Home Region:  West Africa (Africa)

Jenne-jeno I

EQ 2020  ml_jenne_jeno_1 / MlJeJe1

The archaeological site of Jenne-jeno (or Djenné-djenno) is a mound located in the Niger Inland Delta, a region of West Africa just south of the Sahara and part of modern-day Mali, characterized by lakes and floodplains. It was continuously inhabited between 250 BCE and 1400 CE. ’Jenne-jeno I’ refers to the period of earliest occupation, from 250 BCE to 50 CE. During this time, the site’s inhabitants fished, gathered wild plants, hunted, and cultivated rice (as well as millet and sorghum). They also made and used pottery, and smelted, smithed and used iron, though they probably imported the raw material for the latter from far afield. [1]
Population and political organization
There does not seem to be enough data to reconstruct Jenne-jeno’s political or social organization at this time, but even for later periods, there is a lack of archaeological evidence for ’coercive’ centralized control or the development of hierarchical social structures. [2] It is also unclear how many people were living at Jenne-jeno or at the surrounding sites. However, one of the site’s excavators, Roderick McIntosh, does say that the founding population was probably not inconsiderable, and expanded rapidly. [1]

[1]: (McIntosh 2006, 174-75) Roderick McIntosh. 2006. Ancient Middle Niger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Reader 1998, 225, 228) John Reader. 1998. Africa: A Biography of the Continent. London: Penguin Books.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
30 P  
Original Name:
Jenne-jeno I  
Capital:
suspected unknown  
Alternative Name:
Old Jenne  
Jenne-jeno Phase I  
Djoboro  
Do-Dojobor  
Zoboro  
Djenne-jeno  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
49 CE  
Duration:
[250 BCE ➜ 49 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Sahel Tell Culture  
Succeeding Entity:
Jenne-jeno II  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[1,500,000 to 2,500,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
suspected unknown  
Preceding Entity:
suspected unknown  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
suspected unknown  
Language:
suspected unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[100 to 150] people  
Polity Territory:
[5 to 10] km2  
Polity Population:
[200 to 300] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1  
Administrative Level:
1  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
unknown  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
unknown  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
inferred absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
unknown  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred absent  
  Fortified Camp:
inferred absent  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred absent  
  Ditch:
inferred absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
inferred absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
absent  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
absent  
  Javelin:
present  
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Jenne-jeno I (ml_jenne_jeno_1) was in:
 (250 BCE 49 CE)   Niger Inland Delta
Home NGA: Niger Inland Delta

General Variables
Identity and Location



Alternative Name:
Old Jenne

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Jenne-jeno Phase I

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Djoboro

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Do-Dojobor

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Zoboro

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)

Alternative Name:
Djenne-jeno

Djoboro [1] , Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)

[3]: (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ind_1/hd_ind_1.htm)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
49 CE

50 CE based on linear development progression at this low level of complexity.
"Jenne-jeno’s floruit: 450-1100 C.E." [1]

[1]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)


Duration:
[250 BCE ➜ 49 CE]

1977 excavation habitation 250 BCE to at least 12th century CE "Gradual abandonment of the site was probably in progress soon thereafter" 1400 CE reasonable estimate for abandonment, but could be as early as 1200 CE. [1]
Earliest phase 250 BCE - 50 CE. [1]
"It appears that permanent settlement first became possible in the upper Inland Niger Delta in about the third century B.C.E. Prior to that time, the flood regime of the Niger was apparently much more active, meaning that the annual floodwaters rose higher and perhaps stayed longer than they do today, such that there was no high land that regularly escaped inundation. Under these wetter circumstances, diseases carried by insects, especially tsetse fly, would have discouraged occupation. Between 200 B.C.E. and 100 C.E., the Sahel experienced significant dry episodes, that were part of the general drying trend seriously underway since 1000 B.C.E. Prior to that time, significant numbers of herders and farmers lived in what is today the southern Sahara desert, where they raised cattle, sheep and goat, grew millet, hunted, and fished in an environment of shallow lakes and grassy plains." [2]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 15)

[2]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
uncoded [---]

unknown


Supracultural Entity:
Sahel Tell Culture


Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[1,500,000 to 2,500,000] km2

km squared. "Permanent settlement in the delta, resulting in the formation of tells (large mounds consisting of the accumulated remains of ancient settlements), was initiated by people who entered the region during the last 500 years BC. They made pottery similar to that found at earlier sites along the southern fringe of the Sahara, suggesting that the immigrants were part of a southward movement of herders, fishermen, and cultivators that began with the accelerating desiccation of the Sahara and Sahel regions around 2000 BC." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 226)


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
suspected unknown

"Permanent settlement in the delta, resulting in the formation of tells (large mounds consisting of the accumulated remains of ancient settlements), was initiated by people who entered the region during the last 500 years BC." [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 226)



Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system and centralized control [1]
Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement." [2] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of ’complexification’ rather than centralization." [3]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 225)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 228)


Language


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[100 to 150] people

Inhabitants. During phase two settlement size possibly exceeded 10 hectares [1] which would be a maximum 2000 people at a conversion of 200 per hectare. However, this polity sheet is phase one.
Sahel states = Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad. "Before the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry the population of the area of the present-day Sahel states is unlikely to have exceeded 50,000: once pastoralism and agriculture had become well-established the population can hardly have been less than half a million. The chronology of the transition is as yet totally obscure, but there is no reason to postulate anything above the 50,000 line before 3000 BC or place the achievement of the half million later than 1000 BC. From this latter point a low rate of increase is all that is needed to bring the total to 1m by AD 1 and 2m by AD 1000." [2]
Estimate hectare size phase I:
unknown
Estimate hectare size phase II:
settlement size "possibly exceeding 10 hectares" [1]
1977 archaeological investigation established the 3rd century BCE date and showed that by the eighth-ninth century it had become "an urban center of considerable proportions" [3]
Estimated hectare size early phase III:
"by 450 C.E., the settlement had expanded to at least 25 hectares (over 60 acres)." [4]
Estimate size at height phase III/phase IV:
"The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000." [5]
"At its most densely populated (around AD 800) Jenne-jeno housed up to 27,000 people. [6]
33 hectares. 9 hectare Hambarketolo connects to Jenne-jeno via an earthern dike. [1] this maximum area extent by 900-1000 CE [7]
"During this time, the settlement continued to grow, reaching its maximum area of 33 hectares by 850 C.E. We know that this is so because sherds of the distinctive painted pottery that was produced at Jenne-jeno only between 450-850 C.E. are present in all our excavation units, even those near the edge of the mound. And we find them at the neighboring mound of Hambarketolo, too, suggesting that these two connected sites totaling 41 hectares (100 acres) functioned as part of a single town complex (Pl. 4). [4]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 16)

[2]: (McEverdy and Jones 1978, 238)

[3]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 1)

[4]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)

[5]: (Reader 1998, 230)

[6]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[7]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 19)


Polity Territory:
[5 to 10] km2

in squared kilometers
[5-10] km is my estimate for a small agricultural village and its hinderland.
At this early stage there may have been small agricultural villages. "The original settlement appears to have occurred on a small patch of relatively high ground, and was probably restricted to a few circular huts of straw coated with mud daub." [1]
Later, the quasi-polity would acquire a 1,100 square kilometer hinterland [2] while "over 60 archaeological sites rise from the floodplain within a 4 kilometer radius of the modern town". [1] This gives us an upper limit and estimate of area magnitude.

[1]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)

[2]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 22) McIntosh, R J, McIntosh, S K. 1981. The inland Niger delta before the empire of Mali: evidence from Jenne-jeno. Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 22 (1): 1-22 Reader, J. 1998. Africa: A Biography of the Continent. Penguin Books. London.


Polity Population:
[200 to 300] people

People.
At this time 500,000-1,000,000 across the Sahel states (Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad) but at a very low level of organization with many pastoralists. If a Sahel population of 750,000 all lived in villages and there were 150 per village there would be 5000 villages. This seems too much. Urbanism at this time was unlikely the main form of living. If, say, 10% of the Sahel population lived in villages 75,000 population at 150 per village would give us 500 nascent settlements. This seems a more reasonable figure. However, the actual size of villages would have ranged.
We could perhaps code [200-300] as an upper maximum for a quasi-polity that consisted of more than one village settlement.
"Before the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry the population of the area of the present-day Sahel states is unlikely to have exceeded 50,000: once pastoralism and agriculture had become well-established the population can hardly have been less than half a million. The chronology of the transition is as yet totally obscure, but there is no reason to postulate anything above the 50,000 line before 3000 BC or place the achievement of the half million later than 1000 BC. From this latter point a low rate of increase is all that is needed to bring the total to 1m by AD 1 and 2m by AD 1000." [1]

[1]: (McEverdy and Jones 1978, 238)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1

levels.
1. Small village.
"The original settlement appears to have occurred on a small patch of relatively high ground, and was probably restricted to a few circular huts of straw coated with mud daub." [1]
"people were kept apart by virtue of their occupations and their ethnic identities. Sedentary communities, though clustered were dispersed." [2]
"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [3]

[1]: (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 242)

[3]: (Lapidus 2012, 590)


Administrative Level:
1

levels.
There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system [1] Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement." [2] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of ’complexification’ rather than centralization." [3]
Clan
(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [4]
Kinship group
(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [4]
In West Africa "Early states were simple in their government ... Some were ruled by a single chief or king and his counsellors. Others were governed by a council of chiefs or elders. Others again were formed by several neighbouring peoples whose chiefs were bound in loyalty to one another. Elsewhere, at the same time, there were people who found it better to get along without any chiefs." [5]
"Traditional groups such as clans ... or age-sets of people born at about the same time, had influence in these early states, as in later times, because they could underpin a system of law and order." [5]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 219)

[2]: (Reader 1998, 225)

[3]: (Reader 1998, 228)

[4]: (Bovill 1958, 53)

[5]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Professions

Professional Priesthood:
unknown

At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a ’temple elite’ has been found. [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics


Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a ’temple elite’ has been found. [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
absent

No extensive agriculture at this time.




Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

unknown. iron mining [1] (date not specified, possibly from "earliest times") stone quarries, copper mines [2] (not sure of date).

[1]: (Reader 1998, 22)

[2]: (Posnansky 1981, 723, 719)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Nonwritten Record:
present

oral tradition sources. [1]

[1]: (McIntosh and McIntosh 1981, 9)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Sacred Text:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Religious Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Practical Literature:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Philosophy:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


History:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Fiction:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Calendar:
absent

"There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [1] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events." [2] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao. [3]

[1]: (Bovill 1958, 51) Bovill, E W. 1958/1995. The Golden Trade of the Moors. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Conrad 2010, 13) Conrad, D. C. 2010. Empires of Medieval West Africa. Revised Edition. Chelsea House Publishers. New York.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 44) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.


Information / Money






Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)




Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)



no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Fortified Camp:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Earth Rampart:
absent

no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 230)


Complex Fortification:
absent

no citadel [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 219)



Military use of Metals

Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron." [1] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears." [2] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power." [3]

[1]: (Davidson 1998, 8) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Davidson 1998, 12) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron." [1] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears." [2] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power." [3]

[1]: (Davidson 1998, 8) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Davidson 1998, 12) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.

[3]: (Davidson 1998, 13) Davidson, Basil. 1998. West Africa Before the Colonial Era. Routledge. London.




Projectiles



weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)


weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)







Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [1]

[1]: (Reader 1998, 260)








Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.