Section: Warfare Variables
Subsection: Military Technologies Fortifications

Modern Fortification

The absence or presence of modern fortifications as a military technology used in warfare. used after the introduction of gunpowder, e.g., trace italienne/starfort.  

Kostis Christakis, Veronica Walker, Samantha Holder, Alicja Piślewska, Daniel Mullins, Artur Butkiewicz, Malwina Brachmanska, William Farrell, Edward A L Turner, PT, Kiran Basava, Marika Michalak, Jill Levine, Cesaretti, Aleksandra Neumannn, Alice Williams, Stephen Dean, Robert Harding, Marika Wałęga, Dan Hoyer, Marta Bartkowiak, Sal Witshire, Agathe Dupeyron, Katheriin Liibert, Giulia Nazzaro, Jedrzej Hordecki, PF, Robert Ross, Thomas Cressy, Rosalind Purcell, Agathe Dupreyon, RC, Agnieszka Marta Duda, Emilia Tomicka, Po-Ju Tuan, Katarzyna Harabasz, Eva Brandl, AP, Jenny Reddish, Natalia Szych, Enrico Cioni, Peter Rudiak-Gould, Alec Vulfson, Lottie Field, Hugh Bennett, Kalin Bullman, Gréine Jordan, Katarzyna Mich.

Variable Definition
Polity The Seshat Polity Name
Year(s) The years for which we have the data. [negative = BCE]
Confidence Inferred : The value is inferred.
Suspected : The value is suspected (Expert Check Needed).
Evidenced : The value is backed up by sufficient evidence.
Disputed? No : No disagreement among scholars.
Yes : There is disagreement among scholars.
Expert? : Not yet Checked by a Seshat Expert.
: Checked and accepted by a Seshat Expert (or RA).

Variable Definition Choices
modern_fortification The absence or presence of modern fortification for a polity. - present
- absent
- unknown
- Transitional (Absent -> Present)
- Transitional (Present -> Absent)

# Polity   Home NGA     Year(s)   Modern Fortification Confidence   Disputed   Expert   Edit
1
Late Formative Basin of Mexico
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Late Formative Basin of Mexico is assumed.
[-400, -101]
absent
Confident No Edit
2
Terminal Formative Basin of Mexico
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Terminal Formative Basin of Mexico is assumed.
[-100, 99]
absent
Confident No Edit
3
Classic Basin of Mexico
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Classic Basin of Mexico is assumed.
[100, 649]
absent
Confident No Edit
4
Epiclassic Basin of Mexico
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Epiclassic Basin of Mexico is assumed.
[650, 899]
absent
Confident No Edit
5
Toltecs
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Toltecs is assumed.
[900, 1199]
absent
Confident No Edit
6
Middle Postclassic Basin of Mexico
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Middle Postclassic Basin of Mexico is assumed.
[1200, 1426]
absent
Confident No Edit
7
Aztec Empire
Basin of Mexico Full Year Range of Aztec Empire is assumed.
[1427, 1526]
absent
Confident No Edit
8
Hawaii I
Big Island Hawaii Full Year Range of Hawaii I is assumed.
[1000, 1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
9
Hawaii II
Big Island Hawaii Full Year Range of Hawaii II is assumed.
[1200, 1580]
absent
Confident No Edit
10
Hawaii III
Big Island Hawaii Full Year Range of Hawaii III is assumed.
[1580, 1778]
absent
Confident No Edit
11
Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period
Big Island Hawaii Full Year Range of Kingdom of Hawaii - Kamehameha Period is assumed.
[1778, 1819]
absent
Confident No Edit
12
Cahokia - Early Woodland
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Early Woodland is assumed.
[-600, -150]
absent
Confident No Edit
13
Cahokia - Middle Woodland
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Middle Woodland is assumed.
[-150, 300]
absent
Confident No Edit
14
Cahokia - Late Woodland I
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Late Woodland I is assumed.
[300, 450]
absent
Confident No Edit
15
Cahokia - Late Woodland II
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Late Woodland II is assumed.
[450, 600]
absent
Confident No Edit
16
Cahokia - Late Woodland III
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Late Woodland III is assumed.
[600, 750]
absent
Confident No Edit
17
Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian I
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian I is assumed.
[750, 900]
absent
Confident No Edit
18
Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian II
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Emergent Mississippian II is assumed.
[900, 1049]
absent
Confident No Edit
19
Cahokia - Lohman-Stirling
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Lohman-Stirling is assumed.
[1055, 1199]
absent
Confident No Edit
20
Cahokia - Moorehead
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Moorehead is assumed.
[1200, 1274]
absent
Confident No Edit
21
Cahokia - Sand Prairie
Cahokia Full Year Range of Cahokia - Sand Prairie is assumed.
[1275, 1400]
absent
Confident No Edit
22
Oneota
Cahokia Full Year Range of Oneota is assumed.
[1400, 1650]
absent
Confident No Edit
23
Early Illinois Confederation
Cahokia Full Year Range of Early Illinois Confederation is assumed.
[1640, 1717]
absent
Confident No Edit
24
Bronze Age Cambodia
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Bronze Age Cambodia is assumed.
[-1200, -501]
absent
Confident No Edit
25
Bronze Age Cambodia
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Bronze Age Cambodia is assumed.
[-500, 224]
absent
Confident No Edit
26
Funan I
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Funan I is assumed.
[225, 540]
absent
Confident No Edit
27
Funan II
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Funan II is assumed.
[540, 640]
absent
Confident No Edit
28
Chenla
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Chenla is assumed.
[550, 825]
absent
Inferred No Edit
29
Early Angkor
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Early Angkor is assumed.
[802, 1100]
absent
Confident No Edit
30
Classical Angkor
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Classical Angkor is assumed.
[1100, 1220]
absent
Confident No Edit
31
Late Angkor
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Late Angkor is assumed.
[1220, 1432]
absent
Confident No Edit
32
Khmer Kingdom
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Khmer Kingdom is assumed.
[1432, 1594]
absent
Confident No Edit
33
Ayutthaya
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Ayutthaya is assumed.
[1593, 1767]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
34
Rattanakosin
Cambodian Basin Full Year Range of Rattanakosin is assumed.
[1782, 1873]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
35
Java - Buni Culture
Central Java Full Year Range of Java - Buni Culture is assumed.
[-400, 500]
absent
Confident No Edit
36
Kalingga Kingdom
Central Java Full Year Range of Kalingga Kingdom is assumed.
[500, 732]
absent
Confident No Edit
37
Medang Kingdom
Central Java Full Year Range of Medang Kingdom is assumed.
[732, 1019]
absent
Confident No Edit
38
Kediri Kingdom
Central Java Full Year Range of Kediri Kingdom is assumed.
[1049, 1222]
absent
Confident No Edit
39
Majapahit Kingdom
Central Java Full Year Range of Majapahit Kingdom is assumed.
[1292, 1518]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
40
Mataram Sultanate
Central Java Full Year Range of Mataram Sultanate is assumed.
[1568, 1703]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
41
Chuuk - Early Truk
Chuuk Islands Full Year Range of Chuuk - Early Truk is assumed.
[1775, 1886]
absent
Confident No Edit
42
Chuuk - Late Truk
Chuuk Islands Full Year Range of Chuuk - Late Truk is assumed.
[1886, 1948]
absent
Confident No Edit
43
Neolithic Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Neolithic Crete is assumed.
[-7000, -3000]
absent
Confident No Edit
44
Prepalatial Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Prepalatial Crete is assumed.
[-3000, -1900]
absent
Confident No Edit
45
The Old Palace Crete
Crete Full Year Range of The Old Palace Crete is assumed.
[-1900, -1700]
absent
Confident No Edit
46
New Palace Crete
Crete Full Year Range of New Palace Crete is assumed.
[-1700, -1450]
absent
Confident No Edit
47
Monopalatial Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Monopalatial Crete is assumed.
[-1450, -1300]
absent
Confident No Edit
48
Postpalatial Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Postpalatial Crete is assumed.
[-1300, -1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
49
Final Postpalatial Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Final Postpalatial Crete is assumed.
[-1200, -1000]
absent
Confident No Edit
50
Geometric Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Geometric Crete is assumed.
[-1000, -710]
absent
Confident No Edit
51
Archaic Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Archaic Crete is assumed.
[-710, -500]
absent
Confident No Edit
52
Classical Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Classical Crete is assumed.
[-500, -323]
absent
Confident No Edit
53
Hellenistic Crete
Crete Full Year Range of Hellenistic Crete is assumed.
[-323, -69]
absent
Confident No Edit
54
Byzantine Empire III
Crete Full Year Range of Byzantine Empire III is assumed.
[1073, 1204]
absent
Confident No Edit
55
Republic of Venice III
Crete Full Year Range of Republic of Venice III is assumed.
[1204, 1563]
present
Inferred No Edit
56
Republic of Venice IV
Crete Full Year Range of Republic of Venice IV is assumed.
[1564, 1797]
present
Inferred No Edit
57
Cuzco - Late Formative
Cuzco Full Year Range of Cuzco - Late Formative is assumed.
[-500, 200]
absent
Confident No Edit
58
Cuzco - Early Intermediate I
Cuzco Full Year Range of Cuzco - Early Intermediate I is assumed.
[200, 499]
absent
Confident No Edit
59
Cuzco - Early Intermediate II
Cuzco Full Year Range of Cuzco - Early Intermediate II is assumed.
[500, 649]
absent
Confident No Edit
60
Wari Empire
Cuzco Full Year Range of Wari Empire is assumed.
[650, 999]
absent
Confident No Edit
61
Cuzco - Late Intermediate I
Cuzco Full Year Range of Cuzco - Late Intermediate I is assumed.
[1000, 1250]
absent
Confident No Edit
62
Cuzco - Late Intermediate II
Cuzco Full Year Range of Cuzco - Late Intermediate II is assumed.
[1250, 1400]
absent
Confident No Edit
63
Inca Empire
Cuzco Full Year Range of Inca Empire is assumed.
[1375, 1532]
absent
Confident No Edit
64
Spanish Empire I
Cuzco Full Year Range of Spanish Empire I is assumed.
[1516, 1715]
present
Confident No Edit
65
Deccan - Neolithic
Deccan Full Year Range of Deccan - Neolithic is assumed.
[-2700, -1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
66
Deccan - Iron Age
Deccan Full Year Range of Deccan - Iron Age is assumed.
[-1200, -300]
absent
Confident No Edit
67
Post-Mauryan Kingdoms
Deccan Full Year Range of Post-Mauryan Kingdoms is assumed.
[-205, -101]
absent
Confident No Edit
68
Satavahana Empire
Deccan Full Year Range of Satavahana Empire is assumed.
[-100, 203]
absent
Confident No Edit
69
Vakataka Kingdom
Deccan Full Year Range of Vakataka Kingdom is assumed.
[255, 550]
absent
Confident No Edit
70
Kadamba Empire
Deccan Full Year Range of Kadamba Empire is assumed.
[345, 550]
absent
Confident No Edit
71
Chalukyas of Badami
Deccan Full Year Range of Chalukyas of Badami is assumed.
[543, 753]
absent
Confident No Edit
72
Rashtrakuta Empire
Deccan Full Year Range of Rashtrakuta Empire is assumed.
[753, 973]
absent
Confident No Edit
73
Chalukyas of Kalyani
Deccan Full Year Range of Chalukyas of Kalyani is assumed.
[973, 1191]
absent
Confident No Edit
74
Hoysala Kingdom
Deccan Full Year Range of Hoysala Kingdom is assumed.
[1108, 1346]
absent
Confident No Edit
75
Kampili Kingdom
Deccan Full Year Range of Kampili Kingdom is assumed.
[1280, 1327]
absent
Confident No Edit
76
Vijayanagara Empire
Deccan Full Year Range of Vijayanagara Empire is assumed.
[1336, 1646]
absent
Confident No Edit
77
British Empire II
Deccan Full Year Range of British Empire II is assumed.
[1850, 1968]
present
Confident No Edit
78
Proto-Haudenosaunee Confederacy
Finger Lakes Full Year Range of Proto-Haudenosaunee Confederacy is assumed.
[1300, 1565]
absent
Confident No Edit
79
Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Early
Finger Lakes Full Year Range of Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Early is assumed.
[1566, 1713]
absent
Confident No Edit
80
Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Late
Finger Lakes Full Year Range of Haudenosaunee Confederacy - Late is assumed.
[1714, 1848]
absent
Confident No Edit
81
Canaan
Galilee Full Year Range of Canaan is assumed.
[-2000, -1175]
absent
Confident No Edit
82
Phoenician Empire
Galilee Full Year Range of Phoenician Empire is assumed.
[-1200, -332]
absent
Confident No Edit
83
Yisrael
Galilee Full Year Range of Yisrael is assumed.
[-1030, -722]
absent
Confident No Edit
84
Yehuda
Galilee Full Year Range of Yehuda is assumed.
[-141, -63]
absent
Confident No Edit
85
Early Garo
Garo Hills Full Year Range of Early Garo is assumed.
[1775, 1867]
absent
Confident No Edit
86
Late Garo
Garo Hills Full Year Range of Late Garo is assumed.
[1867, 1956]
absent
Confident No Edit
87
Akan - Pre-Ashanti
Ghanaian Coast Full Year Range of Akan - Pre-Ashanti is assumed.
[1501, 1701]
absent
Confident No Edit
88
Ashanti Empire
Ghanaian Coast Full Year Range of Ashanti Empire is assumed.
[1701, 1895]
absent
Confident No Edit
89
Icelandic Commonwealth
Iceland Full Year Range of Icelandic Commonwealth is assumed.
[930, 1262]
absent
Confident No Edit
90
Kingdom of Norway II
Iceland Full Year Range of Kingdom of Norway II is assumed.
[1262, 1380]
absent
Confident No Edit
91
Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic is assumed.
[-7500, -5500]
absent
Confident No Edit
92
Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic is assumed.
[-5500, -4000]
absent
Confident No Edit
93
Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic is assumed.
[-4000, -3200]
absent
Confident No Edit
94
Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period is assumed.
[-3200, -2500]
absent
Confident No Edit
95
Kachi Plain - Urban Period I
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Urban Period I is assumed.
[-2500, -2100]
absent
Confident No Edit
96
Kachi Plain - Urban Period II
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Urban Period II is assumed.
[-2100, 1800]
absent
Confident No Edit
97
Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period is assumed.
[-1800, -1300]
absent
Confident No Edit
98
Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period is assumed.
[-1300, -500]
absent
Confident No Edit
99
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Indo-Greek Kingdom is assumed.
[-180, -10]
absent
Confident No Edit
100
Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Sind - Abbasid-Fatimid Period is assumed.
[854, 1193]
absent
Confident No Edit
101
Ghur Principality
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Ghur Principality is assumed.
[1025, 1215]
absent
Confident No Edit
102
Delhi Sultanate
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Delhi Sultanate is assumed.
[1206, 1526]
absent
Confident No Edit
103
Sind - Samma Dynasty
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Sind - Samma Dynasty is assumed.
[1335, 1521]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
104
Mughal Empire
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Mughal Empire is assumed.
[1526, 1858]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
105
Durrani Empire
Kachi Plain Full Year Range of Durrani Empire is assumed.
[1747, 1826]
present
Confident No Edit
106
Japan - Incipient Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Incipient Jomon is assumed.
[-13600, -9200]
absent
Confident No Edit
107
Japan - Initial Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Initial Jomon is assumed.
[-9200, -5300]
absent
Confident No Edit
108
Japan - Early Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Early Jomon is assumed.
[-5300, -3500]
absent
Confident No Edit
109
Japan - Middle Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Middle Jomon is assumed.
[-3500, -2500]
absent
Confident No Edit
110
Japan - Late Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Late Jomon is assumed.
[-2500, -1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
111
Japan - Final Jomon
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Final Jomon is assumed.
[-1200, -300]
absent
Confident No Edit
112
Kansai - Yayoi Period
Kansai Full Year Range of Kansai - Yayoi Period is assumed.
[-300, 250]
absent
Confident No Edit
113
Kansai - Kofun Period
Kansai Full Year Range of Kansai - Kofun Period is assumed.
[250, 537]
absent
Confident No Edit
114
Asuka
Kansai Full Year Range of Asuka is assumed.
[538, 710]
absent
Confident No Edit
115
Heian
Kansai Full Year Range of Heian is assumed.
[794, 1185]
absent
Confident No Edit
116
Kamakura Shogunate
Kansai Full Year Range of Kamakura Shogunate is assumed.
[1185, 1333]
absent
Confident No Edit
117
Ashikaga Shogunate
Kansai Full Year Range of Ashikaga Shogunate is assumed.
[1336, 1467]
absent
Confident No Edit
118
Warring States Japan
Kansai Full Year Range of Warring States Japan is assumed.
[1467, 1568]
absent
Confident No Edit
119
Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama
Kansai Full Year Range of Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama is assumed.
[1568, 1603]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
120
Tokugawa Shogunate
Kansai 1603 CE 1854 CE
absent
Confident No Edit
121
Tokugawa Shogunate
Kansai 1855 CE 1868 CE
present
Confident No Edit
122
Iban - Pre-Brooke
Kapuasi Basin Full Year Range of Iban - Pre-Brooke is assumed.
[1650, 1841]
absent
Confident No Edit
123
Iban - Brooke Raj and Colonial
Kapuasi Basin Full Year Range of Iban - Brooke Raj and Colonial is assumed.
[1841, 1987]
absent
Confident No Edit
124
Konya Plain - Early Neolithic
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Early Neolithic is assumed.
[-9600, -7000]
absent
Confident No Edit
125
Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Ceramic Neolithic is assumed.
[-7000, -6600]
absent
Confident No Edit
126
Konya Plain - Late Neolithic
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Late Neolithic is assumed.
[-6600, -6000]
absent
Confident No Edit
127
Konya Plain - Early Chalcolithic
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Early Chalcolithic is assumed.
[-6000, -5500]
absent
Confident No Edit
128
Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Late Chalcolithic is assumed.
[-5500, -3000]
absent
Confident No Edit
129
Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Early Bronze Age is assumed.
[-3000, -2000]
absent
Confident No Edit
130
Middle Bronze Age in Central Anatolia
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Middle Bronze Age in Central Anatolia is assumed.
[-2000, -1700]
absent
Confident No Edit
131
Hatti - Old Kingdom
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Hatti - Old Kingdom is assumed.
[-1650, -1500]
absent
Confident No Edit
132
Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Konya Plain - Late Bronze Age II is assumed.
[-1500, -1400]
absent
Confident No Edit
133
Hatti - New Kingdom
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Hatti - New Kingdom is assumed.
[-1400, -1180]
absent
Confident No Edit
134
Neo-Hittite Kingdoms
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Neo-Hittite Kingdoms is assumed.
[-1180, -900]
absent
Confident No Edit
135
Phrygian Kingdom
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Phrygian Kingdom is assumed.
[-900, -695]
absent
Confident No Edit
136
Tabal Kingdoms
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Tabal Kingdoms is assumed.
[-900, -730]
absent
Confident No Edit
137
Kingdom of Lydia
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Kingdom of Lydia is assumed.
[-670, -546]
absent
Confident No Edit
138
Lysimachus Kingdom
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Lysimachus Kingdom is assumed.
[-323, -281]
absent
Confident No Edit
139
Late Cappadocia
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Late Cappadocia is assumed.
[-322, -93]
absent
Confident No Edit
140
Roman Empire - Dominate
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Roman Empire - Dominate is assumed.
[285, 394]
absent
Confident No Edit
141
East Roman Empire
Konya Plain Full Year Range of East Roman Empire is assumed.
[395, 631]
absent
Confident No Edit
142
Byzantine Empire I
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Byzantine Empire I is assumed.
[632, 866]
absent
Confident No Edit
143
Byzantine Empire II
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Byzantine Empire II is assumed.
[867, 1072]
absent
Confident No Edit
144
Rum Sultanate
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Rum Sultanate is assumed.
[1077, 1307]
absent
Inferred No Edit
145
Ottoman Emirate
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Ottoman Emirate is assumed.
[1299, 1402]
absent
Confident No Edit
146
Ottoman Empire I
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Ottoman Empire I is assumed.
[1402, 1517]
absent
Confident No Edit
147
Ottoman Empire II
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Ottoman Empire II is assumed.
[1517, 1683]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
148
Ottoman Empire III
Konya Plain Full Year Range of Ottoman Empire III is assumed.
[1683, 1839]
present
Confident No Edit
149
Latium - Copper Age
Latium Full Year Range of Latium - Copper Age is assumed.
[-3600, -1800]
absent
Confident No Edit
150
Latium - Bronze Age
Latium Full Year Range of Latium - Bronze Age is assumed.
[-1800, -900]
absent
Confident No Edit
151
Latium - Iron Age
Latium Full Year Range of Latium - Iron Age is assumed.
[-1000, -580]
absent
Confident No Edit
152
Roman Kingdom
Latium Full Year Range of Roman Kingdom is assumed.
[-716, -509]
absent
Confident No Edit
153
Early Roman Republic
Latium Full Year Range of Early Roman Republic is assumed.
[-509, -264]
absent
Confident No Edit
154
Middle Roman Republic
Latium Full Year Range of Middle Roman Republic is assumed.
[-264, -133]
absent
Confident No Edit
155
Late Roman Republic
Latium Full Year Range of Late Roman Republic is assumed.
[-133, -31]
absent
Confident No Edit
156
Roman Empire - Principate
Latium Full Year Range of Roman Empire - Principate is assumed.
[-31, 284]
absent
Confident No Edit
157
Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity
Latium Full Year Range of Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity is assumed.
[395, 476]
absent
Confident No Edit
158
Ostrogothic Kingdom
Latium Full Year Range of Ostrogothic Kingdom is assumed.
[489, 554]
absent
Confident No Edit
159
Exarchate of Ravenna
Latium Full Year Range of Exarchate of Ravenna is assumed.
[568, 751]
absent
Confident No Edit
160
Republic of St Peter I
Latium Full Year Range of Republic of St Peter I is assumed.
[711, 904]
absent
Confident No Edit
161
Rome - Republic of St Peter II
Latium Full Year Range of Rome - Republic of St Peter II is assumed.
[904, 1198]
absent
Confident No Edit
162
Papal States - High Medieval Period
Latium Full Year Range of Papal States - High Medieval Period is assumed.
[1198, 1309]
absent
Confident No Edit
163
Papal States - Renaissance Period
Latium Full Year Range of Papal States - Renaissance Period is assumed.
[1378, 1527]
present
Confident No Edit
164
Papal States - Medieval Period I
Latium Full Year Range of Papal States - Medieval Period I is assumed.
[1527, 1648]
present
Confident No Edit
165
Papal States - Medieval Period II
Latium Full Year Range of Papal States - Medieval Period II is assumed.
[1648, 1809]
present
Confident No Edit
166
Sakha - Early
Lena River Valley Full Year Range of Sakha - Early is assumed.
[1400, 1632]
absent
Confident No Edit
167
Sakha - Late
Lena River Valley Full Year Range of Sakha - Late is assumed.
[1632, 1900]
absent
Confident No Edit
168
Shuar - Colonial
Lowland Andes Full Year Range of Shuar - Colonial is assumed.
[1534, 1830]
absent
Confident No Edit
169
Shuar - Ecuadorian
Lowland Andes Full Year Range of Shuar - Ecuadorian is assumed.
[1831, 1931]
absent
Confident No Edit
170
Mahajanapada era
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Mahajanapada era is assumed.
[-600, -324]
absent
Confident No Edit
171
Maurya Empire
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Maurya Empire is assumed.
[-324, -187]
absent
Confident No Edit
172
Sunga Empire
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Sunga Empire is assumed.
[-187, -65]
absent
Confident No Edit
173
Kingdom of Ayodhya
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Kingdom of Ayodhya is assumed.
[-64, 34]
absent
Confident No Edit
174
Gupta Dynasty
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Gupta Dynasty is assumed.
[320, 515]
absent
Confident No Edit
175
Magadha
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Magadha is assumed.
[450, 605]
absent
Confident No Edit
176
Kanauj
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Kanauj is assumed.
[650, 780]
absent
Confident No Edit
177
Gurjar
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Gurjar is assumed.
[810, 1030]
absent
Confident No Edit
178
Gahadavala Dynasty
Middle Ganga Full Year Range of Gahadavala Dynasty is assumed.
[1085, 1193]
absent
Confident No Edit
179
Peiligang
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Peiligang is assumed.
[-7000, -5001]
absent
Confident No Edit
180
Yangshao
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Yangshao is assumed.
[-5000, -3000]
absent
Confident No Edit
181
Longshan
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Longshan is assumed.
[-3000, -1900]
absent
Confident No Edit
182
Erlitou
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Erlitou is assumed.
[-1850, -1600]
absent
Confident No Edit
183
Erligang
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Erligang is assumed.
[-1650, -1250]
absent
Confident No Edit
184
Late Shang
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Late Shang is assumed.
[-1250, -1045]
absent
Confident No Edit
185
Western Zhou
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Western Zhou is assumed.
[-1122, -771]
absent
Confident No Edit
186
Jin
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Jin is assumed.
[-780, -404]
absent
Confident No Edit
187
Early Wei Dynasty
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Early Wei Dynasty is assumed.
[-445, -225]
absent
Confident No Edit
188
Western Han Empire
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Western Han Empire is assumed.
[-202, 9]
absent
Confident No Edit
189
Eastern Han Empire
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Eastern Han Empire is assumed.
[25, 220]
absent
Confident No Edit
190
Western Jin
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Western Jin is assumed.
[265, 317]
absent
Confident No Edit
191
Northern Wei
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Northern Wei is assumed.
[386, 534]
absent
Confident No Edit
192
Sui Dynasty
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Sui Dynasty is assumed.
[581, 618]
absent
Confident No Edit
193
Tang Dynasty I
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Tang Dynasty I is assumed.
[617, 763]
absent
Confident No Edit
194
Tang Dynasty II
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Tang Dynasty II is assumed.
[763, 907]
absent
Confident No Edit
195
Northern Song
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Northern Song is assumed.
[960, 1127]
present
Inferred No Edit
196
Jin Dynasty
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Jin Dynasty is assumed.
[1115, 1234]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
197
Great Yuan
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Great Yuan is assumed.
[1271, 1368]
absent
Confident No Edit
198
Great Ming
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Great Ming is assumed.
[1368, 1644]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
199
Early Qing
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Early Qing is assumed.
[1644, 1796]
absent
Confident No Edit
200
Late Qing
Middle Yellow River Valley Full Year Range of Late Qing is assumed.
[1796, 1912]
present
Confident No Edit
201
Jenne-jeno I
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Jenne-jeno I is assumed.
[-250, 49]
absent
Confident No Edit
202
Jenne-jeno II
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Jenne-jeno II is assumed.
[50, 399]
absent
Confident No Edit
203
Jenne-jeno III
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Jenne-jeno III is assumed.
[400, 899]
absent
Confident No Edit
204
Middle Wagadu Empire
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Middle Wagadu Empire is assumed.
[700, 1077]
absent
Confident No Edit
205
Jenne-jeno IV
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Jenne-jeno IV is assumed.
[900, 1300]
absent
Confident No Edit
206
Later Wagadu Empire
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Later Wagadu Empire is assumed.
[1078, 1203]
absent
Confident No Edit
207
Mali Empire
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Mali Empire is assumed.
[1230, 1410]
absent
Confident No Edit
208
Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty is assumed.
[1493, 1591]
absent
Confident No Edit
209
Saadi Sultanate
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Saadi Sultanate is assumed.
[1554, 1659]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
210
Segou Kingdom
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Segou Kingdom is assumed.
[1650, 1712]
absent
Inferred No Edit
211
Bamana kingdom
Niger Inland Delta Full Year Range of Bamana kingdom is assumed.
[1712, 1861]
absent
Inferred No Edit
212
Neguanje
North Colombia Full Year Range of Neguanje is assumed.
[250, 1050]
absent
Confident No Edit
213
Tairona
North Colombia Full Year Range of Tairona is assumed.
[1050, 1524]
absent
Confident No Edit
214
Early Xiongnu
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Early Xiongnu is assumed.
[-1400, -300]
absent
Confident No Edit
215
Xiongnu Imperial Confederation
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Xiongnu Imperial Confederation is assumed.
[-209, -60]
absent
Confident No Edit
216
Late Xiongnu
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Late Xiongnu is assumed.
[-60, 100]
absent
Confident No Edit
217
Xianbei Confederation
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Xianbei Confederation is assumed.
[100, 250]
absent
Inferred No Edit
218
Rouran Khaganate
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Rouran Khaganate is assumed.
[300, 555]
absent
Confident No Edit
219
Eastern Turk Khaganate
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Eastern Turk Khaganate is assumed.
[583, 630]
absent
Confident No Edit
220
Shiwei
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Shiwei is assumed.
[600, 1000]
absent
Confident No Edit
221
Second Turk Khaganate
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Second Turk Khaganate is assumed.
[682, 744]
absent
Confident No Edit
222
Uigur Khaganate
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Uigur Khaganate is assumed.
[745, 840]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
223
Khitan I
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Khitan I is assumed.
[907, 1125]
absent
Confident No Edit
224
Early Mongols
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Early Mongols is assumed.
[1000, 1206]
absent
Confident No Edit
225
Mongol Empire
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Mongol Empire is assumed.
[1206, 1368]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
226
Late Mongols
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Late Mongols is assumed.
[1368, 1690]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
227
Zungharian Empire
Orkhon Valley Full Year Range of Zungharian Empire is assumed.
[1670, 1757]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
228
Orokaiva - Pre-Colonial
Oro PNG Full Year Range of Orokaiva - Pre-Colonial is assumed.
[1734, 1883]
absent
Confident No Edit
229
Orokaiva - Colonial
Oro PNG Full Year Range of Orokaiva - Colonial is assumed.
[1884, 1942]
absent
Confident No Edit
230
Beaker Culture
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Beaker Culture is assumed.
[-3200, -2000]
absent
Inferred No Edit
231
Atlantic Complex
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Atlantic Complex is assumed.
[-2200, -1000]
absent
Confident No Edit
232
Hallstatt A-B1
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Hallstatt A-B1 is assumed.
[-1000, -900]
absent
Confident No Edit
233
Hallstatt B2-3
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Hallstatt B2-3 is assumed.
[-900, -700]
absent
Confident No Edit
234
Hallstatt C
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Hallstatt C is assumed.
[-700, -600]
absent
Inferred No Edit
235
Hallstatt D
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Hallstatt D is assumed.
[-600, -475]
absent
Confident No Edit
236
La Tene A-B1
Paris Basin Full Year Range of La Tene A-B1 is assumed.
[-475, -325]
absent
Confident No Edit
237
La Tene B2-C1
Paris Basin Full Year Range of La Tene B2-C1 is assumed.
[-325, -175]
absent
Confident No Edit
238
La Tene C2-D
Paris Basin Full Year Range of La Tene C2-D is assumed.
[-175, -27]
absent
Confident No Edit
239
Early Merovingian
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Early Merovingian is assumed.
[481, 543]
absent
Confident No Edit
240
Middle Merovingian
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Middle Merovingian is assumed.
[543, 687]
absent
Confident No Edit
241
Proto-Carolingian
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Proto-Carolingian is assumed.
[687, 751]
absent
Confident No Edit
242
Carolingian Empire I
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Carolingian Empire I is assumed.
[752, 840]
absent
Confident No Edit
243
Carolingian Empire II
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Carolingian Empire II is assumed.
[840, 987]
absent
Confident No Edit
244
Proto-French Kingdom
Paris Basin Full Year Range of Proto-French Kingdom is assumed.
[987, 1150]
absent
Confident No Edit
245
French Kingdom - Late Capetian
Paris Basin Full Year Range of French Kingdom - Late Capetian is assumed.
[1150, 1328]
absent
Confident No Edit
246
French Kingdom - Early Valois
Paris Basin Full Year Range of French Kingdom - Early Valois is assumed.
[1328, 1450]
present
Inferred No Edit
247
French Kingdom - Late Valois
Paris Basin Full Year Range of French Kingdom - Late Valois is assumed.
[1450, 1589]
present
Inferred No Edit
248
French Kingdom - Early Bourbon
Paris Basin Full Year Range of French Kingdom - Early Bourbon is assumed.
[1589, 1660]
present
Confident No Edit
249
French Kingdom - Late Bourbon
Paris Basin Full Year Range of French Kingdom - Late Bourbon is assumed.
[1660, 1815]
present
Confident No Edit
250
Sarazm
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Sarazm is assumed.
[-3500, -2000]
absent
Confident No Edit
251
Andronovo
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Andronovo is assumed.
[-1800, -1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
252
Koktepe I
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Koktepe I is assumed.
[-1400, -1000]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
253
Ancient Khwarazm
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Ancient Khwarazm is assumed.
[-1000, -521]
absent
Confident No Edit
254
Koktepe II
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Koktepe II is assumed.
[-750, -550]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
255
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom is assumed.
[-256, -125]
absent
Confident No Edit
256
Tocharians
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Tocharians is assumed.
[-129, 29]
absent
Confident No Edit
257
Kushan Empire
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Kushan Empire is assumed.
[35, 319]
absent
Confident No Edit
258
Kidarite Kingdom
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Kidarite Kingdom is assumed.
[388, 477]
absent
Confident No Edit
259
Hephthalites
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Hephthalites is assumed.
[408, 561]
absent
Confident No Edit
260
Western Turk Khaganate
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Western Turk Khaganate is assumed.
[582, 630]
absent
Confident No Edit
261
Sogdiana - City-States Period
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Sogdiana - City-States Period is assumed.
[604, 711]
absent
Confident No Edit
262
Samanid Empire
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Samanid Empire is assumed.
[819, 999]
absent
Confident No Edit
263
Kara-Khanids
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Kara-Khanids is assumed.
[950, 1212]
absent
Confident No Edit
264
Chagatai Khanate
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Chagatai Khanate is assumed.
[1263, 1402]
absent
Confident No Edit
265
Timurid Empire
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Timurid Empire is assumed.
[1370, 1526]
absent
Confident No Edit
266
Khanate of Bukhara
Sogdiana Full Year Range of Khanate of Bukhara is assumed.
[1599, 1747]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
267
Hmong - Late Qing
Southern China Hills Full Year Range of Hmong - Late Qing is assumed.
[1701, 1895]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
268
Hmong - Early Chinese
Southern China Hills Full Year Range of Hmong - Early Chinese is assumed.
[1895, 1941]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
269
Southern Mesopotamia Neolithic
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Southern Mesopotamia Neolithic is assumed.
[-9000, -5501]
absent
Confident No Edit
270
Ubaid
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Ubaid is assumed.
[-5500, -4201]
absent
Confident No Edit
271
Uruk
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Uruk is assumed.
[-4000, -2900]
absent
Confident No Edit
272
Early Dynastic
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Early Dynastic is assumed.
[-2900, -2500]
absent
Confident No Edit
273
Akkadian Empire
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Akkadian Empire is assumed.
[-2270, -2083]
absent
Confident No Edit
274
Ur - Dynasty III
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Ur - Dynasty III is assumed.
[-2112, -2004]
absent
Confident No Edit
275
Isin-Larsa
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Isin-Larsa is assumed.
[-2004, -1763]
absent
Confident No Edit
276
Amorite Babylonia
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Amorite Babylonia is assumed.
[-2000, -1600]
absent
Confident No Edit
277
Kassite Babylonia
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Kassite Babylonia is assumed.
[-1595, -1150]
absent
Confident No Edit
278
Second Dynasty of Isin
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Second Dynasty of Isin is assumed.
[-1153, -1027]
absent
Confident No Edit
279
Bazi Dynasty
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Bazi Dynasty is assumed.
[-1005, -986]
absent
Confident No Edit
280
Dynasty of E
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Dynasty of E is assumed.
[-979, -732]
absent
Confident No Edit
281
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Neo-Assyrian Empire is assumed.
[-911, -612]
absent
Confident No Edit
282
Neo-Babylonian Empire
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Neo-Babylonian Empire is assumed.
[-626, -539]
absent
Confident No Edit
283
Seleucids
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Seleucids is assumed.
[-312, -63]
absent
Confident No Edit
284
Parthian Empire II
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Parthian Empire II is assumed.
[41, 226]
absent
Confident No Edit
285
Umayyad Caliphate
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Umayyad Caliphate is assumed.
[661, 750]
absent
Confident No Edit
286
Abbasid Caliphate I
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Abbasid Caliphate I is assumed.
[750, 946]
absent
Confident No Edit
287
Abbasid Caliphate II
Southern Mesopotamia Full Year Range of Abbasid Caliphate II is assumed.
[1191, 1258]
absent
Confident No Edit
288
Pre-Ceramic Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Pre-Ceramic Period is assumed.
[-7800, -7200]
absent
Confident No Edit
289
Formative Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Formative Period is assumed.
[-7200, -7000]
absent
Confident No Edit
290
Susiana - Muhammad Jaffar
Susiana Full Year Range of Susiana - Muhammad Jaffar is assumed.
[-7000, -6000]
absent
Confident No Edit
291
Susiana A
Susiana Full Year Range of Susiana A is assumed.
[-6000, -5700]
absent
Confident No Edit
292
Susiana B
Susiana Full Year Range of Susiana B is assumed.
[-5700, -5100]
absent
Confident No Edit
293
Susiana - Early Ubaid
Susiana Full Year Range of Susiana - Early Ubaid is assumed.
[-5100, -4700]
absent
Confident No Edit
294
Susiana - Late Ubaid
Susiana Full Year Range of Susiana - Late Ubaid is assumed.
[-4700, -4300]
absent
Confident No Edit
295
Susa I
Susiana Full Year Range of Susa I is assumed.
[-4300, -3800]
absent
Confident No Edit
296
Susa II
Susiana Full Year Range of Susa II is assumed.
[-3800, -3100]
absent
Confident No Edit
297
Susa III
Susiana Full Year Range of Susa III is assumed.
[-3100, -2675]
absent
Confident No Edit
298
Elam - Awan Dynasty I
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Awan Dynasty I is assumed.
[-2675, -2100]
absent
Confident No Edit
299
Elam - Shimashki Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Shimashki Period is assumed.
[-2028, -1940]
absent
Confident No Edit
300
Elam - Early Sukkalmah
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Early Sukkalmah is assumed.
[-1900, -1701]
absent
Confident No Edit
301
Elam - Late Sukkalmah
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Late Sukkalmah is assumed.
[-1700, -1500]
absent
Confident No Edit
302
Elam - Kidinuid Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Kidinuid Period is assumed.
[-1500, -1400]
absent
Confident No Edit
303
Elam - Igihalkid Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Igihalkid Period is assumed.
[-1399, -1200]
absent
Confident No Edit
304
Elam - Shutrukid Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Shutrukid Period is assumed.
[-1199, -1100]
absent
Confident No Edit
305
Elam - Crisis Period
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam - Crisis Period is assumed.
[-1100, -900]
absent
Confident No Edit
306
Elam I
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam I is assumed.
[-900, -744]
absent
Confident No Edit
307
Elam II
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam II is assumed.
[-743, -647]
absent
Confident No Edit
308
Elam III
Susiana Full Year Range of Elam III is assumed.
[-612, -539]
absent
Confident No Edit
309
Achaemenid Empire
Susiana Full Year Range of Achaemenid Empire is assumed.
[-550, -331]
absent
Confident No Edit
310
Parthian Empire I
Susiana Full Year Range of Parthian Empire I is assumed.
[-247, 40]
absent
Confident No Edit
311
Elymais II
Susiana Full Year Range of Elymais II is assumed.
[25, 215]
absent
Confident No Edit
312
Sasanid Empire I
Susiana Full Year Range of Sasanid Empire I is assumed.
[205, 487]
absent
Confident No Edit
313
Sasanid Empire II
Susiana Full Year Range of Sasanid Empire II is assumed.
[488, 642]
absent
Confident No Edit
314
Buyid Confederation
Susiana Full Year Range of Buyid Confederation is assumed.
[932, 1062]
absent
Confident No Edit
315
Seljuk Sultanate
Susiana Full Year Range of Seljuk Sultanate is assumed.
[1037, 1157]
absent
Confident No Edit
316
Ilkhanate
Susiana Full Year Range of Ilkhanate is assumed.
[1256, 1339]
absent
Confident No Edit
317
Ak Koyunlu
Susiana Full Year Range of Ak Koyunlu is assumed.
[1339, 1501]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
318
Safavid Empire
Susiana Full Year Range of Safavid Empire is assumed.
[1501, 1722]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
319
Qajar
Susiana Full Year Range of Qajar is assumed.
[1794, 1925]
present
Confident No Edit
320
Badarian
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Badarian is assumed.
[-4400, -3800]
absent
Confident No Edit
321
Naqada I
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Naqada I is assumed.
[-3800, -3550]
absent
Inferred No Edit
322
Naqada II
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Naqada II is assumed.
[-3550, -3300]
absent
Confident No Edit
323
Egypt - Dynasty 0
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Dynasty 0 is assumed.
[-3300, -3100]
absent
Confident No Edit
324
Egypt - Dynasty I
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Dynasty I is assumed.
[-3100, -2900]
absent
Confident No Edit
325
Egypt - Dynasty II
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Dynasty II is assumed.
[-2900, -2687]
absent
Confident No Edit
326
Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Classic Old Kingdom is assumed.
[-2650, -2350]
absent
Confident No Edit
327
Egypt - Late Old Kingdom
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Late Old Kingdom is assumed.
[-2350, -2150]
absent
Confident No Edit
328
Egypt - Period of the Regions
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Period of the Regions is assumed.
[-2150, -2016]
absent
Confident No Edit
329
Egypt - Middle Kingdom
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Middle Kingdom is assumed.
[-2016, -1700]
absent
Confident No Edit
330
Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period is assumed.
[-1720, -1567]
absent
Inferred No Edit
331
Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period is assumed.
[-1550, -1293]
absent
Confident No Edit
332
Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period is assumed.
[-1293, -1070]
absent
Confident No Edit
333
Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period is assumed.
[-1069, -747]
absent
Confident No Edit
334
Egypt - Kushite Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Kushite Period is assumed.
[-747, -656]
absent
Confident No Edit
335
Egypt - Saite Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Saite Period is assumed.
[-664, -525]
absent
Confident No Edit
336
Egypt - Inter-Occupation Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Inter-Occupation Period is assumed.
[-404, -342]
absent
Confident No Edit
337
Ptolemaic Kingdom I
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Ptolemaic Kingdom I is assumed.
[-305, -217]
absent
Confident No Edit
338
Ptolemaic Kingdom II
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Ptolemaic Kingdom II is assumed.
[-217, -30]
absent
Confident No Edit
339
Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period is assumed.
[868, 969]
absent
Confident No Edit
340
Fatimid Caliphate
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Fatimid Caliphate is assumed.
[909, 1171]
absent
Confident No Edit
341
Ayyubid Sultanate
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Ayyubid Sultanate is assumed.
[1171, 1250]
absent
Confident No Edit
342
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I is assumed.
[1260, 1348]
absent
Confident No Edit
343
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II is assumed.
[1348, 1412]
absent
Confident No Edit
344
Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III
Upper Egypt Full Year Range of Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III is assumed.
[1412, 1517]
absent
Confident No Edit
345
Oaxaca - Tierras Largas
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Oaxaca - Tierras Largas is assumed.
[-1400, -1150]
absent
Confident No Edit
346
Oaxaca - San Jose
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Oaxaca - San Jose is assumed.
[-1150, -700]
absent
Confident No Edit
347
Oaxaca - Rosario
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Oaxaca - Rosario is assumed.
[-700, -500]
absent
Confident No Edit
348
Early Monte Alban I
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Early Monte Alban I is assumed.
[-500, -300]
absent
Confident No Edit
349
Monte Alban Late I
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Monte Alban Late I is assumed.
[-300, -100]
absent
Confident No Edit
350
Monte Alban II
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Monte Alban II is assumed.
[-100, 200]
absent
Confident No Edit
351
Monte Alban III
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Monte Alban III is assumed.
[200, 500]
absent
Confident No Edit
352
Monte Alban IIIB and IV
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Monte Alban IIIB and IV is assumed.
[500, 900]
absent
Confident No Edit
353
Monte Alban V
Valley of Oaxaca Full Year Range of Monte Alban V is assumed.
[900, 1520]
absent
Confident No Edit
354
Neolithic Yemen
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Neolithic Yemen is assumed.
[-3500, -1201]
absent
Confident No Edit
355
Yemen - Late Bronze Age
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Yemen - Late Bronze Age is assumed.
[-1200, -801]
absent
Confident No Edit
356
Sabaean Commonwealth
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Sabaean Commonwealth is assumed.
[-800, -451]
absent
Confident No Edit
357
Qatabanian Commonwealth
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Qatabanian Commonwealth is assumed.
[-450, -111]
absent
Confident No Edit
358
Axum I
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Axum I is assumed.
[-149, 349]
absent
Confident No Edit
359
Kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raydan
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raydan is assumed.
[-110, 149]
absent
Confident No Edit
360
Himyar I
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Himyar I is assumed.
[270, 340]
absent
Confident No Edit
361
Himyar II
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Himyar II is assumed.
[378, 525]
absent
Confident No Edit
362
Yemen Ziyad Dynasty
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Yemen Ziyad Dynasty is assumed.
[822, 1037]
absent
Confident No Edit
363
Yemen - Era of Warlords
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Yemen - Era of Warlords is assumed.
[1038, 1174]
absent
Confident No Edit
364
Rasulid Dynasty
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Rasulid Dynasty is assumed.
[1229, 1453]
absent
Confident No Edit
365
Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Yemen - Tahirid Dynasty is assumed.
[1454, 1517]
absent
Confident No Edit
366
Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty
Yemeni Coastal Plain Full Year Range of Yemen - Qasimid Dynasty is assumed.
[1637, 1805]
unknown
Suspected No Edit
367
Nara Kingdom
None Full Year Range of Nara Kingdom is assumed.
[710, 794]
absent
Confident No Edit
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