Home Region:  Andes (South America and Caribbean)

Cuzco - Early Intermediate I

EQ 2020  pe_cuzco_2 / PeCuzE1

The Early Intermediate Period of Andean history lasted from 400 BCE to 550 CE, [1] and is known for the emergence of regional forms of political organization, such as the Moche in northern Peru (100-800 CE) and the Nazca in the Rio Grande de Nazca and Ica regions (100 BC-800 CE). In the Cuzco Valley, this period saw the development of numerous chiefdoms of varying sizes. [2] One of these polities is known as Qotakalli (200-500 CE), [3] and may have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometres. [4]
The period also saw a change in settlement patterns. Wimpillay no longer dominated the valley, as several new large sites grew in the west of the basin, with a possible large settlement under the modern city of Cusco. [5] New settlements grew along the lower valley slopes below 3500 metres above sea level, which archaeologist Brian Bauer interprets as evidence for population growth and a possible shift in the valley’s economy towards maize production. [6]
In the Lucre Basin further to the east, the Chanapata culture still flourished in the form of small farming villages until 600 CE: Chanapata ceramics were found in the lowest strata during excavations at the site of Choquepukio. [7] These polities may have centred around the sites of Choquepukio and Mama Qolda. [5] Furthermore, the presence of Pucara ceramics and early Tiwanaku-related wares indicate possible contacts between the Cuzco Valley polities and the Titicaca cultural sphere, perhaps through trade, but not through political assimilation. [7] [8]
Population and political organization
Although the population of the region during this period is currently impossible to determine, it is worth mentioning that 16 Qotakalli sites with an area of between 1 and 5 hectares have been surveyed, as well as 35 sites between 0.25 and 1 hectares, [9] suggesting a possible two-tiered settlement pattern. [10] The density of sites near modern Cuzco may indicate various groups of elite households interacting with each other within the Qotakalli chiefdom. [5]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 12) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[2]: (Bauer 2004, 54) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 47) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[4]: (Covey 2006, 59) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[5]: (Bauer 2004, 52) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[6]: (Bauer 2004, 53) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[7]: (McEwan 2006, 88) Gordon F. McEwan. 2006. ’Inca State Origins: Collapse and Regeneration in the Southern Peruvian Andes’, in After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, edited by Glenn M. Schwartz and John J. Nichols, 85-98. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

[8]: (Bauer 2004, 143) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[9]: (Covey 2006, 60) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[10]: (Bauer 2004, 51) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
18 L  
19 L  
Original Name:
Cuzco - Early Intermediate I  
Capital:
Cuzco  
Alternative Name:
Formative Period  
Qotakalli  
Chanapata  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[200 CE ➜ 499 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Lake Titicaca cultural sphere  
Succeeding Entity:
PeCuzE2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
PeCuzLF  
Degree of Centralization:
none  
Language
Linguistic Family:
suspected unknown  
Language Genus:
suspected unknown  
Language:
suspected unknown  
Religion
Religious Tradition:
suspected unknown  
Religion Family:
suspected unknown  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-  
Polity Territory:
[600 to 800] km2 200 CE
[600 to 800] km2 300 CE
1,000 km2 400 CE
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred absent  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred absent  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present 200 CE 399 CE
present 400 CE 500 CE
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred absent 200 CE 399 CE
absent 400 CE 500 CE
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
unknown  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Cuzco - Early Intermediate I (pe_cuzco_2) was in:
 (200 CE 499 CE)   Cuzco
Home NGA: Cuzco

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Cuzco - Early Intermediate I

"Although the site of Wimpillay is still relatively large, it no longer dominates the settlement pattern of the Cuzco Basin as it did in Late Formative times. Instead, what we see is a greater overall density of large sites at the western end of the Cuzco Basin.[...]The location of these large Qotakalli Period sites surrounding Cuzco suggests that there may also have been a large village in the area now covered by the city." [1]
Language

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Alternative Name:
Formative Period

"Like other recent authors working in the Cuzco region (e.g. Zapata 1998), I have elected to call the period of time between the advent of ceramic production and the appearance of Qotakalli pottery in the Cuzco region the Formative Period." [1]
Brian Bauer refers to the period between AD 200 and AD 600 as the Qotakalli Period, and to him, the Chanapata ceramic style was used in what we have coded as the Wimpillay polity (1-200 CE). [2] Gordon McEwan refers to the period before the arrival of the Wari (c. 600 CE) as Chanapata. [3]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 39)

[2]: (Bauer 2004, x)

[3]: (McEwan 2006b, 88)

Alternative Name:
Qotakalli

"Like other recent authors working in the Cuzco region (e.g. Zapata 1998), I have elected to call the period of time between the advent of ceramic production and the appearance of Qotakalli pottery in the Cuzco region the Formative Period." [1]
Brian Bauer refers to the period between AD 200 and AD 600 as the Qotakalli Period, and to him, the Chanapata ceramic style was used in what we have coded as the Wimpillay polity (1-200 CE). [2] Gordon McEwan refers to the period before the arrival of the Wari (c. 600 CE) as Chanapata. [3]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 39)

[2]: (Bauer 2004, x)

[3]: (McEwan 2006b, 88)

Alternative Name:
Chanapata

"Like other recent authors working in the Cuzco region (e.g. Zapata 1998), I have elected to call the period of time between the advent of ceramic production and the appearance of Qotakalli pottery in the Cuzco region the Formative Period." [1]
Brian Bauer refers to the period between AD 200 and AD 600 as the Qotakalli Period, and to him, the Chanapata ceramic style was used in what we have coded as the Wimpillay polity (1-200 CE). [2] Gordon McEwan refers to the period before the arrival of the Wari (c. 600 CE) as Chanapata. [3]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 39)

[2]: (Bauer 2004, x)

[3]: (McEwan 2006b, 88)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[200 CE ➜ 499 CE]

Bauer refers to 200-600 CE as the Qotakalli period [1] and Covey states that Qotakalli appeared c.400 CE [2] Coded to 500 CE, chosen as an arbitrary date to coincide with the next polity, coded as ’Qotakalli’ using an earlier chronology from 1999, established by Bauer on the basis of ceramic analyses:
Ceramic sequence for Cuzco region gives a date range from 500 CE to 800 CE with the core period 550-650 CE. [3]
In the Lucre Basin, the Chanapata phase seems to start earlier, or the distinction with the previous quasi-polity has not been made: "The earliest stratum encountered in recent excavations at the Cuzco Valley site of Choquepukio has revealed a Chanapata occupation dating from approximately 350 BC to AD 600." [4]
Brian Bauer chronology: [5]
Late Formative
500 BCE - 200 CE
Chanapata ceramic style, the first pre-Inca ceramic style of the Cuzco region
"during this period a clear settlement hierarchy developed." [6]
(Note by RA: Brian Bauer refers to the period between AD 200 and AD 600 as the Qotakalli Period, and to him, the Chanapata ceramic style was used in what we have coded as the Wimpillay polity (1-200 CE). [5] Gordon McEwan refers to the period before the arrival of the Wari (c. 600 CE) as Chanapata. [4] )
Bauer’s ceramic chronology from 1999: [3]
"400 BCE - 370 CE. Early Intermediate Period begins. Chavín cult disappears, and new regional traditions assert themselves. Nazca and Moche cultures flourish. The Cuzco Valley is occupied by the Chanapata culture." [7]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 47)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Bauer 1999, 144)

[4]: (McEwan 2006b, 88)

[5]: (Bauer 2004, x)

[6]: (Bauer 2004, 44)

[7]: (McEwan 2006a, 203)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Bauer, when describing the 200-600 CE period: "When the Wari entered the Cuzco region they encountered thriving local societies. [...] numerous chiefdoms had developed across the region. The largest and most powerful of these were located in the areas of greatest agricultural production, including the Plain of Anta, the Cuzco Basin, the Lucre Basin and the Huaro Basin. Elsewhere, smaller chiefdoms also developed. Depending on their locations, these were most likely in a constant state of conflict or alliance formation with the large polities of the region." [1]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 54)


Supracultural Entity:
Lake Titicaca cultural sphere

"In summary, prior to the Middle Horizon, the cultures of the Cuzco Valley appear to have participated in the sociocultural interaction sphere centered at Lake Titicaca to the south." [1]

[1]: (McEwan 2006b, 88)


Succeeding Entity:
PeCuzE2

Cuzco Chiefdom, Qotakalli Period


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Although Bauer and McEwan propose different names for the cultures of the Cuzco Valley and Chanapata can either designate a previous polity, or the polity preceding the Wari, there is a sense of continuity for the polities of the Cuzco Valley before the arrival of the Wari. "In the Cuzco region at this time, there was a culture called Chanapata by archaeologists. The Chanapata peoples are little known and in many respects seem to be a continuation of the preceding Marcavalle culture." [1]

[1]: (McEwan 2006a, 35)




Religion



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-

[1]
"Fig. 4.2. Qotakalli sites in the Cusco Basin (after AD 400)" redrawn from Bauer. [2] Qotakalli sites in the Cuzco Basin
1-5 ha sites: 16
0.25-1 ha sites: 35
There was a greater density of large sites at the Western end of the Cuzco Basin, with a cluster around the modern Cuzco city area. It is possible there is a large Qotakalli era village under Cuzco. [3]
The largest site may have covered 5 hectares or more.
Information copied from the following polity sheet (Qotakalli) as the data comes from Bauer 2004 and Covey 2006. To Bauer, Qotakalli goes from 200-600CE, and Covey refers to the period between 400-600CE.

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 60 cite: Bauer 2004)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Polity Territory:
[600 to 800] km2
200 CE

in squared kilometers
"The Qotakalli chiefdom may have covered an area roughly 50 km (31 mi) in diameter" [1]
"The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2]
Northern border likely was the Vilcanota river.
"... percentage of Qotakalli materials dramatically diminishes on the far, or northern, side of the Vilcanota River. This suggests ... the influence of Cuzco waned at the river during the Qotakalli Period." [3]
Southern border likely was the Apurimac river
"the number of sites that contain Qotakalli ceramics declines as one leaves the Cuzco Basin and enters the Province of Paruro. They all but disappear on the far, or southern, side of the Apurimac River." [4]
Western border was the Anta plain
There was an independent chiefdom on the Anta plain. [4]
Eastern border was the Lucre Basin
Possible chiefly centres in the Lucre Basin at two large sites, Chokepukio and Mama Qolda. [4]
Information copied from the following polity sheet (Qotakalli) as the data comes from Bauer 2004 and Covey 2006. To Bauer, Qotakalli goes from 200-600CE, and Covey refers to the period between 400-600CE."The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2] The area described as the "Hypothesized area under the influence of Cuzco-based chiefdom during the Qotakalli Period (AD 200-600)" is equivalent to about 700 square kilometers.

[1]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52 cite: Covey)

[4]: (Bauer 2004, 52)

Polity Territory:
[600 to 800] km2
300 CE

in squared kilometers
"The Qotakalli chiefdom may have covered an area roughly 50 km (31 mi) in diameter" [1]
"The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2]
Northern border likely was the Vilcanota river.
"... percentage of Qotakalli materials dramatically diminishes on the far, or northern, side of the Vilcanota River. This suggests ... the influence of Cuzco waned at the river during the Qotakalli Period." [3]
Southern border likely was the Apurimac river
"the number of sites that contain Qotakalli ceramics declines as one leaves the Cuzco Basin and enters the Province of Paruro. They all but disappear on the far, or southern, side of the Apurimac River." [4]
Western border was the Anta plain
There was an independent chiefdom on the Anta plain. [4]
Eastern border was the Lucre Basin
Possible chiefly centres in the Lucre Basin at two large sites, Chokepukio and Mama Qolda. [4]
Information copied from the following polity sheet (Qotakalli) as the data comes from Bauer 2004 and Covey 2006. To Bauer, Qotakalli goes from 200-600CE, and Covey refers to the period between 400-600CE."The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2] The area described as the "Hypothesized area under the influence of Cuzco-based chiefdom during the Qotakalli Period (AD 200-600)" is equivalent to about 700 square kilometers.

[1]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52 cite: Covey)

[4]: (Bauer 2004, 52)

Polity Territory:
1,000 km2
400 CE

in squared kilometers
"The Qotakalli chiefdom may have covered an area roughly 50 km (31 mi) in diameter" [1]
"The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2]
Northern border likely was the Vilcanota river.
"... percentage of Qotakalli materials dramatically diminishes on the far, or northern, side of the Vilcanota River. This suggests ... the influence of Cuzco waned at the river during the Qotakalli Period." [3]
Southern border likely was the Apurimac river
"the number of sites that contain Qotakalli ceramics declines as one leaves the Cuzco Basin and enters the Province of Paruro. They all but disappear on the far, or southern, side of the Apurimac River." [4]
Western border was the Anta plain
There was an independent chiefdom on the Anta plain. [4]
Eastern border was the Lucre Basin
Possible chiefly centres in the Lucre Basin at two large sites, Chokepukio and Mama Qolda. [4]
Information copied from the following polity sheet (Qotakalli) as the data comes from Bauer 2004 and Covey 2006. To Bauer, Qotakalli goes from 200-600CE, and Covey refers to the period between 400-600CE."The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [2] The area described as the "Hypothesized area under the influence of Cuzco-based chiefdom during the Qotakalli Period (AD 200-600)" is equivalent to about 700 square kilometers.

[1]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52 cite: Covey)

[4]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Polity Population:
-

[1]
"Fig. 4.2. Qotakalli sites in the Cusco Basin (after AD 400)" redrawn from Bauer. [2] Qotakalli sites in the Cuzco Basin
1-5 ha sites: 16
0.25-1 ha sites: 35
If the 16 largest sites average 2.5 ha, and the 35 smallest sites averaged 0.625 ha Qotakalli sites cover a total of 61.875 ha.
"Strong population growth occurred during this period" as revealed by settlement pattern data. [3]
Information copied from the following polity sheet (Qotakalli) as the data comes from Bauer 2004 and Covey 2006. To Bauer, Qotakalli goes from 200-600CE, and Covey refers to the period between 400-600CE.

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 60 cite: Bauer 2004)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 54)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
1. Large village (1-5 ha): Cluster of villages near the modern location of Cuzco. "The location of these large Qotakalli Period sites surrounding Cuzco suggests that there may also have been a large village in the area now covered by the city. Based on these findings, it is proposed that local power was concentrated in the western end of the Cuzco Basin during the Qotakalli Period. In other words, although there was a continuation of a chiefly society in the basin from Late Formative times to the Qotakalli Period, the loci of elite occupation may have shifted slightly from the single site of Wimpillay to a dense array of sites in the area where Cuzco is now. The cluster of sites in this area during the Qotakalli Period suggests that the power and wealth of the valley may have become divided between groups of elite households located in a series of separated but closely spaced kin-based (i.e. ayllu) settlements." [1]
2. Secondary center "Settlements were more numerous near the best agricultural land, and a site hierarchy suggests that social organization may have been complex with secondary centers beyond the immediate vicinity of Cuzco." [2]
3. Small village (<1ha)
"While most of the sites with Qotakalli ceramics are small, we estimate that at least 14 Qotakalli sites in the basin were villages measuring 1-5 ha." [3]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 52)

[2]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[3]: (Covey and Bauer 2013, 543)


Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There probably was no formal legal code as writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Irrigation System:
present

"... distribution of Qotakalli Period villages closely reflects the areas of prime, easily irrigable agricultural land in the Cuzco Basin." [1]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Food Storage Site:
absent

Storage areas at the site of Qotakalli. However it is a domestic site. [1]

[1]: (Andrushko 2007, 65)


Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

"For more than a thousand years, the peoples of the Cuzco region had obtained their obsidian from sources located in the Alca region. During the Wari Period, when Wari occupied parts of the Cuzco region, the obsidian flow from this source stopped." [1] This suggests that the Cuzco people did not have their own obsidian quarries.

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 68)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

No khipus have been found in the archaeological record dating to this period.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Sacred Text:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Religious Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Practical Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Philosophy:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


History:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Fiction:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Calendar:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Information / Money


Paper Currency:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)



Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present
200 CE 399 CE

"Other sites with Qotakalli pottery are found in the Sacred Valley, as well as in its larger side valleys. The sites in the main valley tend to be quite small and are usually located 200 to 300 meters above the valley floor, in areas with natural defense that are close to small streams." [1] For Covey, Qotakalli designates the period after c.400 CE. [2] AD: coded as inferred present in the period 200-400 CE. Despite the lack of archaeological confirmation, the presence of settlements in a defensive position can be inferred from the continuity between 200-400 and 400-500CE, which are considered the same period by Bauer.

[1]: (Covey 2006, 66)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present
400 CE 500 CE *Bad Years, polity duration: [200, 499]

"Other sites with Qotakalli pottery are found in the Sacred Valley, as well as in its larger side valleys. The sites in the main valley tend to be quite small and are usually located 200 to 300 meters above the valley floor, in areas with natural defense that are close to small streams." [1] For Covey, Qotakalli designates the period after c.400 CE. [2] AD: coded as inferred present in the period 200-400 CE. Despite the lack of archaeological confirmation, the presence of settlements in a defensive position can be inferred from the continuity between 200-400 and 400-500CE, which are considered the same period by Bauer.

[1]: (Covey 2006, 66)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Fortified Camp:
absent
200 CE 399 CE

"Most sites are located in places that are better suited to farming than community defense, and the distribution of Qotakalli pottery to the level of hamlets suggests a high degree of interaction between settlements within the Cusco Basin." [1] For Covey, Qotakalli designates the period after c.400 CE. [2] AD: coded as inferred absent in the period 200-400 CE. Despite the lack of archaeological confirmation, the absence of fortified camps can be inferred from the continuity between 200-400 and 400-500CE, which are considered the same period by Bauer.

[1]: (Covey 2006, 60)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

Fortified Camp:
absent
400 CE 500 CE *Bad Years, polity duration: [200, 499]

"Most sites are located in places that are better suited to farming than community defense, and the distribution of Qotakalli pottery to the level of hamlets suggests a high degree of interaction between settlements within the Cusco Basin." [1] For Covey, Qotakalli designates the period after c.400 CE. [2] AD: coded as inferred absent in the period 200-400 CE. Despite the lack of archaeological confirmation, the absence of fortified camps can be inferred from the continuity between 200-400 and 400-500CE, which are considered the same period by Bauer.

[1]: (Covey 2006, 60)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)


Earth Rampart:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Complex Fortification:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.



Military use of Metals

There was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.


There was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.




Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Self Bow:
present

Projectile points had been found in earlier periods.


Javelin:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.


Crossbow:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Composite Bow:
absent

this technology has not been found in the Americas


Atlatl:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Polearm:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Dagger:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Battle Axe:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Animals used in warfare

Not native to region.


Elephant:
absent

Not native to region.


Not native to region.


Dogs existed in Peru but no evidence to say whether they were used for warfare


Not native to region.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Shield:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Scaled Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Plate Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Limb Protection:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Leather Cloth:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Laminar Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Helmet:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Chainmail:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Breastplate:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.