Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Khitan I

D G SC WF HS CC EQ 2020  mn_khitan_1 / MnKhitn

Preceding:
745 CE 840 CE Uigur Khaganate (mn_uygur_khaganate)    [cultural assimilation]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

"The Khitan first appear in documentary sources in the 4th century as a people of the south-central portion of northeast China, from a region of mountains and open grasslands. Under the leadership of Abaoji, the Khitan rapidly adopted a centralized royal form of organization, with clear similarities to Chinese traditions but also incorporating some of the familiar steppe pastoralist strategies (Wittfogel and Feng 1949, pp. 59-65). Although Buddhism was a central feature of the polity, as the empire expanded into Central Asia the majority of the population was actually Muslim (Biran 2006, p. 66; Dunnell 1996, p. 4)." [1]
"Liao occupation of the Central Plains, 947" [2]
"The Liao emperor did not conquer and govern the Central Plains directly. ... by dint of military success, he had become the legitimate emperor of the Central Plains. Familiar with T’ang protocols, and advised by formally educated ministers from both Liao and the Later Chin, Te-kuang observed such practices as declaring a new dynasty, wearing Chinese dress, and reemploying former officials. ... He appointed new governors, demoted K’ai-feng from its capital status, and established Chen-chou as a capital instead. But Te-kuang did not intend to stay. ... he treaded the conquest as a very large raid, in which public relations were irrelevant and only loot mattered. Perhaps most damaging to Te-kuang’s image was the policy of "smashing the pasture and grain" (ta ts’ao-yu) ... The Liao armies devestated the region around the capital, foraging to supply themselves and practicing the all-too-common cruelties of soldiers in wartime. To reward his troops, claimed to number three hundred thousand, Te-kuang demanded from an already overtaxed population cash and cloth to be stockpiled for transport north. Most ambitious of all was Te-kuang’s attempt to take north every material element of the Later Chin imperial institution, including palace women and eunuchs, the complete contents of the imperial storehouses, and every last bureaucrat. ... Te-kuang ... apparently wrote his younger brother listing his own three faults in this venture: demanding cash from the people. ordering indiscriminate foraging and plundering, and failing to return the governors to their provinces in good time. The letter, preserved in the Liao shih (Official history of the Liao), describes the "foreignness" of the Khitan: they are raiders (rather than tax collectors) and pastoralists (rather than farmers), and they keep their governors at court(rather than giving them active responsibility in their provinces)." [3]
Revolts against Liao: "Te-kuang, preoccupied with removing himself and his plunder north to the Liao homeland, was largely unresponsive to these events, although he did make an example of Hsiang-chou2, slaughting some hundred thousand men and children, and taking away the women." [4]
"The Liao, for their part,did not vigorously defend the territory they had conquered. On the few occasions when they did fight, they did not try very hard." [4]
"The one region the Liao seemed concerned to hold was the key strategic city of Chen-chou, which controlled the main access between the Central Plains and the Liao homeland." [5]
Standen, N. "The Five Dynasties." in Twitchett, D and Smith, P J ed. 2009. The Cambridge History of China Volume 5: The Sung Dynasty and its Precursors, 907-1279, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
"The comitatus of the early Khitan, a Mongolic people, is known from the ac- counts of An Lu-shan’s Rebellion. For a detailed treatment of the later Liao Dynasty of the Khitan, including discussion of its imperial guard corps, see the outstanding early study by Wittfogel and Fêng (1949). “Each [Khitan Liao] emperor had a separate ordo, or camp, with a ‘heart and belly guard’ of 10,000 to 20,000 households. . . . The members of this guard, particularly the non-Khitans, were the emperor’s private slaves, but their proximity to him gave them high status. After the emperor’s death they guarded his mausoleum while his suc- cessor recruited a new ordo and guard” (Atwood 2004: 297). The Liao state, with its five capitals (ordo), seems to have been organized, theoretically, around the ideal of the “khan and four-bey” system. The khan of the Kereit, who were rivals of Temüjin during his rise to power, “had crack forces of ba’aturs, ‘heroes’, and a 1,000-man day guard, institutions Chinggis Khan would later imitate” (Atwood 2004: 296), along with the golden tent (ordo) connected to them." [6]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 227)

[2]: (Standen 2009, 102)

[3]: (Standen 2009, 102-103)

[4]: (Standen 2009, 105)

[5]: (Standen 2009, 106)

[6]: (Beckwith 2009, 391-392)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Khitan Empire  
Capital:
Central Capital  
Beijing  
Boro Khoton  
Liao-yang  
Ta-T'ung  
Alternative Name:
Liao Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[907 CE ➜ 1,125 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Early Mongols  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Uigur Khaganate (mn_uygur_khaganate)    [cultural assimilation]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Mongolic  
Language:
Khitan  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Buddhism  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[1,500,000 to 2,000,000] km2 908 CE
[2,000,000 to 2,500,000] km2 1000 CE 1100 CE
Polity Population:
3,800,000 people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Religious Level:
[2 to 3]  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred absent  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
absent  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
inferred present  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Khitan I (mn_khitan_1) was in:
 (960 CE 1125 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location

Capital:
Central Capital

" There were five capitals in the empire. The Supreme Capital of empire was located not far away from Shira Muren River in the neighborhood of the present city of Boro Khoton, Inner Mongolia. The Central Capital was situated near the Shira Muren River inflow point to Liao River. These are zones of residence of Kitans and other pastoral nomads of empire. The East Capital was near city of Liao-yang in the area of settlement of Bohai peoples. Two last capital cities were situated within the area of the Chinese people residence. The West Capital is the modern city of Ta-T’ung in Shansi province while the South one is the modern city of Peking (Steinhadrt 1997)." [1] "In 918, in another step toward establishing a more permanent regime, Apao-chi ordered the building of a great capital city, the Imperial Capital (Huang-tu), later to be known as the Supreme Capital (Shang-ching). This was constructed at Lin-huang, north of the Shira muren (a place that later became the Mongol city of Boro Khoton), in the ancient central territory of the Khitan tribes." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 153)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 63)

Capital:
Beijing

" There were five capitals in the empire. The Supreme Capital of empire was located not far away from Shira Muren River in the neighborhood of the present city of Boro Khoton, Inner Mongolia. The Central Capital was situated near the Shira Muren River inflow point to Liao River. These are zones of residence of Kitans and other pastoral nomads of empire. The East Capital was near city of Liao-yang in the area of settlement of Bohai peoples. Two last capital cities were situated within the area of the Chinese people residence. The West Capital is the modern city of Ta-T’ung in Shansi province while the South one is the modern city of Peking (Steinhadrt 1997)." [1] "In 918, in another step toward establishing a more permanent regime, Apao-chi ordered the building of a great capital city, the Imperial Capital (Huang-tu), later to be known as the Supreme Capital (Shang-ching). This was constructed at Lin-huang, north of the Shira muren (a place that later became the Mongol city of Boro Khoton), in the ancient central territory of the Khitan tribes." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 153)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 63)

Capital:
Boro Khoton

" There were five capitals in the empire. The Supreme Capital of empire was located not far away from Shira Muren River in the neighborhood of the present city of Boro Khoton, Inner Mongolia. The Central Capital was situated near the Shira Muren River inflow point to Liao River. These are zones of residence of Kitans and other pastoral nomads of empire. The East Capital was near city of Liao-yang in the area of settlement of Bohai peoples. Two last capital cities were situated within the area of the Chinese people residence. The West Capital is the modern city of Ta-T’ung in Shansi province while the South one is the modern city of Peking (Steinhadrt 1997)." [1] "In 918, in another step toward establishing a more permanent regime, Apao-chi ordered the building of a great capital city, the Imperial Capital (Huang-tu), later to be known as the Supreme Capital (Shang-ching). This was constructed at Lin-huang, north of the Shira muren (a place that later became the Mongol city of Boro Khoton), in the ancient central territory of the Khitan tribes." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 153)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 63)

Capital:
Liao-yang

" There were five capitals in the empire. The Supreme Capital of empire was located not far away from Shira Muren River in the neighborhood of the present city of Boro Khoton, Inner Mongolia. The Central Capital was situated near the Shira Muren River inflow point to Liao River. These are zones of residence of Kitans and other pastoral nomads of empire. The East Capital was near city of Liao-yang in the area of settlement of Bohai peoples. Two last capital cities were situated within the area of the Chinese people residence. The West Capital is the modern city of Ta-T’ung in Shansi province while the South one is the modern city of Peking (Steinhadrt 1997)." [1] "In 918, in another step toward establishing a more permanent regime, Apao-chi ordered the building of a great capital city, the Imperial Capital (Huang-tu), later to be known as the Supreme Capital (Shang-ching). This was constructed at Lin-huang, north of the Shira muren (a place that later became the Mongol city of Boro Khoton), in the ancient central territory of the Khitan tribes." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 153)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 63)

Capital:
Ta-T'ung

" There were five capitals in the empire. The Supreme Capital of empire was located not far away from Shira Muren River in the neighborhood of the present city of Boro Khoton, Inner Mongolia. The Central Capital was situated near the Shira Muren River inflow point to Liao River. These are zones of residence of Kitans and other pastoral nomads of empire. The East Capital was near city of Liao-yang in the area of settlement of Bohai peoples. Two last capital cities were situated within the area of the Chinese people residence. The West Capital is the modern city of Ta-T’ung in Shansi province while the South one is the modern city of Peking (Steinhadrt 1997)." [1] "In 918, in another step toward establishing a more permanent regime, Apao-chi ordered the building of a great capital city, the Imperial Capital (Huang-tu), later to be known as the Supreme Capital (Shang-ching). This was constructed at Lin-huang, north of the Shira muren (a place that later became the Mongol city of Boro Khoton), in the ancient central territory of the Khitan tribes." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 153)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 63)


Alternative Name:
Liao Dynasty

Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[907 CE ➜ 1,125 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Early Mongols

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
cultural assimilation

"The Liao Empire of the Khitan (907-1125) opened a new stage in the relationship between mediaeval China and the neighboring people. Their rise was preconditioned by the crisis and fall of the T’ang dynasty and the desolation of the steppe caused by the defeat of the Uighur Kaganate by the Yenisei Kyrgyz. The Khitans first brought under their power several small states which were formed on the remains of the T’ang Empire." [1] "It may be more accurate to suggest that A-pao-chi took advantage of a political vacuum created by the gradual withdrawal of the Kyrgyz into their homeland in the Yenisei region. What is certain is that by 924 the Kyrgyz evacuation of the Orkhon region must have been completed." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 152)

[2]: (Sinor 1998, 236)


Preceding Entity:
Uigur Khaganate [mn_uygur_khaganate] ---> Khitan I [mn_khitan_1]

"The Liao Empire of the Khitan (907-1125) opened a new stage in the relationship between mediaeval China and the neighboring people. Their rise was preconditioned by the crisis and fall of the T’ang dynasty and the desolation of the steppe caused by the defeat of the Uighur Kaganate by the Yenisei Kyrgyz. The Khitans first brought under their power several small states which were formed on the remains of the T’ang Empire." [1] "It may be more accurate to suggest that A-pao-chi took advantage of a political vacuum created by the gradual withdrawal of the Kyrgyz into their homeland in the Yenisei region. What is certain is that by 924 the Kyrgyz evacuation of the Orkhon region must have been completed." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 152)

[2]: (Sinor 1998, 236)


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

"The Kitan tribal confederation comprised several tribes of Uighur origin, such as the I-shih, second in rank only to the imperial Yeh-lü clan." [1] "The incorporation of Chinese craft and administrative specialists is closely tied to the transition from a confederation to a state. Prior to this phase of empire-building, the various ‘‘tribes’’ within the Khitan polity had collectively elected a central leader for three-year terms. As with other steppe polities, the term ‘‘tribe’’ was applied to groups that were part of the Khitan confederation but not necessarily ethnically Khitan. In some cases certain ‘‘tribes’’ had only recently come into existence and were linked to other ethnicities, such as the Uighurs (Franke 1990, p. 404)." [2]

[1]: (Sinor 1998, 237)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 227)


Language

Language:
Khitan

Describing the Shiwei: "Their language is variously described as similar to Kitan and Qai (Chinese, Xi), that is, Mongolic, or as similar to Mohe (Malgal or Mukri), that is, Manchu-Tungusic." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 502)


Religion

Alternate Religion Genus:
Islam

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[1,500,000 to 2,000,000] km2
908 CE

in squared kilometers

Polity Territory:
[2,000,000 to 2,500,000] km2
1000 CE 1100 CE

in squared kilometers


Polity Population:
3,800,000 people

People. "In that multinational state the Khitan nomads (core - metropolis of nomadic empire) made up only a fifth of the population (750 thousand people). In addition to them the empire embraced the agricultural Chinese - over one half of the population (2,400 thousand people), the Bohai (450 thousand people), the non-Khitan (the so-called “barbarian”) hunter and nomadic (200 thousand people) tribes. The total number of the Empire’s population was 3,800 thousand people (Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 58)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 152)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels. Probably four levels (see below) "With the expansion of the empire, the Khitans organized around three geographical divisions, a north, a central, and a southern region. Inside these core regions organizational imposition was practiced. Beyond the core, overlay organization and marginal incorporation were utilized to administer the diverse populations. Dual administration also was used, with Khitans in the northern division governed by traditional law and Chinese subjects in the south governed by Chinese administrators (Biran 2006, p. 66)." [1]
"As the empire grew, central, western, and southern capitals were established, along with many other major settlements and border outposts (Jagchid 1981; Mullie 1922; Perlee 1962; Scott 1975; Steinhardt 1997). All of their capitals were in the region of the Great Wall, and the southern capital was located at present-day Beijing." [2]
1. Capital
2. Regional capital3. Major settlement4. smaller settlement?
"There were about fifty known Khitan settlements." [3]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 227-228)

[2]: (Rogers 2012, 228)

[3]: (Kradin 2010, 253)


Religious Level:
[2 to 3]

levels.
"cloisters" [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 160)


Military Level:
6

levels.
Likely used decimal hierarchy.
1. King
2. of 10,0003. of 1,10004. of 1005. of 106. Individual soldier
Decimal system organization. "In accordance with the hierarchical principle of the steppe society organization, the nomads were divided into subdivisions by the decimal principle (Taskin 1979: 511-513). In this case, only a part of nomads has taken part in acts of war while the remaining warriors have always stayed put as the basis of a tribe (ibid: 426). The tribes being autonomous and independent formations before the Apao-chi accession to the throne have become main administrative units for a period of empire. Their duties included the following functions:First, it is military function. The tribal home guard has formed a part of the military organization side by side with the professional army divisions of emperor and a number of eminent aristocrats and armed forces of vassal people. It is not accidental that in Laio shi it is mentioned that a banner is a distinctive attribute of a tribe (LS 49: 1b-2a)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 156)


Administrative Level:
[4 to 5]

levels.
1. Emperor
2. Grand princes3. Tribe chief (ilichin)"the tribes were basic administrative-political units in the northern part of the country" [1]
4. "Each tribe had its own control organization" [1] 5? another level?
"The highest levels of the empire’s social pyramid were occupied by the imperial clan of Yeh-lü and clan of the empress Hsiao. The representatives of these clans were the first-rate proprietors in the country and held a major portion of the most important military and civil posts in the empire administration. Since the rule of the empire founder Apao-chi, the clan has been subdivided into two parts: Five or North Divisions and Six or South Divisions. These parts were governed by grand princes (wang). The family of the Kitans’ emperor was related to five divisions. The direct descendants of Apao-chi gave belonged to so called Horizontal Tents (hêng chang) while the descendants of two his uncles and brothers were known as Three Patriarchal Household (san fu fang). Jointly, they have formed four leading lineages (LS 73: 6b; Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 191-192)." [2]
"The North part was considered to be higher than the South one by rank though, as for the administrative machine size and bureaucracy qualification, it ranks below the latter. The heartland of nomadic empire was headed by the Prime Minister of the Northern Administration (LS 1: 10b; Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 472) who, as a rule, has been appointed from the representatives of Yeh- lü and Hsiao clans. His competence included the most important affairs of state such as, for example, army control, supervision of the state sector of stock- raising business, participation in working out of the most important political decisions." [3]
"In accordance with the hierarchical principle of the steppe society organization, the nomads were divided into subdivisions by the decimal principle (Taskin 1979: 511-513). In this case, only a part of nomads has taken part in acts of war while the remaining warriors have always stayed put as the basis of a tribe (ibid: 426). The tribes being autonomous and independent formations before the Apao-chi accession to the throne have become main administrative units for a period of empire. Their duties included the following functions: [...] Second, the tribes were basic administrative-political units in the northern part of the country. Each tribe had its own particular territory for leading a nomad’s life. Each tribe had its own control organization being headed by a traditional chief (ilichin). A title of the tribal chief was transmitted hereditably. In the course of signification a pressure on the nomadic tribes has occurred. Traditional territories of a leading of nomad’s life became to limit and reduce by the imperial government. Sometimes, the tribes were transferred from their traditional pastures to new lands." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 156)

[2]: (Kradin 2014, 152-153)

[3]: (Kradin 2014, 155)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"The tribal home guard has formed a part of the military organization side by side with the professional army divisions of emperor and a number of eminent aristocrats and armed forces of vassal people. It is not accidental that in Laio shi it is mentioned that a banner is a distinctive attribute of a tribe (LS 49: 1b-2a)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 156)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"cloisters" [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 160)


Professional Military Officer:
present

"The tribal home guard has formed a part of the military organization side by side with the professional army divisions of emperor and a number of eminent aristocrats and armed forces of vassal people. It is not accidental that in Laio shi it is mentioned that a banner is a distinctive attribute of a tribe (LS 49: 1b-2a)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 156)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

"The scope of using the servile labor among Kitans was limited by housekeeping in case of private individuals and by service of the imperial tombs, palaces, administrative buildings and cloisters. The slaves could be also attributed to ordo of nomads and they could be used in construction works or even for service in army." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 160)


Merit Promotion:
present

"In contrast to other medieval societies, the Chinese civilization has distinguished by the high vertical mobility. It was related to the existence in China of the system of tests of positions. This system was adopted by Kitans and, since 988, introduced in Liao. According to the rules established, the examinations were conducted in the volosts, regions and administration of Stationary Office every three years. Those who passed examinations in volosts were called hsiang-chien, in the region - fu-chieh and in the administration of Stationary Office - chiti (LS 12: 4a; Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 454-455, 491)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 157-158)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Examination System:
present

"In contrast to other medieval societies, the Chinese civilization has distinguished by the high vertical mobility. It was related to the existence in China of the system of tests of positions. This system was adopted by Kitans and, since 988, introduced in Liao. According to the rules established, the examinations were conducted in the volosts, regions and administration of Stationary Office every three years. Those who passed examinations in volosts were called hsiang-chien, in the region - fu-chieh and in the administration of Stationary Office - chiti (LS 12: 4a; Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 454-455, 491)." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 157-158)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown


Formal Legal Code:
absent

There was a legal system. However, there is no indication that the legal system is uniform or formal. "The presence of the certain class boundary between the Kitan’s grand people (Chinese ji) and ordinary nomads (Chinese shujen) is confirmed, particularly, the fact that, if the representative of the aristocratic social group has made legal wrongs, he could be transferred to the commoners (Wittfogel, Feng 1949: 193). The aristocrats of different ranks were charged small taxes and were freed from public works. In case of commission of crime, the Kitan aristocrats were punished by milder penalties than other categories of subjects. In case that they were inflicted to penal confinement, their living conditions were fairly good and, in any event, they were freed from servile labor." [1]

[1]: (Kradin 2014, 155-156)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Transport Infrastructure

"In Sheng-tsung’s early years (984-9) serious attention was given to building roads and bridges to provide easier passage for carts and to improving the courier system, which was essential to the rapid transmission of orders and information. In 1027 a strip of land thirty double paces wide on either side of official highways was ordered to be kept cleared for security purposes." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 95)




Bridge:
present

"In Sheng-tsung’s early years (984-9) serious attention was given to building roads and bridges to provide easier passage for carts and to improving the courier system, which was essential to the rapid transmission of orders and information. In 1027 a strip of land thirty double paces wide on either side of official highways was ordered to be kept cleared for security purposes." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 95)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"More importantly, the Kitan’s country was an ore-rich land; mining and metallurgy in general were to play a major role in Kitan history". [1]

[1]: (Sinor 1998, 233)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"Abaoji had two new scripts developed to write Khitan, and the dynasty supported monastic Buddhism, artisanal and agricultural production in the steppes, and established two hundred cities or more in what is now Inner Mongolia." [1] "In 920 the first Khitan script (the "large script," an adaptation of the Chinese script to the very different, highly inflected Khitan language) was presented, and by the end of A-pao-chi’s reign this script was widely used. In 925, when Uighur envoys visited the court, the emperor’s younger brother Tieh-la (whom A-pao-chi recognized as the most clever member of his family) was entrusted with their reception and, after learning their script (which was alphabetic), devised a second "small script" for Khitan." [2]

[1]: (Sneath 2007, 27)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 67)


Script:
present

"The Khitan too developed a writing system on the Chinese model, though it was little used." [1] "In 920 the first Khitan script (the "large script," an adaptation of the Chinese script to the very different, highly inflected Khitan language) was presented, and by the end of A-pao-chi’s reign this script was widely used. In 925, when Uighur envoys visited the court, the emperor’s younger brother Tieh-la (whom A-pao-chi recognized as the most clever member of his family) was entrusted with their reception and, after learning their script (which was alphabetic), devised a second "small script" for Khitan." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 180)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 67)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

"The Khitan too developed a writing system on the Chinese model, though it was little used." [1] "In 920 the first Khitan script (the "large script," an adaptation of the Chinese script to the very different, highly inflected Khitan language) was presented, and by the end of A-pao-chi’s reign this script was widely used. In 925, when Uighur envoys visited the court, the emperor’s younger brother Tieh-la (whom A-pao-chi recognized as the most clever member of his family) was entrusted with their reception and, after learning their script (which was alphabetic), devised a second "small script" for Khitan." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 180)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 67)


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"Abaoji had two new scripts developed to write Khitan, and the dynasty supported monastic Buddhism, artisanal and agricultural production in the steppes, and established two hundred cities or more in what is now Inner Mongolia." [1] "In 920 the first Khitan script (the "large script," an adaptation of the Chinese script to the very different, highly inflected Khitan language) was presented, and by the end of A-pao-chi’s reign this script was widely used. In 925, when Uighur envoys visited the court, the emperor’s younger brother Tieh-la (whom A-pao-chi recognized as the most clever member of his family) was entrusted with their reception and, after learning their script (which was alphabetic), devised a second "small script" for Khitan." [2]

[1]: (Sneath 2007, 27)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 67)


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

"The Khitan too developed a writing system on the Chinese model, though it was little used." [1] "In 920 the first Khitan script (the "large script," an adaptation of the Chinese script to the very different, highly inflected Khitan language) was presented, and by the end of A-pao-chi’s reign this script was widely used. In 925, when Uighur envoys visited the court, the emperor’s younger brother Tieh-la (whom A-pao-chi recognized as the most clever member of his family) was entrusted with their reception and, after learning their script (which was alphabetic), devised a second "small script" for Khitan." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 180)

[2]: (Twitchett 1994, 67)



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"The Khitan now began to loot the capital thoroughly. It was decided to take back to Manchuria the entire body of Chin officials. This proved impossible, but in the third month of 947 they began shipping off to the Supreme Capital the personnel of the main ministries, the palace women, eunuchs, diviners, and artisans in their thousands; books, maps; astronomical charts, instruments, and astronomers; musical treatises and ceremonial musical instruments; the imperial carriages and ritual impedimenta; the weapons and armor from the arsenals; and even the copies of the Confucian classics engraved on stone slabs." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 73-74)


Sacred Text:
present

"The Khitan now began to loot the capital thoroughly. It was decided to take back to Manchuria the entire body of Chin officials. This proved impossible, but in the third month of 947 they began shipping off to the Supreme Capital the personnel of the main ministries, the palace women, eunuchs, diviners, and artisans in their thousands; books, maps; astronomical charts, instruments, and astronomers; musical treatises and ceremonial musical instruments; the imperial carriages and ritual impedimenta; the weapons and armor from the arsenals; and even the copies of the Confucian classics engraved on stone slabs." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 73-74)


Religious Literature:
present

"The Khitan now began to loot the capital thoroughly. It was decided to take back to Manchuria the entire body of Chin officials. This proved impossible, but in the third month of 947 they began shipping off to the Supreme Capital the personnel of the main ministries, the palace women, eunuchs, diviners, and artisans in their thousands; books, maps; astronomical charts, instruments, and astronomers; musical treatises and ceremonial musical instruments; the imperial carriages and ritual impedimenta; the weapons and armor from the arsenals; and even the copies of the Confucian classics engraved on stone slabs." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 73-74)


Practical Literature:
present

Within bureaucracy.


Philosophy:
present

"The Khitan now began to loot the capital thoroughly. It was decided to take back to Manchuria the entire body of Chin officials. This proved impossible, but in the third month of 947 they began shipping off to the Supreme Capital the personnel of the main ministries, the palace women, eunuchs, diviners, and artisans in their thousands; books, maps; astronomical charts, instruments, and astronomers; musical treatises and ceremonial musical instruments; the imperial carriages and ritual impedimenta; the weapons and armor from the arsenals; and even the copies of the Confucian classics engraved on stone slabs." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 73-74)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Within bureaucracy.


History:
present

"By Sheng-tsung’s time there was already a Historiographical Office and a director of the national history. In 991 they presented the first Liao veritable records (shih-lu), with those for Ching-tsung’s reign taking up twenty chapters. The director Shih Fang was rewarded in traditional style. We know also that during Sheng-tsung’s reign a daily calendar (jih-li), the preliminary draft from which a later veritable record would be written, was already being compiled, as in 1003 the officials were warned not to include trivial matters in it." Rules on which matters should be reported for inclusion were made in 1011. By the next reign in 1044 we find as head of the Han-lin Academy and compiler of the national history one of the most remarkable scholars of the period, Hsiao Han-chia-nu, who translated a variety of Chinese historical works into Khitan and also began the compilation of veritable records for earlier reigns together with two venerable Khitan scholars, Yeh-lii K’u-yii and Yeh-lii Shu-ch’eng." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 93)


Fiction:
present

"The Khitan now began to loot the capital thoroughly. It was decided to take back to Manchuria the entire body of Chin officials. This proved impossible, but in the third month of 947 they began shipping off to the Supreme Capital the personnel of the main ministries, the palace women, eunuchs, diviners, and artisans in their thousands; books, maps; astronomical charts, instruments, and astronomers; musical treatises and ceremonial musical instruments; the imperial carriages and ritual impedimenta; the weapons and armor from the arsenals; and even the copies of the Confucian classics engraved on stone slabs." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 73-74)


Calendar:
present

"The relations between the Khitan and the southern states of Wu-Yiieh and Southern T’ang were at their height in the late 930s and 940s; for a while Wu-Yiieh even used the Khitan calendar." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 72)


Information / Money

"The Khitan had made copper cash even before the time of A-pao-chi, and sometime in T’ai-tsung’s reign (927—47) an official was appointed to control the minting of cash and iron production. Shih Ching-t’ang, founder of the puppet Chin regime (936-46) and a loyal vassal of the Khitan, had supplied large amounts of copper cash to help the Liao economy. But during Shih-tsung’s reign, the Sung captive Hu Chiao reported that silk, rather than cash, was the main form of currency even at the capital." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 96)


Indigenous Coin:
present

[1] "The Khitan had made copper cash even before the time of A-pao-chi, and sometime in T’ai-tsung’s reign (927—47) an official was appointed to control the minting of cash and iron production. Shih Ching-t’ang, founder of the puppet Chin regime (936-46) and a loyal vassal of the Khitan, had supplied large amounts of copper cash to help the Liao economy. But during Shih-tsung’s reign, the Sung captive Hu Chiao reported that silk, rather than cash, was the main form of currency even at the capital." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)

[2]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 96)


Foreign Coin:
present

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Article:
present

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Courier stations. "Eventually the capital covered an area of 27 It: It was built on a standard Chinese plan with walls, gates, a street grid, palaces, ministry buildings, temples, courier stations, and so forth. It was in fact a dual city, for to the south was a separate Chinese city, with dense housing and markets. It also had a special quarter for the Uighur merchants, who played a major part in the trade of the north, and lodgings for envoys from foreign nations." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 63)


General Postal Service:
unknown

Courier:
present

"Eventually the capital covered an area of 27 It: It was built on a standard Chinese plan with walls, gates, a street grid, palaces, ministry buildings, temples, courier stations, and so forth. It was in fact a dual city, for to the south was a separate Chinese city, with dense housing and markets. It also had a special quarter for the Uighur merchants, who played a major part in the trade of the north, and lodgings for envoys from foreign nations." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 63)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

"We know for certain that the Khitans tried to prevent the trade and tributary relations of their Jurchen vassals with the Sung. In 991 they cut off the land route by building palisades near a place through which travelers from Manchuria had to pass. But Sung-Jurchen relations continued by the sea route until the beginning of the eleventh century." [1]

[1]: (Franke 1994, 219) Herbert Franke. The Chin dynasty. Herbert Franke. Denis Twitchett. eds. 1994. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Khar Bukhyn Balgas in Mongolia: "Built in stone by the Khitan, it was surrounded by ramparts and a moat." [1] Internet search of photographs - wals looked dry-stone in construction. Lots of tiny stones between bigger stones/rocks.

[1]: (Baumer 2016) Christoph Baumer. 2016. The History of Central Asia: The Age of Islam and the Mongols. I.B. Tauris.


Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown

Khar Bukhyn Balgas in Mongolia: "Built in stone by the Khitan, it was surrounded by ramparts and a moat." [1] Internet search of photographs - wals looked dry-stone in construction. Lots of tiny stones between bigger stones/rocks.

[1]: (Baumer 2016) Christoph Baumer. 2016. The History of Central Asia: The Age of Islam and the Mongols. I.B. Tauris.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Uglugchiin Kherem is a fortified site with the unusual feature of massive stone walls positioned on the side of a steep hill in Khenti Province, Mongolia." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 228)


Modern Fortification:
absent

Before the time of modern cannon forts


Khar Bukhyn Balgas in Mongolia: "Built in stone by the Khitan, it was surrounded by ramparts and a moat." [1]

[1]: (Baumer 2016) Christoph Baumer. 2016. The History of Central Asia: The Age of Islam and the Mongols. I.B. Tauris.


Fortified Camp:
present

"There are several sites in central and western Mongolia that probably served as border outposts inhabited by relocated Jurchen and Chinese (Ou-yang Hsu ̈an 1937a). One of these is the site of Khar Bukhyn Balgas. Like several other sites, it consists of a large square defensive wall constructed of rammed earth enclosing an area of nearly 1 km2 (Rogers et al. 2005, p. 807). Additional sites in Mongolia that have large defensive walls are the Kherlen Bars 1, Kherlen Bars 3, Sumt, East Wall, and West Wall sites (Dashnyam et al. 1999)." [1]

[1]: (Rogers 2012, 228)


Earth Rampart:
unknown

Khar Bukhyn Balgas in Mongolia: "Built in stone by the Khitan, it was surrounded by ramparts and a moat." [1]

[1]: (Baumer 2016) Christoph Baumer. 2016. The History of Central Asia: The Age of Islam and the Mongols. I.B. Tauris.


Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents." [1]

[1]: (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.


Complex Fortification:
present

Study of the Chintolgoi balgas: "The town was surrounded by two ramparts." [1] "The Chintolgoi Wall is a 1256 x 655 m earthen enclosure is thought to have housed some 20,000 Khitan warriors." [2]

[1]: (Kradin 2010, 253)

[2]: (Gunchinsuren 2017, 727) Byambaa Gunchinsuren. The Archaeology of Mongolia’s Early States. Junko Habu. Peter V Lape. John W Olsen. 2017. Handbook of East and Southeast Asian Archaeology. Springer. New York.



Military use of Metals

Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2] "Khitan tombs also commonly contain iron weaponry". [3]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Tackett 2017, 216) Nicolas Tackett. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"With the help of the Khitan and the Chinese they had taken into their army, as well as the Uighurs, the Mongols learned how to use siege machinery to capture cities." [1] "There were also misgivings about the troops’ training, particularly the Chinese units. In 1035 the armies were enjoined to supervise the regular training of their catapulteers, crossbowmen, archers, and swordsmen. In 1046 the emperor watched the exercises of Chinese troops while they practiced using catapults and bows, but serious concern about the inferior skills of the Chinese armies’ catapulteers and crossbowmen continued through the next reign. These were skills that were irrelevant to the Khitans’ traditional mobile cavalry warfare but essential to their warfare with their sedentary Chinese and Korean neighbors." [2]

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 186)

[2]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 120)


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [1] . However, it is noted that Khitan were involved in sieges: "The Khitan first attacked Goryeo in 993 with subsequent invasions following in 1010 and 1018, all ending in defeat. One of the major battle sites was Heunghwajin. The Khitan laid siege to the fortress there three times...". [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: Michael D. Shin (ed.), Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 42



"With the military system of the Liao dynasty, every regular soldier was provided with a full set of military equipment, including three horses and nine iron weapons (namely, four bows, 400 arrows ..." [1]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


"With the military system of the Liao dynasty, every regular soldier was provided with a full set of military equipment, including ... the long spear, the short spear, the short pole lance ..." [1] Was the short spear a thrown weapon?

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

first mentioned in later sources for Genghis Khan


"There were also misgivings about the troops’ training, particularly the Chinese units. In 1035 the armies were enjoined to supervise the regular training of their catapulteers, crossbowmen, archers, and swordsmen. In 1046 the emperor watched the exercises of Chinese troops while they practiced using catapults and bows, but serious concern about the inferior skills of the Chinese armies’ catapulteers and crossbowmen continued through the next reign. These were skills that were irrelevant to the Khitans’ traditional mobile cavalry warfare but essential to their warfare with their sedentary Chinese and Korean neighbors." [1]

[1]: (Twitchett, D.C. and K. Tietze. 1994. The Liao. In Franke, H. and D.C. Twitchett (eds) The Cambridge History of China Volume 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368 pp. 43-153. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 120)


Composite Bow:
present

"The Khitan, Jurchen and Mongolian peoples excelled in horseback archery". [1] "The first composite bow with bone reinforced ’ears’, a major development, may have been used around Lake Baikal, c.500 BC. Despite many individual external differences, across the steppe, and across time, the composite bow would remain essentially uniform in construction method." [2] "Khitan tombs also commonly contain ... arrowheads of various types." [3]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Karasulas 2004, 19)

[3]: (Tackett 2017, 216) Nicolas Tackett. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

"With the military system of the Liao dynasty, every regular soldier was provided with a full set of military equipment, including ... the hammer ..." [1]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


"The so-called ’Sword of Charlemagne’ is probably an example of an 8th-century Avar sabre, and a similar blade in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is also believed to have been made among Turkic or Mongol steppe people some time between the 9th and 12th centuries AD." [1] "Khitan tombs also commonly contain iron weaponry, notably swords, spears, and arrowheads of various types." [2] Cavalrymen often used the sabre to chop their enemy’s wooden lance. [3]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 27-28)

[2]: (Tackett 2017, 216) Nicolas Tackett. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


"Khitan tombs also commonly contain iron weaponry, notably swords, spears, and arrowheads of various types." [1]

[1]: (Tackett 2017, 216) Nicolas Tackett. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


"With the military system of the Liao dynasty, every regular soldier was provided with a full set of military equipment, including three horses and nine iron weapons (namely, four bows, 400 arrows, the long spear, the short spear, the short pole lance, the broadax, the hammer, the banderole and the fire stone)." [1]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)


Battle Axe:
present

"With the military system of the Liao dynasty, every regular soldier was provided with a full set of military equipment, including ... the broadax ..." [1]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.


Animals used in warfare

"The Khitan, Jurchen and Mongolian peoples excelled in horseback archery". [1]

[1]: (Huang and Hong 2018) Fuhua Huang. Fan Hong. 2018. A History of Chinese Martial Arts. Routledge. Abingdon.





Khitan tomb murals depict "camel-drawn yurt carriages" [1] so it is possible camels could have been used as a pack animal in the context of warfare.

[1]: (Tackett 2017, 46) Nicolas Tackett. 2017. The Origins of the Chinese Nation: Song China and the Forging of an East Asian World Order. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Armor

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)





Leather Cloth:
present

"Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 29)


Laminar Armor:
present

"Under Manchurian influence of the Liao dynasty, Koreans admired Khitan leather crafts and lamellar armor." [1]

[1]: (Snodgrass 2015, 348) Mary Ellen Snodgrass. 2015. World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. Routledge. London.





Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

There were rivers, but the Khitan were steppe nomads so did not have much use for boats to travel armies from point A-B when they had horses that were much more mobile. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

There were rivers, but the Khitan were steppe nomads so did not have much use for boats to travel armies from point A-B when they had horses that were much more mobile. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.