the protection of roads and bridges." [1] "Both [yaya] and the müsellems were gradually relegated to second-line duties late in the 14th century, and by 1600 such units had either been abolished or reduced to non-military functions." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 9)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Customs house at Suez. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 107)


Merit Promotion:
present

Bureaucracy was staffed mostly from a slave class of boys raised from the devsirme tribute system, every five years, from Christian families (mostly from the Balkans region). They were taught Turkish, converted to Islam and educated from childhood to work in the military and government, excluding sons of most Muslim fathers within the Empire. [1]
Present in the Egyptian financial administration: "All the positions of Efendi in the Treasury were established as Muqata’at which were distributed when vacant at auctions held in the house of the Ruznameji to the highest bidder from amongst those members qualified to hold them, and whose price was delivered to the Vali as part of his Hulvan revenues. For that reason, the departments were also called Muqata’a and the Efendis Muqata’a’i, "holder of the Muqata’a",in the registers. Only those possessing the requisite qualifications, as manifested by prior membership in the scribal corporation of an Imperial Treasury, whether in Egypt or elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, could bid for these positions." [2]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Shaw 1962, 346)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

[1] "By the seventeenth century, the imperial household, including the armies and the administration, numbered about 100,000 people." [2]

[1]: (Palmer 1992)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 437)


Examination System:
present

"Appointments to judgeships required the attainment of appropriate levels in the educational system." [1]
"The iç oğlani were trained forup to seven years in palace schools which concentrated on character-building, leadership, military and athletic prowess, languages, religion, science, and a creative art of the pupil’s choosing. Three further examinations selected men for the Kapikulu cavalry, to be Kapikulu officers and, at the top of the tree, to become military or administrative leaders. All remained bachelors until their training ended, when most married women who had been through a parallel schooling in the Palace harem." [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

"The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)


Called a Kadi. [1]
"The Ottoman state appointed all important judges, jurisconsults, and professors of law." [2]
Military judges (kadi’asker) were the "chief judges of the Empire, who were responsible for judicial matters that came before the council." [3]
Judges in towns. [4]

[1]: (Finkel 2012)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 440)

[3]: (Imber 2002, 157) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[4]: (Imber 2002, 171) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Formal Legal Code:
present

From 15th century Ottomans had secular law called kanun which coexisted with the religious law, shari’a. [1]
"Kanun regulated areas where the provisions of the sacred law were either missing or too much at at odds with reality to be applicable. These, in the Ottoman Empire as in other Islamic polities, were above all in the areas of criminal law, land tenure, and taxation. The origins of the secular law lay in custom, and it was long usage that in the first place gave it legitimacy." [1]
Justice system was the seriat, Islamic law, decided by the ulema religious establishment. [2]
Mehmet II "promulgated the first systematic legal codes dealing with the organization of the state and the obligations of subjects." [3]
"In matters of government administration, Ottomman law applied to all subjects, but in matters of family and business law, it applied only to Muslims. Non-Muslims had their own communal law and courts. In practice, however, Jews and Christians commonly had recourse to Ottoman courts in order to assure enforcement, or to have state guarantees for commercial and property transactions, or to win an advantage in marital and inheritance disputes." [4]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 244) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Palmer 1992)

[3]: (Ira Lapidus with Lena Salaymeh 2012, 442)

[4]: (Lapidus 2012, 442)


State courts. [1] Ottoman Cairo had fifteen courts of justice. [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 441)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 194)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Mehmet II built commercial centres including a covered bazaar in the Old City of Istanbul. ( [1] Endowment funds were invested in bazaars and shops. [2] Fixed economy in Istanbul. "The state required traders to guarantee the delivery wheat, salt, meat, oil, fish, honey, and wax directly to the palace and the capital city at fixed prices. Merchants were thus made agents of the state to meet the fiscal and provisioning needs of the capital." [3] In Cairo, the waqf instigated urban development of Ridwan Bey (a "powerful emir" in the late seventeenth century) over one hectare included a "commercial structure" containing shops. [4]

[1]: (Inalcik and Quataert 1997, 18)

[2]: (Lapidus 2012, 449)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 450)

[4]: (Raymond 2000, 237)


Irrigation System:
present

Rebuilt Egyptian irrigation systems. [1] Maintained Egyptian irrigation systems with wood brought from Anatolia. [2]

[1]: (Lapidus 2002, 294)

[2]: (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/v043/43.1.greene.html)


Food Storage Site:
present

Ottoman famine relief policy was based on moving food from surplus areas to regions suffering the shortage. This was most expensive for eastern Anatolia which was least accessible by sea. Other measures included price fixing, tax breaks or adjustments, and deferring (or substituting) the tax obligation. The Ottoman imperial granary system was designed to ensure the capital Istanbul received a consistent supply of grain. [1] [2]

[1]: Yaron Ayalon. 2015. Natural Disasters in the Ottoman Empire. Plague, Famine, and Other Misfortunes. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. pp. 74-75

[2]: R J Barendse. 2009. Arabian Seas 1700 - 1763. Volume 1: The Western Indian Ocean in the Eighteenth Century. BRILL. Leiden. p. 53


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Aqueducts in Istanbul. [1] 111 drinking fountains built in Cairo during three centuries of Ottoman rule, 46 between 1626 and 1775 CE. Western area of Cairo two fountains built between 1517 and 1725 CE. [2] Water was brought to fountains or to the door of residents manually, via camel and water carriers (up to 10,000 daily), and the fountains were built by waqf foundations and individuals rather than a municipal authority. [3]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 172) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 220, 223)

[3]: (Raymond 2000, 245-250)


Transport Infrastructure

Network expanded under Bayezid II (1481-1512 CE) [1] In Cairo, according to Jean de Thevenot in 1658 CE "There is not one fine street in Cairo, but a great number of small ones that twist and turn, showing that the houses in Cairo were all built without benefit of a city plan." [2]

[1]: (Hodgson 1961, 563)

[2]: (Raymond 2000, 242)



In Egypt, Maqsud Pasha (1642-1643 CE) "ordered the dredging of two canals, the Khalij al-Hakimi and the Khalij al Nasiri, which were threatened with silting." [1]

[1]: (Raymond 2000, 227)


Bridge:
present

Bridge building. [1]

[1]: (Lapidus 2012, 449)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System

Script:
present

In Egypt financial registers "were written in the special Siyaqat script, developed for financial purposes out of the Arabic script and introduced into the Treasury during the 10/16th century by the scribes who were sent to it from the Porte. The concise and regular nature of this script made it ideal for use in the limited space available in the registers, and is lack of the normal Arabic diacritical marks and violation of the usual rules for the formation and connection of Arabic letters made it incomprehensible to all but those especially initiated into the secrets of its formation and use." [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 341)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Sacred Text:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Religious Literature:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Practical Literature:
present

"Legal and financial records." [1]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 149) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


Philosophy:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

"Legal and financial records." [1]

[1]: (Imber 2002, 149) Imber, Colin. 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650. The Structure of Power. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.


History:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Fiction:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Calendar:
present

inferred continuity with earlier phases of this polity


Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

[1] Ottoman coinage introduced by Sultan Orhan Bey in 1328 CE. [2]

[1]: (Pamuk 2000)

[2]: (kultur.gov.tr [1])


Foreign Coin:
present

The Ottoman state permitted and ’encouraged’ the use of foreign coins. [1]

[1]: (Pamuk 2000, 62) Şevket Pamuk. 2000. A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Article:
present

In Egypt the Imperial Treasury received and stored assets in kind. [1]

[1]: (Shaw 1962, 338)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Postal system called ulak. System of postal stations was similar to the Mongol yam. [1]

[1]: (Karman and Kunevi 2013, 59)


General Postal Service:
absent

Not until 1841 CE. Late development because foreign services permitted to operate within the Empire. For example, Austrians since 1721 CE. [1]

[1]: (Shaw and Shaw 1977, 229)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Konstantin Mihailovic, Serbian Janissary, reported stakes surrounding Turkish camp. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003, 70)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present


Fortified Camp:
present

In the field the tabur fortification system was used, waggons would be chained together to protect artillery and manned by Janissaries. [1] "Ottoman strategy relied on mobility and offensive tactics during their era of expansion, but from the second half of the 17th century, as they lost the tactical initiative, the Turks were increasingly obliged to rely on elaborate field fortifications." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 6)



"By the 16th century Ottoman tactics had reached their classic form. Within a formidable system of entrenchments..." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)



Projectiles

Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)



Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)


Handheld Firearm:
present

Janissaries. [1] Bosnians engaged in guerrilla warfare used snaphuance musket and pistols. [2] Egyptian Mamluk Sipahi carried spear, sabre and a pistol. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 38)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

"War in the Balkans also brought the Ottomans up against the Hungarians, from whom they adopted the tabur field fortification of en with hand-guns in waggons chained together to protect primitive artillery." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 7)


Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tufek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)


Composite Bow:
absent

Early Janissaries used weapons such as bows, slings, crossbows and javelins. "not until the end of the 16th century did the majority have tüfek matchlocks." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 10)



Handheld weapons

Illustration shows battle axe and mace carried by "Bektaşi dervish, 18th C." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate H)


Bosnians used Dalmatian schiavona sword. [1] Egyptian Mamluk Sipahi carried spear, sabre and a pistol. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 38)


Egyptian Mamluk Sipahi carried spear, sabre and a pistol. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 38)



Yatağan daggers mid-18th century. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 38)


Battle Axe:
present

Illustration shows battle axe and mace carried by "Bektaşi dervish, 18th C." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate H)


Animals used in warfare

Light cavalry. Mounted archers. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003)



Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa’id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited." [1]

[1]: (Shehada 2013, 19) Housni Alkhateeb Shehada. 2013. Mamluks and Animals. Veterinary Medicine in Medieval Islam. BRILL. Leiden.



Used for transport. [1]

[1]: (Turnbull 2003, 21)


Armor



Plate Armor:
present

"Arab auxiliary, early 17th C." with mail-and-plate cuirass and coif" [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F + 37)



Leather Cloth:
present

Magahāribad, north African marines, carried a moorish leather shield. "Deli scout, c.1600" wore animal skins. [1] [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, Plate F)

[2]: (Nicolle 1983, 36)






Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

In the 17th century "The Mediterranean fleet now consisted of three squadrons based in North Africa, Egypt and the Aegean. But a serious decline did set in with financial corruption in the Istanbul naval yards and the loss of direct control over Algeria and Tunisia." Magahāribad, North African corsairs, "were first recruited as marines in the 17th century." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1983, 25)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions