Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

East Roman Empire

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  tr_east_roman_emp / TrERom*

Preceding:
285 CE 394 CE Roman Empire - Dominate (tr_roman_dominate)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
568 CE 751 CE Exarchate of Ravenna (it_ravenna_exarchate)    [continuity]
632 CE 866 CE Byzantine Empire I (tr_byzantine_emp_1)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

We begin our Eastern Roman Empire period in 395 CE, when it was permanently divided from what became the Western Roman Empire [1] [2] and end it in 631 CE as the Arab expansion and other developments led to a dramatic social transformations in Byzantium.
A phase of ’stagflation’ spanned the century between c. 450 and 541 CE, during which large estates became more influential, elites grew in number and formed mutually hostile factions, and ’sociopolitical instability increased’. [3] Matters were made worse by an outbreak of plague in 541 CE, and further usurpations and civil wars in the 7th century made the staggering empire a ripe target for the Arab conquests. [3]
Population and political organization
The Christian emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire was the chief lawmaker and military commander but not the most important religious official - instead, in the pagan tradition of Byzantine ceremony, he himself was treated as divine. [4] When he entered his consistorium (council), several curtains were raised to herald his arrival in the style of the eastern mystery religions. Meetings of the emperor’s council were infused with an atmosphere of sanctity, and the historian H. W. Haussig has pointed out that many important decisions were in fact ’discussed and settled outside this body’. [4] The most important religious official in Constantinople was the patriarch, who was chosen by the emperor; [5] the pope in Rome was the most important of the five patriarchs of the Roman Empire as a whole. [6]
Based in the palatial city of Constantinople, the emperor presided over a large professional bureaucracy that sought to intervene in most aspects of its citizens’ lives. Departing from the old pattern of relative Roman disinterest in the formal codification of Roman law, the East Roman emperors in the 395‒631 CE period twice brought together and promulgated official legal codes that were sourced from the empire’s Christian era (that is, since the time of Constantine the Great). The first of these was the Codex Theodosianus (439 CE), which was followed by the Codex Justinianus (534 CE). The Eastern Roman Empire also maintained a formal alliance with the Western Roman Empire, meaning that laws promulgated in one half of the empire had to be communicated to the other half and applied in both East and West. [7]
Below the god-emperor was the office of praetorian prefect, which came with considerable temporal powers. The governmental reforms of 395 CE gave this official ’unlimited jurisdiction’ on economic matters, [8] which he used to plan the Roman economy in a similar way to that of Egypt, which had been functioning well for six centuries. [8] The praetorian prefect also supervised the postal system and public works, managed the guilds, and ran the production of arms and other manufactured goods as a state monopoly. He was responsible for the annona (food distribution) to the cities and army, and was given license to control prices in the cities and order new industrial production. [8] The government had numerous other officials and departments, including a magister officiorum who, in addition to running the departments of protocol and foreign affairs and the palace guard, was also head of the ’political police (schola agentium in rebus)’. [9]
In the 6th century, desperate economic times led to the payment of high officials and soldiers in luxury clothes, while manufactured goods and food were used as currency. Coinage was still in circulation but the proportion used as payment for salaries shrank considerably. [10] The number of residents in Constantinople grew from about 300,000 in 400 CE to 500,000 a century later, but then fell back sharply to about 200,000 due to the troubles of the 6th century. The baseline population of the empire was about 15 million, which peaked at 20 million when times were still good in 500 CE.
Fifth-century Constantinople was a monumental city of great splendour and wealth: it possessed five imperial palaces, six domus divinae Augustarum (’mansions of the divine Augustae’) belonging to empresses, three domus nobilissimae (mansions for the top nobility) and 4,388 domus mansions. [11] [12] The contemporary source (the 5th-century Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae) also records 322 streets with 153 private baths. [11] [13] Public buildings included squares, baths, underground cisterns, aqueducts, shops, and entertainment buildings including theatres and hippodromes. [11]
Gladiatorial combat was banned as part of Constantine’s programme of Christian moral reforms in 325 CE and disappeared sometime in the 5th century. The traditional Greek gymnasium, once a central institution in every Graeco-Roman city, where young men trained in athletics, had also fallen out of use but acrobatics was a profession and the nobility enjoyed various sports. [14] The most impressive large-scale public entertainments, provided by the state, were chariot races. These were held in Constantinople and other cities of the empire. [15] At some point during this era, the government decreed that drinking booths should close at 7 pm to reduce alcohol-related disorder. [16]

[1]: (Morgan 2012) James F. Morgan. 2012. The Roman Empire: Fall of the West, Survival of the East. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

[2]: (Barnwell 1992, 1) P. S. Barnwell. 1992. Emperor, Prefects, & Kings: The Roman West, 395‒565. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

[3]: (Baker 2011, 245-46) David Baker. 2011. ’The Roman Dominate from the Perspective of Demographic-Structural Theory’. Cliodynamics 2 (2): 217-51.

[4]: (Haussig 1971, 54-55) Hans Wilhelm Haussig. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization, translated by J. M. Hussey. London: Thames and Hudson.

[5]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[6]: Johannes Preiser-Kapeller 2015, personal communication.

[7]: (Millar 2006, 1) Fergus Millar. 2006. A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief Under Theodosius II 408-450. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[8]: (Haussig 1971, 52) Hans Wilhelm Haussig. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization, translated by J. M. Hussey. London: Thames and Hudson.

[9]: (Haussig 1971, 53) Hans Wilhelm Haussig. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization, translated by J. M. Hussey. London: Thames and Hudson.

[10]: (Haussig 1971, 100) Hans Wilhelm Haussig. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization, translated by J. M. Hussey. London: Thames and Hudson.

[11]: (Diehl 1923, 748) Charles Diehl. 1923. ’Byzantine Civilization’, in The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV: The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453), edited by J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte-Orton and Z. N. Brooke, 745-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[12]: (Angelova 2015, 153-55) Diliana N. Angelova. 2015. Sacred Founders: Women, Men, and Gods in the Discourse of Imperial Founding, Rome through Early Byzantium. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

[13]: (Angelova 2015, 153-155) Diliana N Angelova. 2015. Sacred Founders: Women, Men, and Gods in the Discourse of Imperial Founding, Rome through Early Byzantium. Oakland: University of California Press.

[14]: (Roueché 2008, 679) Charlotte Roueché. 2008. ’Entertainments, Theatre, and Hippodrome’, in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, edited by E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon and R. Cormack, 677-84. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[15]: (Roueché 2008, 680) Charlotte Roueché. 2008. ’Entertainments, Theatre, and Hippodrome’, in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, edited by E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon and R. Cormack, 677-84. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[16]: (Diehl 1923, 760) Charles Diehl. 1923. ’Byzantine Civilization’, in The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV: The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453), edited by J. R. Tanner, C. W. Previte-Orton and Z. N. Brooke, 745-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
35 T  
Original Name:
East Roman Empire  
Capital:
Constantinople  
Alternative Name:
Byzantine Empire  
Eastern Roman Empire  
Imperium Romanum  
Basileia ton Rhomaion  
Empire of the Romans  
Late Antiquity  
Hellenistic late antiquity  
Byzantine Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[527 CE ➜ 542 CE]  
Duration:
[395 CE ➜ 631 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Christianity  
Succeeding Entity:
Byzantine Empire I  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[13,000,000 to 14,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Exarchate of Ravenna (it_ravenna_exarchate)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: Byzantine Empire I (tr_byzantine_emp_1)    [continuity]  
Preceding:   Roman Empire - Dominate (tr_roman_dominate)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Greek  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholic  
Religion:
Roman Catholic  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
300,000 people 400 CE
500,000 people 500 CE
[250,000 to 150,000] people 600 CE
Polity Territory:
1,300,000 km2 400 CE
[1,300,000 to 1,500,000] km2 500 CE
[1,400,000 to 1,900,000] km2 600 CE
Polity Population:
15,000,000 people 400 CE
20,000,000 people 500 CE
[15,000,000 to 12,500,000] people 600 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
7  
Military Level:
9  
Administrative Level:
8  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
inferred present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
56 km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range East Roman Empire (tr_east_roman_emp) was in:
 (395 CE 480 CE)   Paris Basin     Crete     Upper Egypt     Konya Plain
 (480 CE 607 CE)   Crete     Upper Egypt     Konya Plain
 (607 CE 632 CE)   Upper Egypt
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
East Roman Empire

Capital:
Constantinople

Constantinople (today Istanbul)


Alternative Name:
Byzantine Empire

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Eastern Roman Empire

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Imperium Romanum

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Basileia ton Rhomaion

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Empire of the Romans

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Late Antiquity

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Hellenistic late antiquity

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

Alternative Name:
Byzantine Empire

Imperium Romanum (lat.)/Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων (Greek) - Basileia ton Rhomaion (“Empire of the Romans”). Hellenistic late antiquity: "The introduction of themes in Asia Minor [second half of the seventh century] meant the end of Hellenistic late antiquity and the beginning of the Byzantine world." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 96) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[527 CE ➜ 542 CE]

For the early Byzantine period, the first half of the reign of Emperor Justinian - 527-542 CE. "The Eastern Empire enjoyed an expansion phase c.285-450, when the population and elite numbers were low. The stagflation phase spanned c.450-541, when large estates began to appear again, when elites became more numerous and powerful, and the frequency of elite infighting and sociopolitical instability increased. The Justinian Plague struck in 541 and reduced the common population, gradually halting the expansion of the Eastern Empire, and culminating in the usurpations and civil wars of the seventh century. This was followed shortly thereafter by collapse in the Arab Conquests." [1]
"Justinian died in 565, leaving a vastly expanded but perilously overstretched empire, in financial as well as in military terms. His successors were faced with the reality of dealing with new enemies, lack of ready cash, and internal discontent over high taxation and constant demands for soldiers and the necessities to support them." [2]

[1]: (Baker 2011, 245-246)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 253-254) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Duration:
[395 CE ➜ 631 CE]

395 CE: permanent division of the Roman Empire between an Emperor in the West and one in the East - 632 CE: Death of the Prophet Mohammed, beginning of the Arab expansion; this and other developments led to a dramatic transformation of Byzantium with regard to dimension and complexity of the society.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

alliance with West Turkestan polities second half 6th century
"... Byzantine also visited West Turkestan including Sogdiana. Here too there were economic and political reasons to account for the opening of diplomatic relations with these peoples. For one thing it was imperative to safeguard the silk trade, and on the other hand there was the desire to encircle Persia in the political and military sense by means of an alliance with the Turks." [1] "... seven decades of close Byzantino-Turkic relations. The title of Caesar which survives in old Tibetan chronicles in the form of Gesar is yet another reminder in Central Asia of the days when the Byzantine Emperor bestowed on the Turkic khan the title of Caesar." [2]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 103-104) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 104) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Supracultural Entity:
Christianity

"The Byzantine Empire recognized neither the western Frankish Empire nor the Bulgarian Emperor. It spoke of the archontes Boulgaron, the princes of the Bulgars, and the reges Francias, the kings of Francia. The Byzantine Empire never gave up its claims to universal rule. It claimed to be at the apex of the family of kings; it was the father, they were the sons. ... It was only with the Arab rulers that there had long been some recognition of equality, and also with the Persian kings, which was reflected in the title of ’brother’ used in official documents." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 201) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Succeeding Entity:
Byzantine Empire I

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[13,000,000 to 14,000,000] km2

km squared. The reach of Christendom in 600 CE was not limited to the boundaries of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent, but now included the expansion of Christianity to Ireland, Ethiopia, Persia, Central Asia and India.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
East Roman Empire [tr_east_roman_emp] ---> Exarchate of Ravenna [it_ravenna_exarchate]
Preceding Entity:
East Roman Empire [tr_east_roman_emp] ---> Byzantine Empire I [tr_byzantine_emp_1]
Preceding Entity:
Roman Empire - Dominate [tr_roman_dominate] ---> East Roman Empire [tr_east_roman_emp]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Greek

Spoken by the population as first language in southern Balkans and most of Anatolia, as second language Empire-wide) and (still) Latin (spoken by the population as first language in the northern Balkans), wide usage of Coptic in Egypt, Syriac in Syria and Palestine, Armenian in some eastern provinces of Anatolia (also as languages of liturgy and sacred literature.


Religion



Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
300,000 people
400 CE

Constantinople (Estimates): 400 CE: 300.000; 500 CE:500.000; 550 CE: 250.000; 630: 150.000 CE
"The fourth and fifth centuries were characterized by a growth that was supported not just by the political and military drive of the empire but also by a prolonged favourable climatic episode (Geyer 2002:42-3). During this period Constantinople constantly grew in size and population, a fact suggested among other things by the enlargement of the area contained in the city (about 700 hectares) through the construction of the new Theodosian walls around 413. At its peak the city held a population estimated at 400,000 or higher (Jacoby 1961:107-9; Mango 1985: 51; Muller 1993). Other important cities of the eastern Mediterranean such as Antioch and Alexandria continued to maintain a large population, the first with 150,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, the latter with 200,000 to 300,000 (Liebeschuetz 1972: 92-6). The positive trend continued, with varying regional intensity, up to the reign of Justinian. The emperor’s expansionist policies brought territorial gains to the empire; however, the cost in terms of loss of life, massive depopulation of countryside, and financial strains was great." [1]
Antioch
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Alexandria
200,000: 400 CE; 200,000: 500 CE; 100,000: 600 CE [2]
Carthage
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Part of the Eastern Roman Empire only from 534 onwards again, with a population definitely lower than 270,000 (maybe 50-100,000 ?) [3]
Constantinople
300,000: 361 CE; 400,000: 500 CE; 350,000: 622 CE [4]
400,000: 400 CE; 500,000: 500 CE; 600,000: 600 CE [5]

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Modelski 2003) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[4]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[5]: (Modelski 2003, 49) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
500,000 people
500 CE

Constantinople (Estimates): 400 CE: 300.000; 500 CE:500.000; 550 CE: 250.000; 630: 150.000 CE
"The fourth and fifth centuries were characterized by a growth that was supported not just by the political and military drive of the empire but also by a prolonged favourable climatic episode (Geyer 2002:42-3). During this period Constantinople constantly grew in size and population, a fact suggested among other things by the enlargement of the area contained in the city (about 700 hectares) through the construction of the new Theodosian walls around 413. At its peak the city held a population estimated at 400,000 or higher (Jacoby 1961:107-9; Mango 1985: 51; Muller 1993). Other important cities of the eastern Mediterranean such as Antioch and Alexandria continued to maintain a large population, the first with 150,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, the latter with 200,000 to 300,000 (Liebeschuetz 1972: 92-6). The positive trend continued, with varying regional intensity, up to the reign of Justinian. The emperor’s expansionist policies brought territorial gains to the empire; however, the cost in terms of loss of life, massive depopulation of countryside, and financial strains was great." [1]
Antioch
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Alexandria
200,000: 400 CE; 200,000: 500 CE; 100,000: 600 CE [2]
Carthage
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Part of the Eastern Roman Empire only from 534 onwards again, with a population definitely lower than 270,000 (maybe 50-100,000 ?) [3]
Constantinople
300,000: 361 CE; 400,000: 500 CE; 350,000: 622 CE [4]
400,000: 400 CE; 500,000: 500 CE; 600,000: 600 CE [5]

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Modelski 2003) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[4]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[5]: (Modelski 2003, 49) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.

Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250,000 to 150,000] people
600 CE

Constantinople (Estimates): 400 CE: 300.000; 500 CE:500.000; 550 CE: 250.000; 630: 150.000 CE
"The fourth and fifth centuries were characterized by a growth that was supported not just by the political and military drive of the empire but also by a prolonged favourable climatic episode (Geyer 2002:42-3). During this period Constantinople constantly grew in size and population, a fact suggested among other things by the enlargement of the area contained in the city (about 700 hectares) through the construction of the new Theodosian walls around 413. At its peak the city held a population estimated at 400,000 or higher (Jacoby 1961:107-9; Mango 1985: 51; Muller 1993). Other important cities of the eastern Mediterranean such as Antioch and Alexandria continued to maintain a large population, the first with 150,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, the latter with 200,000 to 300,000 (Liebeschuetz 1972: 92-6). The positive trend continued, with varying regional intensity, up to the reign of Justinian. The emperor’s expansionist policies brought territorial gains to the empire; however, the cost in terms of loss of life, massive depopulation of countryside, and financial strains was great." [1]
Antioch
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Alexandria
200,000: 400 CE; 200,000: 500 CE; 100,000: 600 CE [2]
Carthage
270,000: 400 CE [2]
Part of the Eastern Roman Empire only from 534 onwards again, with a population definitely lower than 270,000 (maybe 50-100,000 ?) [3]
Constantinople
300,000: 361 CE; 400,000: 500 CE; 350,000: 622 CE [4]
400,000: 400 CE; 500,000: 500 CE; 600,000: 600 CE [5]

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Modelski 2003) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[4]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[5]: (Modelski 2003, 49) Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C.


Polity Territory:
1,300,000 km2
400 CE

KM2
395: 1.3 Million km2
534 (Re-conquest of Africa) 1.5 Million km2
552/554 (Re-conquest of Italy and southern Spain) 2 Million km2
568 (Loss of Northern Italy to the Lombards) 1.8 Million km2
591 (territorial gains in Mesopotamia and Southern Caucasia) 1.9 Million km2
610 (Loss of control in the interior of the Balkans and of the territorial gains in the East) 1.4 Million km2
620 (Loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Sasanians, of southern Spain to Visigoths) 0.9 Million km2
630 (Victory over Sasanians, restoration of border of 591 in the East) 1.5 Million km2

Polity Territory:
[1,300,000 to 1,500,000] km2
500 CE

KM2
395: 1.3 Million km2
534 (Re-conquest of Africa) 1.5 Million km2
552/554 (Re-conquest of Italy and southern Spain) 2 Million km2
568 (Loss of Northern Italy to the Lombards) 1.8 Million km2
591 (territorial gains in Mesopotamia and Southern Caucasia) 1.9 Million km2
610 (Loss of control in the interior of the Balkans and of the territorial gains in the East) 1.4 Million km2
620 (Loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Sasanians, of southern Spain to Visigoths) 0.9 Million km2
630 (Victory over Sasanians, restoration of border of 591 in the East) 1.5 Million km2

Polity Territory:
[1,400,000 to 1,900,000] km2
600 CE

KM2
395: 1.3 Million km2
534 (Re-conquest of Africa) 1.5 Million km2
552/554 (Re-conquest of Italy and southern Spain) 2 Million km2
568 (Loss of Northern Italy to the Lombards) 1.8 Million km2
591 (territorial gains in Mesopotamia and Southern Caucasia) 1.9 Million km2
610 (Loss of control in the interior of the Balkans and of the territorial gains in the East) 1.4 Million km2
620 (Loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Sasanians, of southern Spain to Visigoths) 0.9 Million km2
630 (Victory over Sasanians, restoration of border of 591 in the East) 1.5 Million km2


Polity Population:
15,000,000 people
400 CE

People.
(541/542: Plague epidemic, returns all 10-15 years until ca. 750)
395: 15 Million
534: 20 Million
552: 17 Million
568: 14 Million
591: 15 Million
610: 12.5 Million
620: 7 Million
630: 11 Million
East Roman Empire 4th and 5th Centuries
"In an estimated realm covering some 1.4 million km2 with a population density at 20 inhabitants per km2 this would amount to roughly 28 million inhabitants (Koder 1984/2001:154, between 24 and 26 million; Stein 1949-51: 154, 26 million)." [1]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [2]
14,150,000: 400 CE; 13,400,000: 450 CE; 12,900,000: 500 CE; [16,500,000-17,500,000]: 550 CE; [17,000,000-22,000,000]: 600 CE;
400 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 6m, Levant 1.75m+0.4m, Egypt 4m
450 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.75m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.75m
500 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.5m
550 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.25m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.25m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m.
600 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, southern coast of Spain ?m, north-east Italy ?m.
650 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5.25m now extending into the Caucasus 0.25m, southern Crimea, North Africa 1.25m+1.75m+1m+0.5m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, Ravenna region north-east Italy ?m.

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

Polity Population:
20,000,000 people
500 CE

People.
(541/542: Plague epidemic, returns all 10-15 years until ca. 750)
395: 15 Million
534: 20 Million
552: 17 Million
568: 14 Million
591: 15 Million
610: 12.5 Million
620: 7 Million
630: 11 Million
East Roman Empire 4th and 5th Centuries
"In an estimated realm covering some 1.4 million km2 with a population density at 20 inhabitants per km2 this would amount to roughly 28 million inhabitants (Koder 1984/2001:154, between 24 and 26 million; Stein 1949-51: 154, 26 million)." [1]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [2]
14,150,000: 400 CE; 13,400,000: 450 CE; 12,900,000: 500 CE; [16,500,000-17,500,000]: 550 CE; [17,000,000-22,000,000]: 600 CE;
400 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 6m, Levant 1.75m+0.4m, Egypt 4m
450 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.75m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.75m
500 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.5m
550 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.25m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.25m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m.
600 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, southern coast of Spain ?m, north-east Italy ?m.
650 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5.25m now extending into the Caucasus 0.25m, southern Crimea, North Africa 1.25m+1.75m+1m+0.5m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, Ravenna region north-east Italy ?m.

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

Polity Population:
[15,000,000 to 12,500,000] people
600 CE

People.
(541/542: Plague epidemic, returns all 10-15 years until ca. 750)
395: 15 Million
534: 20 Million
552: 17 Million
568: 14 Million
591: 15 Million
610: 12.5 Million
620: 7 Million
630: 11 Million
East Roman Empire 4th and 5th Centuries
"In an estimated realm covering some 1.4 million km2 with a population density at 20 inhabitants per km2 this would amount to roughly 28 million inhabitants (Koder 1984/2001:154, between 24 and 26 million; Stein 1949-51: 154, 26 million)." [1]
Estimates based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [2]
14,150,000: 400 CE; 13,400,000: 450 CE; 12,900,000: 500 CE; [16,500,000-17,500,000]: 550 CE; [17,000,000-22,000,000]: 600 CE;
400 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 6m, Levant 1.75m+0.4m, Egypt 4m
450 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.75m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.75m
500 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.5m
550 CE
Greece and Balkans 2m, Anatolia 5.25m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3.25m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m.
600 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5m, Levant 1.5m+0.4m, Egypt 3m, North Africa 1m+1.75m+1m+0.4m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, southern coast of Spain ?m, north-east Italy ?m.
650 CE
Greece and Balkans extending to Italy (including Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) 3m, Anatolia 5.25m now extending into the Caucasus 0.25m, southern Crimea, North Africa 1.25m+1.75m+1m+0.5m, Mediterranean islands ?m and southern Italy ?m, Ravenna region north-east Italy ?m.

[1]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

1. Capital
2. Capital of a provinceHermopolis, Gortyn, Damascus ... 20,000-50,000 inhabitants
Sardeis, Ephesos, Thessaloniki, Berytus, Corinth ... 50,00-150,000 inhabitants
3. City in a provinceAphrodisias, Selge, Scupi, Argos ... 5,000-20,000 inhabitants
4. Town in a provinceIasos, Cyme, Aphrodito ... 1,000-5,000 inhabitants
5. Village6. Hamlet ?. Farmstead


Religious Level:
7

1. Pope
Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs. [1]
1. Patriarch of Constantinople
"Patriarchs were elected by the standing synod in Constantinople, which presented three names to the emperor. He was entitled to choose one of these, or, if unable to accept any of the candidates, to choose the new patriarch himself." [2] Five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem).
2. Metropolitans and archbishops"the term ’bishop’ applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the ’ecumenical’ patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church." [2]
"The title ’archbishop’ emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan." [2]
3. Bishops and ChorepiskopoiBishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops [1]
"Chorepiskopoi (literally ’country bishops’) were assigned to rural communities and were subject to a bishop in a nearby city." [2]
"After the fourth century, the powers and functions of chorepiskopoi were gradually restricted and they were allowed only to ordain clerics of the lower orders. After the second Council of Nicaea (787) which prohibited them from ordaining even readers (anagnostai) without episcopal assent (canon 14), this separate episcopal rank began to disappear (Jugie 1904)." [2]
3. Priest"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned." [2]
4. Deacon"Deacon (diakonos, ’servant’)" [3]
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese’s finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople." [4]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)Become more and more rare, would be of equal rank as deacon. [1]
"The deaconess’s chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women." [4]
5. Subdeacon"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon." [5]
6. Reader (anagnostesj"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy." [5]
7. Minor orders"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes." [5]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cunningham 2008, 530) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Military Level:
9

Based on imperial military administration c.560. [1]
1. Emperor
2. Master of soldiers (magistri militum)3. candidati
3. Division based around Constantinople (praesentales)4. Units attached to comitatus5. Detached units in regions - also supervised by praesentales
5. duces (of the stationary frontier units known as limitanei) [2]
4. Divisions based in the provinces (per Orientem, per Armeniam, per Thracias, per Illyricum, per Italian, per Africam) under regional magistri militumthe areas of command of the regional magistri militum [3]
Magistri militum regional commander of a division of mobile forces, called comitatenses [2]
"The mobile forces were grouped into divisions under regional commanders or magistri militum (’masters of the soldiers’), each covering a major defensive hinterland, with the limitanei placed under their overall authority. In about 600 CE there were eight such major divisions, including two near Constantinople. The limitanei were placed under duces, and in the 560s there were some twenty-five such commands covering the frontiers and their hinterlands." [2]
5. Unit commander with a division (tribuni, praefecti) - needs reference6. Commander of 100 - needs reference7. Commander of 10 - needs reference8. Commander of 5 - needs reference9. Individual soldier (Miles) - needs reference
5. Frontier commanders and divisions (limitanei) - also supervised by magister officiorum
2. Magister officiorum3. comes domesticorum4. protectores et domestici5. praepositi labarum (colour guards)

[1]: (Haldon "after Delmaire 1995" 2008, 548) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 554) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Administrative Level:
8

Based on Imperial administration c.560 CE [1]
1. Emperor
"wished to be regarded as the emanation of the sun-god and claimed the same veneration as the Apostles of Christ" [2] - Valid only for Emperor Constantine the Great (d. 337 CE) [3]
from "the point of view of the ceremonial" the Christian Emperor "was still a god" in the pagan tradition. "His arrival was heralded by the raising of several curtains, like the appearance of the deity in the oriental mystery religions. Hence the meetings of the Emperor’s council held in this sacred setting were able to announce only decisions which had been discussed and settled outside this body (gremium)." [4]
Emperor "received the Corona aurea, the crown of the triumphator, or the corona laurea, the laurel crown. This crown, which became the symbol of imperial authority, consisted in the sixth century of a double strand of pearls worn across the forehead broken only by a small shield. This earliest form of crown is better described as a diadem. The massive gold crown made up of a number of plaques joined to each other by links first dates from the time of Heraclius." Heraclius (r.610-641 CE). [5]
The consistorium was a ceremonial council "in which things already decided and agreed upon were solemnly restated in a ceremonial setting. Thus liaison staff and new departments were formed for the purpose of working over the agenda before the official meetings of the consistorium." [2] After reforms of Diocletian and Constantine "consisted in the regularity of its meetings and the participation of its permanent members. It was no longer the same as before, when changing members from senatorial families, summoned erratically to the meetings, gave the assembly more of the character of a representation of a social class. Permanent members (comites), of whom each was in charge of a definite department, now attended to an ordered administration. The division of these councils into ranked classes was also carried out." [6]
2. quaestor sacri palatiiquaestor sacri palatii (minster of justice) "had among his duties the preparation of the imperial laws and documents, for which he took over part of the responsibility with the authorization legi (’I have read’)." [7]
2. comes sacrarum largitionum"in charge of taxes and attended to the monetary obligations of the Empire, such as the payment of wages to the troops and salaries to the officials, and the payments of money to foreign princes, in so far as these had to be provided in accordance with political agreements." [7]
3. Administrative staff - more than one level
3. Diocesian officials4. Chiefs of workshops, mints
4. Supervisors of mines
4. Diocesian treasuries
2. comes rei privataecomes rerum privatarum "in charge of the great income which accrued to the Emperor from his estates and demesnes (domus or Greek oikoi). He was the head of the curatores, of whom each was in charge of the Emperor’s estates in one part of the Empire." [7]
3. Administrative staff - more than one level
3. Estates of domis divina4. Diocesian officials5. Provincial officials
5. Managers of estates, flocks and herds
3. Customs offices
2. Magister officiorum"The magister officiorum was in charge of the departments of protocol and foreign affairs; he was also head of the political police (schola agentium in rebus) and commanded the palace guard." [7]
3. Chiefs of the palatine bureaux
3. scrinium barbarorum and section heads - more than one level
3. The Master of Audiences
3. Agents in rebus"The magister officiorum was in charge of the departments of protocol and foreign affairs; he was also head of the political police (schola agentium in rebus) and commanded the palace guard." [7]
4. Inspectors in provinces
3. Palace administration
3. Senior clerks and staff - more than one level
3. Public post - more than one level
3. Arms factories - more than one level
3. Military billeting
3. comes domesticorum
3. Tribuni of the Scholae
3. Stratores
2. Praetorian prefectsAfter reforms of 395 CE the praefectus praetorio "was given control and administrative authority over all branches of the economy. In this sphere the prefect had the power of unlimited jurisdiction and at the same time he was the highest instance for appeal." [8] "Among other duties of the prefect were the supervision of the postal system and of public works, and the control of urban corporations (obligatory guilds), schools, government munitions works, and factories, so far as they were working within the scope of a state monopoly. Similarly, the stores of supplies and arms depots were under his command." [8] praefectus praetorio supervised "the receipt of the annona. The annona was the delivery-target imposed on the rural districts and was determined by the provisioning needs of the cities and the army. The prefect supervised urban economy through control of prices and the assignments which urban industry had to make to the state (canon vestium)." [8] "With the aid of these full powers the prefect was able to build up within the imperium romanum a planned economy similar to the Egyptian one, which had already been working successfully for six centuries." [8]
3. Central bureaux4?. genike trapeza (department for general inland revenue) under office of praefectus praetorio NOTE: Genike trapeza is a Greek term common only after 7th cent. [3] dealt with general taxes [9]
4?. idike trapeza NOTE: idike trapeza is a Greek term common only after 7th cent. [3] responsible for the collection and checking of revenue. "The idiki trapeza paid its intake over to the office of the comes rerum privatarum. After the introduction of the theme organization the office of idike trapeza was abolished." [10]
4. Vicarii (Diocesian governors) and staff"planned economy after the Egypto-Hellenistic model meant above all the abolition of the hitherto existing form of regional government. ... The old large provinces were abolished ... The provinces, combined into twelve larger units, formed so-called dioceses." [4]
5. Provincial governors and staff - more than one level6. Officials deputed to cities (praefectus urbis?)"The lowest unit of administration was then the city (civitas or polis) each with its district (territorium) upon which the assessment and collection of taxes ultimately devolved (Jones 1964:366454; Stein 1968:39-50; Kelly 1998:162-9)." [11]
Is this official the praefectus urbis? "The setting up of a new business depended upon acceptance into the appropriate gild [systema], membership of which could only be granted with permission of the state authority, in particular the praefectus urbis." [12]
7. Assistant/scribe/worker under city officials e.g. local tax official inferred
8.possibly another city level e.g. local tax official has an assistant, particularly in the bigger cities.
Imperial palatine administration c.560. [13]
1. Emperor
2. Head of imperial bed-chamber3. primicerius cubiculi4. cubiculariicubiculum (Imperial private chancery) headed by praepostius sacri cubiculi. praepostius sacri cubiculi was the head of the imperial cabinet. [2] members called cubicularri (chamberlains) and secreti (private secretaries)
3. decuriones4. silentiarii5. Estates of domus divina and staffs

[1]: (Haldon "after Delmaire 1995" 2008, 547) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Haussig 1971, 54) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[3]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[4]: (Haussig 1971, 55) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[5]: (Haussig 1971, 186) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[6]: (Haussig 1971, 53-54 Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[7]: (Haussig 1971, 53) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[8]: (Haussig 1971, 52) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[9]: (Haussig 1971, 180) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[10]: (Haussig 1971, 180-181) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[11]: (Haldon 2008, 535) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[12]: (Haussig 1971, 60) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[13]: (Haldon "after Delmaire 1995" 2008, 548) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"The attempt to create a kind of second currency by using manufactured goods or foodstuffs is a mark of the difficult economic situation in which the East Roman state found itself in the sixth century. Not only were the high officials of the Empire now given part of their remuneration in the form of luxury clothes; even the pay of the ordinary soldier was changed into this new form of payment. The proportion of a soldier’s pay that took the form of cash became increasingly smaller and smaller. It was not just that he received extra allowances in the form of rations of grain; even clothing and equipment were issued to him and reckoned as part of his pay." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 100) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Professional Priesthood:
present

Professional Military Officer:
present

Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"For the eastern empire of the 6th century Procopius reports that the court at Constantinople employed 5500 scholares, in addition to the domestici and protectores. And Procopius does not mention the exceptores and srinarii that filled the officium of the praetorian prefect in Constantinople." [1]

[1]: (Bjornlie 2016, 49-50) Bjornlie, Shane M. Governmental Administration. in Arnold, Jonathan J. Bjornlie, Shane M. Sessa, Kristina. eds. 2016. A Companion to Ostrogothic Italy. BRILL. Leiden.



Law
Professional Lawyer:
present


Formal Legal Code:
present

Codex Theodosianus, Codex Justinianus



Specialized Buildings: polity owned


Food Storage Site:
present

Distribution of free corn known as annona civica (political bread), which was an institution, "survived until the first half of the seventh century." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 191) Haussig, H W.trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present


Religious Literature:
present

huge corpus of Patristic texts, hagiography, comments on the Bible etc. [1] Leontius of Neapolis.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Practical Literature:
present

Philosophy:
present

"books interpreting dreams, the astrological prophecies, the oracle-books, and the so-called thunder and lightning books." [1]

[1]: (Haussig 1971, 125) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

History:
present

Procopius, Agathias, Menander, and the Chronicler Malalas.




Information / Money

Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.

Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.


Precious Metal:
present

Coinage system based on precious metals. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)



Indigenous Coin:
present

Coinage system based on precious metals. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)




Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
absent


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present


Moat. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)




Ditch. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Complex Fortification:
present

Theodosian Landwalls of Constantinople



Military use of Metals


present [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)



Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Present, heritage from Roman period. [1] After Roman period: "It is often taken for granted that Roman torsion-powered artillery continued to be produced in Byzantium, although there is virtually no solid evidence for such a claim. Recent work strongly suggests that two-arm horizontally mounted torsion-powered weapons had dropped out of use by the end of the fifth century (Chevedden 1995), although Prokopios describes the much simpler single-armed vertically mounted torsion-powered onager, a stone-thrower, at the siege of Rome." [2] Torsion siege engines are more powerful than tension siege engines.

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 478) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Counter weight trebuchet almost certainly to have been used by the sieges of Zevgminom 1165 CE and Nicaea 1184 CE. The Byzantine Empire used two types of this trebuchet: bricola (gravity powered, single pole) and tresle-framed, or trebuchet. Helepoleis used at seige Laodicea 1104 CE, at Mylos, Aretai, Durazzo, Kastoria, Apollonias Dristra, Chios, Abydos. Alexios I possibly helped invent the helepolis and counter-weight trebuchet. [1] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [2]

[1]: (Chevedden 2000, 75-82 [ http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291833])

[2]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


"Light infantry wore quilted jerkins, may have carried small shields, and were armed with slings, bows, or javelins." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



"Light infantry wore quilted jerkins, may have carried small shields, and were armed with slings, bows, or javelins." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"The use of the hand-crossbow in Europe thus divides into two quite distinct periods, the first between about -100 and +450; the second beginning in the +10th century." [1]

[1]: (Needham and Wang 1954, 174) Needham J and Wang L. 1954. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press.


Composite Bow:
present

"Light infantry wore quilted jerkins, may have carried small shields, and were armed with slings, bows, or javelins." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Handheld weapons

War clubs. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... Spears and swords were the main offensive arms". [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... Spears and swords were the main offensive arms". [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Polearms. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Daggers. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Battle Axe:
present

Battle axes. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Armor

"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... wide round or oval shields." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Plate Armor:
absent

absent in the sense of plate armor of the Late Medieval period. [1]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)


Limb Protection:
present

"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... breastplate, helmet, leg-armour (splinted greaves of either iron or leather or felt), and wide round or oval shields." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... leg-armour (splinted greaves of either iron or leather or felt)". [1] Usual for a "mail shirt [to] be worn, with padded jerkin or coat beneath." [2] "The majority of infantry and cavalry were equipped with quilted or padded coats (zabai) reaching to the knee, and protection for the chest of leather, possibly in the form of scale armour. For the infantry, whether or not helmets were worn, shields, spears, and padded coats will have been the predominant form of armament. Light infantry wore quilted jerkins" [2]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Haldon 2008, 474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... breastplate, helmet, leg-armour (splinted greaves of either iron or leather or felt), and wide round or oval shields." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

Usual for a "mail shirt [to] be worn, with padded jerkin or coat beneath." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

"In the infantry of the later fifth and sixth centuries ... breastplate, helmet, leg-armour (splinted greaves of either iron or leather or felt), and wide round or oval shields." [1]

[1]: (Haldon 2008, 473-474) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions