Home Region:  Anatolia-Caucasus (Southwest Asia)

Roman Empire - Dominate

D G SC WF HS CC PT EQ 2020  tr_roman_dominate / TrRomDm

Preceding:
31 BCE 284 CE Roman Empire - Principate (it_roman_principate)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
395 CE 631 CE East Roman Empire (tr_east_roman_emp)    [continuity]
Add one more here.

The Roman Principate is generally regarded as ending during or just after the crisis of the 3rd century CE (235-284 CE). The date of 284 CE marks the accession of Diocletian [1] and the period includes the Constantinian Dynasty (305-363 CE), Valentinian Dynasty (364-378 CE) and the early part of the Theodosian dynasty (379-457 CE). According to the historian David Baker, the ’Eastern Empire enjoyed an expansion phase c. 285-450’. [2] The period ends after the reign of Theodosius, the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire. [3]
Near the end of the 3rd century, beginning at the end of the Severan Dynasty, the Principate nearly collapsed in the face of internal warfare and pressure from external foes, including the Sassanid Persian Empire and nomadic tribes from Germany and eastern Europe. Rome briefly lost control over parts of France, Britain, and southern Spain and suffered several significant losses in battle to the Sassanids. Under first the Emperor Aurelian (r. 270-275 CE) then Diocletian (r. 284-305), all territory was recovered and a series of administrative and economic reforms inaugurated a second phase of the Roman Empire, which we refer to as the Dominate (denoting the increasing centralization of authority and the development of a large bureaucratic apparatus). This period saw notably the increasing popularization of Christianity, culminating in its acceptance as the official state religion under the Emperor Theodosius at the end of the period. The late 3rd century also saw the Empire split into two distinct administrative halves: a Western half, with its capital at Rome, and an Eastern one, ruled first from Nicomedia in Anatolia and then from Byzantium (re-founded as Constantinople, modern-day Istanbul, by the Emperor Constantine I the Great in 330 CE). Each half was ruled by a different emperor along with a junior colleague, titled ’Caesar’. This arrangement is known as the Tetrarchy (’rule of four’), which lasted until Constantine I managed to once again rule both halves together. The Empire was divided a few more times, until Theodosius (r. 379-392 CE) united it for the final time. In 393, Theodosius once more divided the Empire, naming Arcadius Emperor in the East and Honorius Emperor in the West. This marks the end of the Dominate period, leading to a period of instability and, ultimately, the collapse of the Roman state in the west, yet recovery and the continuation of Roman rule in the east (which became known as the Byzantine Empire, after Constantinople’s original name).
Population and political organization
During the Dominate period, the power centre of the Roman Empire shifted decisively away from Rome and Italy, beset by decades of crisis and civil infighting, to Anatolia; specifically, to the old Greek city of Byzantium that was re-founded and glorified by the Emperor Constantine I. Before this, Diocletian brought stability back to the Empire after the crises of the 3rd century CE by inaugurating a series of administrative and economic reforms. Although most offices and institutions of the preceding Principate period were retained, Diocletian increased the number of provinces, adding more governors and provincial officials who reported directly to the emperor, and further split the empire into two halves to aid in the administration of such a vast and diverse territory. [4] [5] The early Dominate is known for the decline of autonomy, prestige, and power of Rome’s provincial elite and the concomitant rapid increase in the power of the central bureaucracy. [6] [7] [8]
When Constantine I established Constantinople as the capital in 330 CE, he furnished the city with a palace, hippodrome, and a great imperial bureaucracy. In terms of personnel the administration in Constantinople reached its largest extent in the 4th century with ’somewhat over thirty thousand functionaries’. [9] Constantine was the first emperor to vigorously promote Christian religion and his patronage of the Christian church laid the foundations of a Christian empire. ’He built grand churches at the sacred loci of Christianity, including churches celebrating Christ’s birth, baptism, and resurrection and Peter’s death in Rome. ... Constantine’s successors would continue this pattern. Many churches would become quite wealthy. Their clergy were exempt from taxation and other onerous obligations like labor.’ [10]
The Empire, creaking under its vast territory of 4.5 million square kilometres, supported a population of up to 70 million people. Rome had lost population from its peak under the Principate, probably supporting around 800,000 in 300 CE and around 500,000 by the beginning of the 5th century. Constantinople also had slightly under 500,000 inhabitants, though it developed rapidly under the patronage of Constantine I and his successors and became the new centre of literacy and culture in the Roman world - rivalling, if not surpassing, Rome herself. [11]

[1]: (Boatwright et al. 2012, 438) Mary T. Boatwright, Daniel J. Gargola, Noel Lenski and Richard J. A. Talbert. 2012. The Romans. From Village to Empire: A History of Rome from Earliest Times to the End of the Western Empire. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Baker 2011, 245-46) David Baker. 2011. ’The Roman Dominate from the Perspective of Demographic-Structural Theory’. Cliodynamics 2 (2): 217-51.

[3]: (Morgan 2012) James F. Morgan. 2012. The Roman Empire: Fall of the West, Survival of the East. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

[4]: (Black 2008, 181) Jeremy Black. 2008. World History Atlas. London: Dorling Kindersley.

[5]: (Cameron 1993) Averil Cameron. 1993. The Later Roman Empire, A.D. 284-430. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[6]: (Loewenstein 1973, 238) Karl Loewenstein. 1973. The Governance of Rome. The Hague: Martin Nijhoff.

[7]: (Eich 2005) Peter Eich. 2005. Zur Metamorphose des politischen Systems in der römischen Kaiserzeit: Die Entstehung einer "personalen Bürokratie" im langen dritten Jahrhundert. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

[8]: (Eich 2015) Peter Eich. 2015. ’The Common Denominator: Late Roman Imperial Bureaucracy from a Comparative Perspective’, in State Power in Ancient China and Rome, edited by Walter Scheidel, 90-149. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[9]: (Lendon 1997, 3) J. E. Lendon. 1997. Empire of Honour: The Art of Government in the Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[10]: (Madigan 2015, 20) Kevin Madigan. 2015. Medieval Christianity: A New History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[11]: (Lee 2013, 76) A. D. Lee. 2013. From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565: The Transformation of Ancient Rome. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
33 T  
Original Name:
Roman Empire - Dominate  
Capital:
Nicomedia  
Constantinople  
Alternative Name:
Roman Empire  
Eastern Empire  
Byzantine Empire  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
394 CE  
Duration:
[285 CE ➜ 394 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Greco-Roman  
Succeeding Entity:
Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Roman Empire - Principate (it_roman_principate)    [continuity]  
Succeeding: East Roman Empire (tr_east_roman_emp)    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Latin  
Greek  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Roman State Religions  
Religion Family:
Imperial Cult  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
800,000 people  
Polity Territory:
[4,000,000 to 4,500,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[40,000,000 to 70,000,000] people 300 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7  
Religious Level:
5  
Military Level:
[6 to 8]  
Administrative Level:
[8 to 9]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
absent  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
present  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
present  
  Self Bow:
absent  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
present  
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
present  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Roman Empire - Dominate (tr_roman_dominate) was in:
 (284 CE 394 CE)   Latium     Paris Basin     Crete     Upper Egypt     Konya Plain
Home NGA: Konya Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Roman Empire - Dominate

Capital:
Nicomedia

The Imperial capital was at Nicomedia under Diocletian. [1] Constantine established Constantinople as the capital of the Roman Empire in 326 CE. [2] "Rome had been for more than two centuries strangely neglected by the rulers who in her name lorded it over the civilised world. Ever since Diocletian’s reconstruction of the Empire, it had been a rare event for an Augustus to be seen within her walls. Even the Emperor who had Italy for his portion generally resided at Milan or Ravenna rather than on the banks of the Tiber." [3]

[1]: (Bunson, 1991, 57)

[2]: (http://www.roman-empire.net/constant/constant-index.html)

[3]: (Hodgkin 1897)

Capital:
Constantinople

The Imperial capital was at Nicomedia under Diocletian. [1] Constantine established Constantinople as the capital of the Roman Empire in 326 CE. [2] "Rome had been for more than two centuries strangely neglected by the rulers who in her name lorded it over the civilised world. Ever since Diocletian’s reconstruction of the Empire, it had been a rare event for an Augustus to be seen within her walls. Even the Emperor who had Italy for his portion generally resided at Milan or Ravenna rather than on the banks of the Tiber." [3]

[1]: (Bunson, 1991, 57)

[2]: (http://www.roman-empire.net/constant/constant-index.html)

[3]: (Hodgkin 1897)


Alternative Name:
Roman Empire
Alternative Name:
Eastern Empire
Alternative Name:
Byzantine Empire

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
394 CE

"The Eastern Empire enjoyed an expansion phase c.285-450, when the population and elite numbers were low. The stagflation phase spanned c.450-541, when large estates began to appear again, when elites became more numerous and powerful, and the frequency of elite infighting and sociopolitical instability increased. The Justinian Plague struck in 541 and reduced the common population, gradually halting the expansion of the Eastern Empire, and culminating in the usurpations and civil wars of the seventh century. This was followed shortly thereafter by collapse in the Arab Conquests." [1]

[1]: (Baker 2011, 245-246)


Duration:
[285 CE ➜ 394 CE]

The Principate is generally regarded as ending during or just after the crisis of the III century (235-284 CE). The date of 284 CE marks the accession of Diocletian. [1]
Diocletian 284-305 CE.
Tetrarchy 293-313 CE.
Constantinian dynasty 305-363 CE.
Valentinian dynasty 364-378 CE.
Theodosian dynasty 379-457 CE.
"The problem of intraelite conflict appears in Byzantine history after the death of Marcian in 457." [2] 457 CE marks the end of the Theodosian dynasty.

[1]: (Boatwright et al. 2012)

[2]: (Baker 2011, 224)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

e.g. Ethiopian and Arabian tribes


Supracultural Entity:
Greco-Roman

The entire area of Roman Empire, plus much territory in Britain, northern Europe, central and western Africa, and the Near East and Central Asia.


Succeeding Entity:
Western Roman Empire - Late Antiquity

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
17,000,000 km2

km^2 Very rough area of Roman Empire, plus extra territory where Roman ’cultural influence’ felt


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

Preceding Entity:
Roman Empire - Principate [it_roman_principate] ---> Roman Empire - Dominate [tr_roman_dominate]
Preceding Entity:
Roman Empire - Dominate [tr_roman_dominate] ---> East Roman Empire [tr_east_roman_emp]

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Latin

"Diversity was visible too in linguistic terms, with a division between the use of Latin as the major public language (used, for instance, in inscriptions) in the western provinces and Greek in the east - although Latin was the official language of Roman law throughout the empire (Millar 1999: 105-8). It should be noted, however, that Latin was phased out as the language of governance and law in the east under Justinian. By then, the east constituted the core of imperial territory, and Latin would likely have been incomprehensible to the larger part of its inhabitants; thus Justinian’s decision was a tardy recognition of everyday realities by the slow-moving engines of the administration." [1] "In Africa, Punic was widely spoken as well as Latin, and in a famous passage of The City of God Augustine reminds the reader that the imperious Roman capital had not only placed the yoke of dominion on defeated peoples; it had also imposed Latin as the official language (Augustine, The City of God, 19, 7)." [2]

[1]: (Croke 2005: 73-4)

[2]: (Triana 2011, 86) Giusto Triana. 2011. 428 AD: An Ordinary Year at the End of the Roman Empire. Princeton University Press.

Language:
Greek

"Diversity was visible too in linguistic terms, with a division between the use of Latin as the major public language (used, for instance, in inscriptions) in the western provinces and Greek in the east - although Latin was the official language of Roman law throughout the empire (Millar 1999: 105-8). It should be noted, however, that Latin was phased out as the language of governance and law in the east under Justinian. By then, the east constituted the core of imperial territory, and Latin would likely have been incomprehensible to the larger part of its inhabitants; thus Justinian’s decision was a tardy recognition of everyday realities by the slow-moving engines of the administration." [1] "In Africa, Punic was widely spoken as well as Latin, and in a famous passage of The City of God Augustine reminds the reader that the imperious Roman capital had not only placed the yoke of dominion on defeated peoples; it had also imposed Latin as the official language (Augustine, The City of God, 19, 7)." [2]

[1]: (Croke 2005: 73-4)

[2]: (Triana 2011, 86) Giusto Triana. 2011. 428 AD: An Ordinary Year at the End of the Roman Empire. Princeton University Press.


Religion
Religion Genus:
Roman State Religions

Religion Family:
Imperial Cult

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
800,000 people

people. Rome. Peak settlement of Rome generally thought to be c150 CE. By 300 CE still about 800,000 which had decreased to roughly 500,000 by 400 CE. [1]
[150,000-400,000] for Constantinople in the fifth century based on estimates of city size, density of occupation, and archaeological remains. [2] .

[1]: (Twine 1992 http://msaag.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/26_Twine.pdf)

[2]: (Lee 2013, 76)


Polity Territory:
[4,000,000 to 4,500,000] km2

Polity Population:
[40,000,000 to 70,000,000] people
300 CE

The most common general estimate for the empire population is around 60 million, but a figure of 150 million is also conceivable, though highly unlikely [1] . Another estimate is 50 million people (i.e. 5000 administrative units at height. [2] . According to a graph by McEvedy and Jones between 200 CE and 400 CE population of the Roman Empire decreased from about 45 million to 35 million [3] .
70 million c.300 CE?
"The Late Roman Empire covered vast amounts of territory (estimated at 3.8 million km2; Issawi 1981: 377) and enjoyed a prolonged period of economic prosperity and demographic expansion between the death of Augustus (14 CE) and the second century. During this phase population density was situated in the upper possible margins of pre-modern times (at roughly 20 inhabitants per km2) with a total population in the magnitude of 74.9 million (Issawi 1981: 377). The anarchy and general economic disarray of the third century will have taken its toll on the population, but we can safely assume that at the beginning of the Byzantine period, in the early fourth century, the demographic state of the empire was similar to that in the second century." [4]

[1]: (Scheidel 2004: 2-9)

[2]: (Black 2008, 181)

[3]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 127)

[4]: (Stathakopoulos 2008, 310) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
7

1. The capital (e.g. Constantinople)
2. Administrative centers (e.g. Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, Trier)3. Provincial capitals (Ephesus, Lugdunum)provinces had capital cities (e.g. Carthage in Africa Proconsularis, Epehsus in Asia, etc.)
4. Colonies/coloniae (Pompeii in Italy, Cremna in Anatolia, Camulodunum in England) and Municipia (Volubilis in Mauretania)5. tributary communities, not necessarily urbanized6. village/vici7. pagi (rural settlements)


Religious Level:
5

Christianity 4: 380-457 CE
"Theodosius (r.379-395), made Christianity the legal or "official" religion of the empire." [1]
1. Emperor
"The first seven "ecumenical" ... councils were gathered by the Roman (or, later, Byzantine) emperors." [2]
1. Bishop of a patriarchate
"The churches organized themselves along the lines laid down by the geography and political order of the empire. A city (civitas), along with its surrounding rural perimeter, the foundation of imperial organization, also formed the basic unit of ecclesiastical structure. Virtually every Roman city, many of them quite small, had its own bishop. He exercised his authority over a "diocese" that ordinarily coincided with the boundaries of the civitas. These dioceses were then grouped into provinces, over which a metropolitan, the bishop of a province’s principal city, held sway. Eventually, provinces themselves were organized into large "patriarchates," each lead by one of the five preeminent bishops of the church: those in Rome, Constantinople (called "New Rome," second in prestige to the Old), Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem." [2]
2. Metropolitan, with authority over a province
3. Bishop in civitas, with authority over a diocese
4. Presbyters or priests (elders)"Evidence from the second century suggests that a wide variety of models for local clergy existed throughout the Roman Empire. Yet the one to prevail was a three-tiered, hierarchical. In this model, the bishop served as leader of the local community and was assisted by presbyters or priests (elders) and deacons. Again, this model was established in the Antioch of Ignatius, as he underscores emphatically the necessity of gathering for learning, ritual, and teaching around a single bishop. By the end of the century this three-tiered form of ministry had spread to most early Catholic communities throughout the empire, and it would soon become the sole authoritative manner of organizing local ecclesial communities." [3]
5. Deacons

_Mithraism_
Cult of Mithra spread from the Parthian Empire to Rome (originated in India? bronze age?). "Contrary to other religions of the same type, such as the cults of Isis and Osiris, Serapis, Dionysus (all well-known examples), Mithraicism eschewed any external manifestations and depended only on its initiatory nature to recruit its followers. ... it gradually became a common faith for soldiers, civil servants, merchants ... The members joined a spirituality of an initiatory type ... shared with a large group of solar faiths ... that promised both a life near to the deity and a personal redemption." [4]
"From the end of the first century B.C.E. we have evidence of a cult coming from the East and gradually and discretely conquering the Roman army and administration (Daniels). This god, previously unknown to the Romans, was called Mithra. Some historians believe (see Plutarch, Pomp. 24.7) that the notorius Cilician pirates defeated by Pompeius propagated this cult when deported in Calabria. We now believe that it was a late transformation of the god Mithra, the friendly protector of contracts .... and defender of true and just causes." [5]
"We must also stress that this god retained, in his manifestation in the Roman Empire, his essential characteristics of friend and guardian of contracts." [6]
"Mithra probably won over even the imperial house. We are wary about the well-known initiation of the emperor Nero to the mysteries of the Magi through Tiridates (see Turcan 1989:237). However, it seems that the emperor Commodus (192) was an unworthy adept of the mysteries, because he was suspected of having killed a fellow-adept during a ceremony simulating a ritual sacrifice. The imperial house had a much worthier adept in Diocletian and his colleagues of the Tetrarchy: Galerius and Licinius. The god is then called the fautor imperii sui, the "protector of the imperial power" (Inscription of Carnuntum in 307)." [7]
Mithraism: "on the social level people learned, in the ’Persic Cavern’, to respect the contract linking the human being to the cosmos and to the gods, and then, at least in an implicit way, to respect the emperors, who were divine beings, as intermediaries between the sky and the earth. The faithfulness to a vivifying cosmic order was thus accompanied by faithfulness to the one representing this order on earth. It is not surprising, then, that Mithra was invoked as Jupiter Dolichenus for the salvation of the emperor. In time, a cult ascribed to the enemies gets mixed up with the worship of the protecting gods of Rome!" [7]

[1]: (Madigan 2015, 20)

[2]: (Madigan 2015, 21)

[3]: (Madigan 2015, 14)

[4]: (Decharneux (2004, 94) Decharneux, Baudouin. Mithra’s Cult: An Example of Religious Colonialism in Roman Times. Draper, Jonathan A. ed. 2004. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. BRILL.

[5]: (Decharneux 2004, 93) Decharneux, Baudouin. Mithra’s Cult: An Example of Religious Colonialism in Roman Times. Draper, Jonathan A. ed. 2004. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. BRILL.

[6]: (Decharneux 2004, 93-94) Decharneux, Baudouin. Mithra’s Cult: An Example of Religious Colonialism in Roman Times. Draper, Jonathan A. ed. 2004. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. BRILL.

[7]: (Decharneux 2004, 100) Decharneux, Baudouin. Mithra’s Cult: An Example of Religious Colonialism in Roman Times. Draper, Jonathan A. ed. 2004. Orality, Literacy, and Colonialism in Antiquity. BRILL.


Military Level:
[6 to 8]

Crisis of the third century broke army structure. What was reconstituted after 293 CE was very different, although heavy legion infantry remained its core.
"Military command structure of the late Roman Empire" [1]
1. Senate
"wholly nominal role"
1. Emperor in the West

2. Master of the Troops (Magister militum) how distinct are these levels 2-4? are these ranks really at different levels of command or at the same level? - need to check with expertEastern empire had two field armies commanded by general called magister militum. Below there were three regional field armies. Legion units had different status: 24 Palatine, 69 Comitatenses, 37 Pseudocomitatenses. Field armies also had auxiliary and cavalry vexillations of Palatine level. [2]
Western empire field army commanded by magister peditum, who commanded legions and auxilia Palatina. Cavalry in western empire had separate commander, magister equitum. [2]
3. Master of foot / Master of horse
4. General in charge of 2 or more legions (Dux)"The limitanei were to watch the frontiers only. They protected the borders, never moving from their area unless specifically ordered to do so in support of some other limitanei body that was threatened by attack. While the limitanei did not move, the comitatenses, the main field army near the emperor or under the command of his prefects, was always on the march. Each comitatensis was composed of legiones palatinae (the PALATINI) and the vexillationes palatinae. The legions, as they had been known, were replaced by the 1,000-1,500-man legiones palatinae, grouped five at a time into a comitatenses. Joining them was the cavalry, now called the vexillationes, probably numbering the same." [3]
Notitia Dignitatum compiled c420 CE. Data for east empire c395 CE, western empire c400-420 CE. Frontier garrisons (limitanei or ripenses, 50 legionary units) and regional/field armies (comitatus, 120 legionary units). Commanded by senior generals, soldiers called comitatenses. The distinction apparent by 325 CE from the Theodosian Code, but possibly back as far as Diocletian. New cavalry units called vexillations (same name as legionary detachment from earlier period), same privileges as legions. [4]
5. Legionary commander (Legate)
6. Individual soldier

[1]: (Abels [7])

[2]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 216)

[3]: (Bunson 2009, 310)

[4]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 215-216)


Administrative Level:
[8 to 9]

This number equal to the number of levels in the Egyptian line, plus the Emperor.
The vast Empire, creaking under its 4.5 million km2 extent and up to 70 million people, was reformed by Diocletian (284-305 CE), and his co-Emperor Maximian (286-305 CE), to enable the highest Roman authority to be in more places at once. Already split into East and West under two ’Augusti’, now referred to as dominus (lord) rather than princeps (first citizen) [1] , they added two ’Caesares’, who were to be the deputy and successor for the Emperors. [2] [3] The four men ruled from prefectures with capitals at Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Sirmium and Trier, assisted by a powerful Praefectus Praetorio who ’influence military affairs, as he retained control of the main logistical system of the empire.’ [3] The system of Tetrarchy ended in farce with four Emperors and one Caesar and the elite conflict ended only in 325 CE after Constantine ensured by force there would be only one Roman Emperor. [2]
Constantine revived the system of four Praetorian Prefects and four prefectures that was developed for the Tetrarchy [3] which became the keystones of provincial government. Prefectures were split into dioceses (of which there were 13 in the Empire, each run by a Vicarii), which contained provinces (run by a governor, 100 existed under Diocletian), which were sub-divided into Decuriones (managed by ordo, or a curia and civitas council). [2] [4] Town councils governed vici (military settlements) and coloniae (retirement villages), and settlements were often divided into sections called Municipia. [5] Rural settlements were known as pagi. The Roman provincial system also granted limited powers of self-rule to some regions (e.g. Massilla, Messana and Malta).
1. Emperor
2 Emperors (except during the years of Tetrarchy, 293-313ce, there were 2 emperors and 2 caesars)
286 CE co-regent: Casear (West) and Augusti (East). 293 CE tetrarchy. Two emperors "Augusti", with two vice-emperors "Caesares". Tetrarchy ended c313 CE, Constantine reinstated single Emperor 325 CE.
Two Emperors with the title Augustus, and a junior with the title Casear [2]
Emperor referred to as dominus (lord) rather than princeps (first citizen). [6]
_Central government line_
2. praefectus praetorio"the most powerful man, after the Emperor, was the praefectus praetorio. He stood at the head of all authorities and military units belonging to the praetorium, the headquarters of the Emperor. Of these functions it was particularly his control of the imperial bodyguard that gave him political prominence. Besides these military duties, he had to assist the Emperor in the performance of his administrative work, and also to act as his representative." [7]
_Provincial government_
2. Pretorian Prefect4 Pretorian Prefects
Under Diocletian (284-305 CE) Empire’s administration reformed into a "tetrarchy" (rule by four): created 4 Prefectures and 12 dioceses (run by a Vicar) which had provinces, and a two Emperor system at the top [8] .
Governor of province under control of governor of diocese who was under control of praetorian prefect. [9]
Praetorian prefects second in power only to emperor since they gained control over provincial administrative system. [10]
Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum: Britanniae; Galliae; Viennensis; Hispaniae. Praefectus Praetorio per Orientem: Thracia; Asiana; Pontica; Oriens. Praefectus Praetorio per Illyrium: Moessiae. Praefectus Praetorio Illyrici, Italiae, Africae: Pannoniae; Italia; Africa. [11]
3. Vicarii13 Vicarii (in charge of dioceses)
Governor of province under control of governor of diocese who was under control of praetorian prefect. [12]
4. Governors/praesides100 Governors/praesides (provinces)
Under Diocletian provinces divided into 100 units. [2] .
Governor of province under control of governor of diocese who was under control of praetorian prefect. [13]
5. Decurionesgovernmental divisions within provinces, managed by ordo or curia and civitas council. Also vici (military settlements), coloniae (retirement villages), and municipia (political entities within a settlement). Some regions granted limited powers of self-rule e.g. Massilla, Messana and Malta.Town councils [14]
6. SettlementsVici (military settlements) - government by town councils
coloniae (retirement villages) - government by town councils
7. Municipia [5] .political entities within a settlement
Emperors. Prefectures. Dioceses. Provinces. Civitas. Municipia. At lower levels there were village/vici and pagi (rural settlements).
8. PagiRural settlement
_Egyptian line_ [15]
2. PrefectAppointed by Rome
3. ProcuratorsAppointed by Rome
Includes finance officer dioiketes (and other department heads)
4. EpistrategoiAppointed by Rome
Regional administrator, 4 in total
5. StrategosAppointed by Greco-Egyptians
30 in total
5. AccountantAppointed by Greco-Egyptians
auditor of the nome
6. District scribeAppointed by Greco-Egyptians
7. Village scribeAppointed by Greco-Egyptians
8. Village EldersElected or co-opted
9. LiturgistsCompulsory public service

[1]: (Cameron 2013, 2)

[2]: (Black 2008, 181)

[3]: (Hughes 2012) Hughes, Iran. 2012. Aetius: Attila’s Nemesis. Casemate Publishers.

[4]: (Bury 1889, 27)

[5]: (Parker 1994, 88)

[6]: (Cameron 2013, 2 [1])

[7]: (Haussing 1971, 52) Haussig, H W. trans Hussey, J M. 1971. History of Byzantine Civilization. Thames and Hudson.

[8]: (Davidson 2011, 47-50)

[9]: (Bury 1889, 27 [2])

[10]: (Cameron 2013, 6-9 [3])

[11]: (Parker 1994, 89)

[12]: (Bury 1889, 27 [4])

[13]: (Bury 1889, 27 [5])

[14]: (Cameron 2013, 6-9 [6])

[15]: (Peacock 2000, 416)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Professional soldiers were present from the beginning of the Roman Principate. "Augustus’ main military reforms had the effect of turning the army into a standing force of long-service professionals, instead of the part-time citizen force of the Republic." "Augustus’ professionalization of the army entailed creating regular, empire-wide terms of service. In theory, at least, soldiers signed up for a fixed length of service, received regular pay at standard rates set by the state and retired with a bonus provided by the state." [1] Becoming a legionary involved a choice for a professional career. There were professional auxiliaries and ’fleet personnel’. [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 34)

[2]: (Fields, 2006, 35)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [1] ; Vestals were "supported by the state and were full-time professional clergy, along with the Priestess of Ceres and Proserpina." [2] The Flamen Dialis (the chief priest of Jupiter) was also a professional. He had to follow so many restrictive rules that he was effectively restricted to priestly duties. He could for example not touch horses, iron, etc, and he was not allowed to stand for election. Some priests, however, were not professional. These included the pontifices.

[1]: (Grant and Kitzinger, 1988, 938)

[2]: (Flower ed. 2004, 143)


Professional Military Officer:
present

The highest officers in the Roman military system were usually senators not professionals. There were, however, professional junior officers at least from the Roman Principate.
"Typically the men who commanded armies and legions were senators. There were no military specialists in Roman government and no imperial high command. All senators alternated brief periods of military command with administrative posts, participation in domestic politics and careers as legal advocates. As military commanders they were, to a great extent, amateurs, even though most did a brief spell as a junior officer (tribune) in a legion. They would have depended on the professional junior officers (tribunes and centurions) as well as the training and discipline of the legionaries themselves to win battles."" [1]
"Tribunes, like the legionary legate (commander), were drawn from Rome’s social and political elite, the senatorial and equestrian orders, and were not professional soldiers. They alternated military service with political, judicial and administrative duties." [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 38)

[2]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 39)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [1] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [2] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other buildings include: granaries and storehouses.
Buildings of the imperial bureaucracy, such as the Curia Julia. The Curia Julia was one of the main meeting places of the Roman Senate (later rebuilt under Diocletian after a fire in 283 CE). [3] The Senate also often met in appropriate temples. [4] The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was for a time housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn. There were lots of multi-purpose government buildings: basilicas, imperial fora, and porticos, which were utilized for government functions, such as official meetings or court hearings.Offices of local magistrates and town council buildings were housed in separate buildings. There were market buildings (the Markets of Trajan in Rome). Bathhouses proliferated and, at Rome, were built on an ever-increasingly enormous scale (Baths of Diocletian, opened in 306 CE, occupied an area of almost 35 acres). Other buildings include: granaries and storehouses, mints and state archives.

[1]: (Cornell 1995, 94)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 100)

[3]: (http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum/reconstructions/CuriaIulia_1)

[4]: [8]


Merit Promotion:
absent

Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience within the army had been eliminated by Marius in 105 BCE [1] and the Illyrian emperors demonstrate that "low born" individuals could make it to the top of the administrative hierarchy. Since there was no general policy of merit promotion in the Roman bureaucracy - and the promotion of low-born individuals to position of power might be considered a matter of "politics" among aristocrats - the code is inferred absent.

[1]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

The power of central government became reestablished in the fourth century; ’foundations were laid [for the] bureaucratic absolute monarchy in which a trained professional civil service attended to the administration of a far-flung empire.’ [1] Modeled on the military, the bureaucratic service became known as the militia. Personnel wore a uniform, the highest officials with the most elaborate outfits, and the Centurian’s swagger stick was a badge of office. [2] At the same time the administration of justice was ’thoroughly bureaucratized’ and ’regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons.’ [3] A system of appeals also developed. [3] Before the Roman Dominate there were no specialized court buildings; courts were often held in the basilicas. [4]
"At its largest extent, in the fourth century, the imperial government had somewhat over thirty thousand functionaries ... in the earlier centuries, when the empire was at the height of its power and glory, it employed only a fraction of that number." ... "Fourth cent., A. H. M. Jones (1964), 1057 n.44. The size of the administration in earlier centuries is harder to estimate: Eck (1980: 16) counts some 10,000 in the provinces under Trajan, mostly seconded soldiers ...; independently R. F. Tannenbaum (private communication) estimates a total of some 10,000-12,000 including Rome and Italy, but excluding the central and local adinistration of Egypt." [5]

[1]: (Loewenstein 1973, 238)

[2]: (Kelly 2009, 20-21)

[3]: (Mousourakis 2007, 161)

[4]: (Berger 1968, 742)

[5]: (Lendon 1997, 3) Lendon, J. E. 1997. Empire of Honour: The Art of Government in the Roman World. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Examination System:
absent

There was no examination system for the Roman bureaucracy.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [1] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. A second school was established in Beriut in the early third century. Further schools of law were established in Alexandria, Caesaria, Athens, Constantinople, Carthage and Augustodunum. [2] "Professional" lawyers (causidici, advocati) replaced orators (oratores) during the Roman Dominate period. [3] Leo I (460 CE) demanded some lawyers produce a certificate proving their professional instruction, a requirement which was later demanded in the provinces. [4]

[1]: (Allcroft and Haydon 1902, 121 [10])

[2]: (Mousourakis 2007, 163)

[3]: (Mousourakis 2007, 163-164)

[4]: (Mousourakis 2007, 164)


Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [1] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.
Salvian’s "On God’s Governance of the World" highlights the corruption among Roman judges in the fifth century: "A transgressor who belongs to the wealthy classes is not punished for his injustice, while a poor man, who does not understand business, undergoes the legal penalty, that is, if he does not depart this life before the trial, so long is the course of lawsuits protracted, and so much money is expended on them. The climax of the misery is to have to pay in order to obtain justice. For no one will give a court to the injured man unless he pay a sum of money to the judge and the judge’s clerks." [2]

[1]: (Mousourakis 2007, 163)

[2]: [9]


Formal Legal Code:
present

A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [1] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [2]
Writing c200 CE "Papinian, perhaps the authority on law most respected in late antiquity, listed the sources of the ius civile as statutes (leges), popular resolutions (plebiscita), senatorial enactments (senatusconsulta), decrees of emperors (decreta principum) and the authoritative pronouncements of men learned in law, the jurists (auctoritas prudentium). To these was added the ius honorarium, the law contained in the Edict of the praetor, who, under the Republic and Early Empire administered law in Rome; this form of law derived its name from the praetor’s magistracy (honos) and was held to ’assist, supplement or amend’ the ius civile.". [3]
Under-Diocletian, Codex Gregorianus (291 CE) - which contained constitutions and rescripts from Hadrian to Diocletian - and Codex Hermogenianus (c295 CE) - which contained supplementary material - became semi-official collections of law. Their authors had access to imperial chancery and the codes were considered authoritative by courts. [4] Throughout the imperial period a new body of law called ius novum developed [5] under the influence of Christianity which replaced the ius vetus. However, law-making was in general unstructured and confused. In 435 CE a commission was appointed to collate all constitutions since Constantine (numbering 3000 constitutions from 312 to 438 CE). The new compendium was published in 438 CE as Codex Theodosianus. [6] Private law (e.g. family law) came increasingly under the jurisdiction of the Christian church. [7]
During this period Mousourakis believes the Emperor’s law-making powers grew substantially
Emperor was the source of all laws and the interpretation of the laws. By fourth century CE, "sovereignty of the Roman people deemed to be transferred to the emperor, who existed as the sole authority in all spheres of government: legislative, administrative, judicial, military". [8]
Jurisprudence plummeted as Emperor became sole source of law. [8]
ius civile and ius honararium became no longer distinct [8]
There was a move away from law by precedent (previous cases) to law by general rules [8]
"Judges had lost the freedom and even the ability to engage in creative thinking and form independent judgements." [9]

[1]: (Tellegen-Couperus, 2002, 66)

[2]: (Cornell 1995, 106)

[3]: (Harries 2001, 11) Harries, Jill. 2001. Law and Empire in Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Mousourakis 2007, 179)

[5]: (http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195369380.001.0001/acref-9780195369380-e-1151)

[6]: (Mousourakis 2007, 181)

[7]: (Mousourakis 2007, 161)

[8]: (Mousourakis 2007)

[9]: (Mousourakis 2007, 163)


During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [1] Also, a system of appeals developed. [1] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas [2] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE [3] ) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

[1]: (Mousourakis 2007, 161)

[2]: (Berger 1968, 742)

[3]: (Stearns 2001)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

[1]

[1]: (Bury 1889, 402 [11])


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation systems present from earlier periods (e.g. in Egypt) and maintained during Roman Dominate.


Food Storage Site:
present

Grain stores. The prefect of the market looked after grain supplies from Egypt. [1]

[1]: (Bury 1889, 44 [12])


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Arsinoe, a metropolis in Egypt (the capital town of a nome) "had running water supplied by two reservoirs into which water was pumped from an arm of the Nile." [1]

[1]: (Peacock 2000, 416)


Transport Infrastructure

Roads present from earlier periods and maintained during Roman Dominate.


Ports present from earlier periods and maintained during Roman Dominate.


Canals present from earlier periods and maintained during Roman Dominate.


Bridge:
present

Bridges present from earlier periods and maintained during Roman Dominate.


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

The 4th and 5th centuries were a "golden age" for patristic literature. [1]

[1]: (Cameron 2013, 14)



Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Nonwritten Record:
present

The 4th and 5th centuries were a "golden age" for patristic literature. [1]

[1]: (Cameron 2013, 14)


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Medical literature implied by the existence of court physicians. [1]

[1]: (Bury 1889, 27 [15])


Sacred Text:
present

The Bible.


Religious Literature:
present

Julian the Aspotate (331-363 CE). [1] Augustine of Hippo (born 354 CE, Thagaste, Numidia). Confessions of St. Augustine, City of God, On Christian Doctrine. Also under theology.

[1]: [13]


Practical Literature:
present

Cyrillus, Patricius, Exodius, Leontius, Amblichus, and Demosthenes preserved work of classical jurists, later important for the post-Dominate Justinian codification of Roman law. [1] Vegetius, a military writer (c400 CE). [2]

[1]: (Mousourakis 2007, 164)

[2]: [14]


Philosophy:
present

Augustine of Hippo (born 354 CE, Thagaste, Numidia). Confessions of St. Augustine, City of God, On Christian Doctrine. Also under theology.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

History:
present

Ammianus Marcellinus (330-391 CE)


Fiction:
present

e.g. Ausonius (4th c CE)



Information / Money

Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.

Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.


Precious Metal:
present

gold was used as a store of wealth (cf J.-M. Carrié 2003 "Solidus et Credit") and conceivably was used for payment.


Paper Currency:
absent

The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.


Indigenous Coin:
present

Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) Prior to end of Second Punic War (end 201 BCE) many coins were produced by communities other than Rome. Monetary and economic unity from Rome was achieved by the early 1st century BCE. [1] Roman coins included the silver denarius, silver Sestertius and gold aureus. [2]

[1]: (Crawford 2001, 32, 42)

[2]: [16]


Foreign Coin:
absent

Rawson states "Rome did not ... impose a common coinage over her sphere of influence, unlike Athens." [1] However, by the Roman Dominate a common coinage had spread across the Empire. [2]

[1]: (Rawson 2001, 60-61)

[2]: (Davidson 2011, 47)


Article:
present

Wheat and other agricultural products were often used as stores of wealth. [1] During the Roman Dominate due to debasement of the currency and high inflation there was a reversion to exchange-in-kind for many payments, e.g. to soldiers, and for some taxes. [2] .

[1]: (Gibbs 2012, 46)

[2]: (Cameron 2013, 6)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus. "A series of postal stations connected by wagon and horse relays along the major trunk roads of the Empire". [1] Carried private and state post.

[1]: (Gabriel 2001, 209)


General Postal Service:
present

Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus. "A series of postal stations connected by wagon and horse relays along the major trunk roads of the Empire". [1] Carried private and state post.

[1]: (Gabriel 2001, 209)


Courier:
present

"Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc. But by Cicero’s day [i.e. c100 BCE] there had evolved a number of fairly regular means by which one could send a letter." This included "a private system of letter carriers maintained by the publicani, whose business of collecting taxes in the provinces necessitated a reliable means of communication over long distances... a private individual could arrange for these couriers, called tabellarri, to carry personal letters along with the business correspondence of their companies." [1]

[1]: (Nicholson 1994)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Fortifications including wooden forts present in preceding Roman Principate


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Stone Walls Mortared:
present

present in preceding Roman Principate [1]

[1]: (http://www.romeartlover.it/Costroma.html)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Army camps built all over the Empire in preceding Roman Principate. [1] [2] [3]

[1]: (cf. Le Bohec 1989, 131

[2]: Erdkamp 2011

[3]: Haensch 2012)



A ditch filled with water would not have been beyond the technological capabilities of the Romans during this period but did they use/need them?



Earth Rampart:
present

present in preceding Roman Principate


Coded present for the Roman Empire - Principate. Existing fortified places which had ditches may have been maintained into this period.


Complex Fortification:
present

in preceding Principate: Hadrian’s wall. 15 feet high for 73 miles. Milecastle every Roman mile up to 21 feet high. Milecastle could house 60 troops. Between Milecastles, two watchtowers with centuries. 17 large forts along wall home to 1000 soldiers. Nine foot ditch dug at base of wall while a Vallum behind (120 ft wide ditch) ran the entire length of the stone wall. 15-20000 men used to build. 5 year build. [1] .

[1]: (Canciello 2005)



Military use of Metals

present in preceding polity


present in preceding polity in shields [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 43)


Copper alloy may have had minor role in armour.


present in preceding polity in shields [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 43)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Cart-mounted catapults. [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 222)





Spears and javelins: spiculum, verutum, lancea . [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 222)



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

manuballistae [1] "The use of the hand-crossbow in Europe thus divides into two quite distinct periods, the first between about -100 and +450; the second beginning in the +10th century." [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 221)

[2]: (Needham and Wang 1954, 174) Needham J and Wang L. 1954. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press.


Composite Bow:
present

Archers [1] Regiments of archers with composite bows. [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 221)

[2]: [18]


New World weapon


Handheld weapons

Use of atlatls, war clubs, battle axes and polearms does not appear to be supported by evidence.


long double-edged sword (spatha). [1] "The Tetrarchs" statue shows swords from this period. Sword long bladed spatha, by third century CE, [2]

[1]: (Abels http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh381/late_roman_barbarian_militaries.htm)

[2]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 222)


Roman cavalry were not traditionally horseback archers. Inferred that they carried lances.




Battle Axe:
absent

Use of atlatls, war clubs, battle axes and polearms does not appear to be supported by evidence.


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012)



Were domesticated in Egypt, possibly used as pack animals in warfare. [1]

[1]: (Manning 2015, Personal Communication)


Romans kept geese as intruder alarms along with sentry dogs as they were more sensitive to intruders. [1]

[1]: (Mayor 2014, 288) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


For TrByzM1 expert commented that camels were used as pack animal in Cappadocia, in Anatolia.

For TrByzM1 expert commented that camels were used as pack animal in Cappadocia, in Anatolia.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

used in preceding polity in shields [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 43)


Oval or round [1] [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 222)

[2]: [19]


Scaled Armor:
present

Scaled armor. By this time lorica segmentata had disappeared. [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 221)


Plate Armor:
absent

During the Principate there was lorica segmentata, as depicted on Trajan’s Column. "Strips of iron held together and articulated with leather straps and copper alloy fittings" [1] By this time lorica segmentata had disappeared. [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 44)

[2]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 221)


Limb Protection:
present

manicae arm protection and greaves for lower-leg protection existed in earlier period. [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 42, 45)


Leather Cloth:
present

used in preceding polity in shields [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 43)



Ridged or bowl [1]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 222)


Chainmail:
present

[1] [2]

[1]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 221)

[2]: [21]


Breastplate:
present

Iron breastplates used during the Principate. [1]

[1]: (unrv.com, 2013 [20])


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

The standard warship was a trireme, a ship with three banks of oars, and equipped with rams. "One of the largest naval engagements in Antiquity occurred in 468 when the emperors Anthemius (in the West) and Leo I (in the East) combined forces to send an invasion fleet of 1,113 ships, each reputedly with 100 men aboard, against the Vandal kingdom of Carthage. The king of the Vandals Geiseric engaged the Romans off of Cap Bon (Tunisia) with a fleet of 600 ships. In the ensuing battle, the Vandals’ use of fire ships proved decisive, destroying about half of the Roman fleet." [1] 400 CE Imperial fleet of Arcadius. [2]

[1]: (http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh381/late_roman_barbarian_militaries.htm)

[2]: (D’Amato 2009, 6-7)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

Transport vessels existed. [1]

[1]: [22]



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions