Home Region:  Andes (South America and Caribbean)

Cuzco - Early Intermediate II

EQ 2020  pe_cuzco_3 / PeCuzE2

The Early Intermediate Period of Andean history lasted from 400 BCE to 550 CE, [1] and is known for the emergence of regional forms of political organization, such as the Moche in northern Peru (100‒800 CE) and the Nazca in the Rio Grande de Nazca and Ica regions (100 BC‒800 CE). In the Cuzco Valley, this period saw the development of numerous chiefdoms of varying sizes. [2] One of these polities is known as Qotakalli (200‒500 CE), [3] and may have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometres. [4]
The period also saw a change in settlement patterns. Wimpillay no longer dominated the valley, as several new large sites grew in the west of the basin, with a possible large settlement under the modern city of Cusco. [5] New settlements grew along the lower valley slopes below 3500 metres above sea level, which archaeologist Brian Bauer interprets as evidence for population growth and a possible shift in the valley’s economy towards maize production. [6]
In the Lucre Basin further to the east, the Chanapata culture still flourished in the form of small farming villages until 600 CE: Chanapata ceramics were found in the lowest strata during excavations at the site of Choquepukio. [7] These polities may have centred around the sites of Choquepukio and Mama Qolda. [5] Furthermore, the presence of Pucara ceramics and early Tiwanaku-related wares indicate possible contacts between the Cuzco Valley polities and the Titicaca cultural sphere, perhaps through trade, but not through political assimilation. [7] [8]
Population and political organization
Although the population of the region during this period is currently impossible to determine, it is worth mentioning that 16 Qotakalli sites with an area of between 1 and 5 hectares have been surveyed, as well as 35 sites between 0.25 and 1 hectares, [9] suggesting a possible two-tiered settlement pattern. [10] The density of sites near modern Cuzco may indicate various groups of elite households interacting with each other within the Qotakalli chiefdom. [5]
The chronological boundaries between this polity and the previous one are not clear-cut. Brian Bauer designates 200-600 CE as the Qotakalli period, [3] while Alan Covey states that Qotakalli appeared around 400 CE. [4] Moreover, Covey refers to a settlement shift after 400 CE in the Sacred Valley (within our NGA, natural geographical area): before 400 CE, he says there was a small chiefdom with a three-tiered settlement hierarchy, and another one in the Cuzco Basin. After 400 CE the large villages were abandoned and new ones built at about 3500 metres above sea level. In the Sacred Valley, the abandoned sites represent 70% of the sample. Qotakalli pottery has been found at the new sites. [11] Depending on the chronology used, we could postulate either continuity or cultural assimilation of the previous polity in the Qotakalli circa 400 CE.
What can be noted with more confidence, however, is that the 6th and 7th centuries CE saw the incursion of Wari colonies into the Cuzco valley, interacting with smaller local polities in the south and west of the valley. [12] Araway ceramics may have been one of the markers of elite status, exchanged between local chiefs and Wari representatives. [13] There seems to be strong cultural continuity between the Qotakalli sites and the sites where Araway pottery is present: although Wari colonists were present in the valley, their numbers remained low and evidence suggests that they did not exert political or military dominance over other groups. [14] [15]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 12) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[2]: (Bauer 2004, 54) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 47) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[4]: (Covey 2006, 59) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[5]: (Bauer 2004, 52) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[6]: (Bauer 2004, 53) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[7]: (McEwan 2006, 88) Gordon F. McEwan. 2006. ’Inca State Origins: Collapse and Regeneration in the Southern Peruvian Andes’, in After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, edited by Glenn M. Schwartz and John J. Nichols, 85-98. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

[8]: (Bauer 2004, 143) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[9]: (Covey 2006, 60) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[10]: (Bauer 2004, 51) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[11]: (Covey 2006, 60-63) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[12]: (Bauer and Covey 2002, 850) B. S. Bauer and A. R. Covey. 2002. ’Processes of State Formation in the Inca Heartland (Cuzco, Peru)’. American Anthropologist 104 (3): 846-64.

[13]: (Covey 2006, 77) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[14]: (Covey 2006, 74) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[15]: Alan Covey 2017, personal communication

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
18 L  
19 L  
Original Name:
Cuzco - Early Intermediate II  
Capital:
Cuzco  
Alternative Name:
Qotakalli Period  
Qotakalli Chiefdom  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
600 CE  
Duration:
[500 CE ➜ 649 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Lake Titicaca cultural sphere  
Succeeding Entity:
PeWari*  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
cultural assimilation  
Preceding Entity:
PeCuzE1  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
suspected unknown  
Language Genus:
suspected unknown  
Language:
suspected unknown  
Religion
Religious Tradition:
suspected unknown  
Religion Family:
suspected unknown  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-  
Polity Territory:
1,000 km2  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
unknown  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred absent  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred absent  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
unknown  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
unknown  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Cuzco - Early Intermediate II (pe_cuzco_3) was in:
 (500 CE 649 CE)   Cuzco
Home NGA: Cuzco

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Cuzco - Early Intermediate II

"Although the site of Wimpillay is still relatively large, it no longer dominates the settlement pattern of the Cuzco Basin as it did in Late Formative times. Instead, what we see is a greater overall density of large sites at the western end of the Cuzco Basin.[...]The location of these large Qotakalli Period sites surrounding Cuzco suggests that there may also have been a large village in the area now covered by the city." [1]
Language

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 52)



Temporal Bounds

Duration:
[500 CE ➜ 649 CE]

{400 CE; 500 CE}-650 CE
Start date
End of the Formative Period c500 CE. "The Qotakalli chiefdom may have covered an area roughly 50 km (31 mi) in diameter" [1]
Ceramic sequence for Cuzco region gives a date range from 500 CE to 800 CE with the core period 550-650 CE. [2]
"Qotakalli pottery appears to have been produced in the Cusco Basin by about AD 400" [3]
End date
Fig. 25 shows spread of radiocarbon dates from "Wari and Wari related contexts" in Cuzco region. The earliest spread (one context) calibrated with 68.2% probability is from 540-690 CE. The earliest main cluster (5 contexts) of spreads at 68.2% probability agree on a period 650-780 CE. [4]

[1]: (Quilter 2013, 196)

[2]: (Bauer 1999, 144)

[3]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[4]: (Bauer 2003, 16)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

"When the Wari entered the Cuzco region they encountered thriving local societies. ... numerous chiefdoms had developed across the region. The largest and most powerful of these were located in the areas of greatest agricultural production, including the Plain of Anta, the Cuzco Basin, the Lucre Basin and the Huaro Basin. Elsewhere, smaller chiefdoms also developed. Depending on their locations, these were most likely in a constant state of conflict or alliance formation with the large polities of the region." [1]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 54)


Supracultural Entity:
Lake Titicaca cultural sphere

"During the Early Horizon and Early Intermediate Period (ca. 1500 B.C.-A.D. 600), Cuzco was originally in the orbit of the Lake Titicaca cultural sphere, seat of the later Middle Horizon Tiwanaku Empire." [1]

[1]: (McEwan 2006, 65)



Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

The boundaries between this polity and the previous one in terms of chronology are unclear, as Bauer refers to 200-600 CE as the Qotakalli period [1] and Covey states that Qotakalli appeared c.400 CE [2] . Moreover, Covey refers to a settlement shift after 400 CE in the Sacred Valley (within the NGA): before 400 CE, he says there was a small chiefdom with a three-tiered settlement hierarchy, and another one in the Cuzco Basin; and after 400 CE the large villages were abandoned and new ones built at about 3500m. In the Sacred Valley the abandoned sites represent 70% of the sample. In the new sites, Qotakalli pottery was found. [3] Depending on the chronology used, there would either be continuity or cultural assimilation of the previous polity in the Qotakalli circa 400 CE.

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 47)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Covey 2006, 60-63)

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation

The boundaries between this polity and the previous one in terms of chronology are unclear, as Bauer refers to 200-600 CE as the Qotakalli period [1] and Covey states that Qotakalli appeared c.400 CE [2] . Moreover, Covey refers to a settlement shift after 400 CE in the Sacred Valley (within the NGA): before 400 CE, he says there was a small chiefdom with a three-tiered settlement hierarchy, and another one in the Cuzco Basin; and after 400 CE the large villages were abandoned and new ones built at about 3500m. In the Sacred Valley the abandoned sites represent 70% of the sample. In the new sites, Qotakalli pottery was found. [3] Depending on the chronology used, there would either be continuity or cultural assimilation of the previous polity in the Qotakalli circa 400 CE.

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 47)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[3]: (Covey 2006, 60-63)



Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

"Pottery distributions indicate that this polity was not organized as a centralized state." [1]
"Settlement patterns from the Sacred Valley and Paruro study regions indicate that the polity in the Cusco Basin was capable of dominating an area within about 20 kilometers of its principal settlements (fig. 4.8). Groups living outside of that area interacted with the Cusco polity but probably were not under its control." [2]
However, the Cuzco polity may have been large enough to influence small polities to the north and south. [3]

[1]: (Covey 2006, 69)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 68)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 54)


Religion



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
-

[1]
"Fig. 4.2. Qotakalli sites in the Cusco Basin (after AD 400)" redrawn from Bauer. [2] Qotakalli sites in the Cuzco Basin
1-5 ha sites: 16
0.25-1 ha sites: 35
There was a greater density of large sites at the Western end of the Cuzco Basin, with a cluster around the modern Cuzco city area. It is possible there is a large Qotakalli era village under Cuzco. [3]
The largest site may have covered 5 ha or more.

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 60 cite: Bauer 2004)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Polity Territory:
1,000 km2

in squared kilometers.
"The distribution of Qotakalli pottery suggests the precence of a complex prestate polity in the Cusco region that might have controlled an area of up to 1000 square kilometers." [1]
"The Qotakalli chiefdom may have covered an area roughly 50 km (31 mi) in diameter" [2]
Northern border likely was the Vilcanota river.
"... percentage of Qotakalli materials dramatically diminishes on the far, or northern, side of the Vilcanota River. This suggests ... the influence of Cuzco waned at the river during the Qotakalli Period." [3]
Southern border likely was the Apurimac river
"the number of sites that contain Qotakalli ceramics declines as one leaves the Cuzco Basin and enters the Province of Paruro. They all but disappear on the far, or southern, side of the Apurimac River." [4]
Western border was the Anta plain
There was an independent chiefdom on the Anta plain. [4]
Eastern border was the Lucre Basin
Possible chiefly centres in the Lucre Basin at two large sites, Chokepukio and Mama Qolda. [4]
115 sites contained Qotakalli ceramics. [5]

[1]: (Covey 2006, 59)

[2]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 52 cite: Covey)

[4]: (Bauer 2004, 52)

[5]: (Bauer 2004, 51)


Polity Population:
-

[1]
"Fig. 4.2. Qotakalli sites in the Cusco Basin (after AD 400)" redrawn from Bauer. [2] Qotakalli sites in the Cuzco Basin
1-5 ha sites: 16
0.25-1 ha sites: 35
If the 16 largest sites average 2.5 ha, and the 35 smallest sites averaged 0.625 ha Qotakalli sites cover a total of 61.875 ha.
"Strong population growth occurred during this period" as revealed by settlement pattern data. [3]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Covey 2006, 60 cite: Bauer 2004)

[3]: (Bauer 2004, 54)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
3

levels.
"Prior to the Wari occupation of the Lucre-Huaro area, the Cusco Basin was characterized by a two- or three-tier settlement hierarchy, with a few clusters of two or three small villages (1-5 hectares each) possibly indicating the most important settlement areas. In addition to these are single small villages, some of them surrounded by hamlets, as well as groups of hamlets." [1]
1. Large village (1-5 ha): Cluster of villages near the modern location of Cuzco. "The location of these large Qotakalli Period sites surrounding Cuzco suggests that there may also have been a large village in the area now covered by the city. Based on these findings, it is proposed that local power was concentrated in the western end of the Cuzco Basin during the Qotakalli Period. In other words, although there was a continuation of a chiefly society in the basin from Late Formative times to the Qotakalli Period, the loci of elite occupation may have shifted slightly from the single site of Wimpillay to a dense array of sites in the area where Cuzco is now. The cluster of sites in this area during the Qotakalli Period suggests that the power and wealth of the valley may have become divided between groups of elite households located in a series of separated but closely spaced kin-based (i.e. ayllu) settlements." [2]
2. Secondary center "Settlements were more numerous near the best agricultural land, and a site hierarchy suggests that social organization may have been complex with secondary centers beyond the immediate vicinity of Cuzco." [3] "few clusters of two or three small villages (1-5 hectares each) possibly indicating the most important settlement areas" [1]
3. Small village (<1ha) "single small villages, some of them surrounded by hamlets, as well as groups of hamlets." [1]
"While most of the sites with Qotakalli ceramics are small, we estimate that at least 14 Qotakalli sites in the basin were villages measuring 1-5 ha." [4]

[1]: (Covey 2006, 60)

[2]: (Bauer 2004, 52)

[3]: (Quilter 2013, 193)

[4]: (Covey and Bauer 2013, 543)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown

According to Alan Covey: "Veronique Belisle (2011) has large-ish structures at Ak’awillay that she interprets as public (they are larger than houses), and Bauer and Jones (2003) dug a structure at Peqoykaypata in the Cuzco Basin that might have had EIP corporate architecture. We don’t know a lot about burial or architecture at this time, as there have only been test pits done in the Cuzco Basin." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)





Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There probably was no formal legal code as writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Irrigation System:
present

"... distribution of Qotakalli Period villages closely reflects the areas of prime, easily irrigable agricultural land in the Cuzco Basin." [1]

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 52)


Food Storage Site:
absent

Storage areas at the site of Qotakalli. However it is a domestic site. [1]

[1]: (Andrushko 2007, 65)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
absent

"For more than a thousand years, the peoples of the Cuzco region had obtained their obsidian from sources located in the Alca region. During the Wari Period, when Wari occupied parts of the Cuzco region, the obsidian flow from this source stopped." [1] This suggests that the Cuzco people did not have their own obsidian quarries.

[1]: (Bauer 2004, 68)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Sacred Text:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Religious Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Practical Literature:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Philosophy:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


History:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Fiction:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Calendar:
absent

"There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish, notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [1]

[1]: (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)


Information / Money


Paper Currency:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
absent

According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [1]

[1]: (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)



Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)




Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Other sites with Qotakalli pottery are found in the Sacred Valley, as well as in its larger side valleys. The sites in the main valley tend to be quite small and are usually located 200 to 300 meters above the valley floor, in areas with natural defense that are close to small streams." [1]

[1]: (Covey 2006, 66)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Fortified Camp:
absent

"Most sites are located in places that are better suited to farming than community defense, and the distribution of Qotakalli pottery to the level of hamlets suggests a high degree of interaction between settlements within the Cusco Basin." [1]

[1]: (Covey 2006, 60)


Earth Rampart:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Complex Fortification:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.



Military use of Metals

There was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.


There was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.




Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Self Bow:
present

Projectile points had been found in earlier periods.


Javelin:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Handheld Firearm:
absent

There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.


Crossbow:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Composite Bow:
absent

This technology has not been found in the Americas.


Atlatl:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Polearm:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Dagger:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Battle Axe:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Animals used in warfare

Not native to region.


Elephant:
absent

Not native to region.


Not native to region.


Dogs existed in Peru but no evidence to say whether they were used for warfare


Not native to region.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Shield:
unknown

The Peruvian Moche civilization (end c700 CE) had small round shields attached to forearm, as demonstrated by the Moche warrior pot in the British Museum. [1] Not the same archaeological sub-tradition

[1]: (British Museum. Link to photo: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Moche_warrior_pot_at_the_British_Museum.jpg)


Scaled Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Plate Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Limb Protection:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Leather Cloth:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Laminar Armor:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Helmet:
unknown

The Peruvian Moche civilization (end c700 CE) had helmets, as demonstrated by the Moche warrior pot in the British Museum. [1] Not the same archaeological sub-tradition

[1]: (British Museum. Link to photo: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Moche_warrior_pot_at_the_British_Museum.jpg)


Chainmail:
absent

Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.


Breastplate:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

[1]

[1]: (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.