Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Peiligang

D G SC WF EQ 2020  cn_peiligang / CnPeili

Preceding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

Succeeding:
5000 BCE 3000 BCE Yangshao (cn_yangshao)    [None]
Add one more here.

The Peiligang culture existed from 7000 to 5000 BC in the Yi-Luo river basin of the Middle Yellow River Valley (modern Henan Province, China). There have been over 100 sites along river banks identified with this Neolithic culture. [1]
Archaeologists have found bone and stone tools and ceramics from the period as well as weapons including harpoons with bone points, stone spears, and arrows which suggests evidence of the use of bows during this time.
The people of the Peiligang culture hunted deer and wild boar and fished using nets. Animal husbandry was also practiced, with pigs, dogs and possibly chickens being reared. [1] Stone tools were used for harvesting millet. Pottery that has been unearthed – some of the oldest pottery found in China - was using for cooking and food storage.
Little is known about the settlements and hierarchies during this period, but archaeologists generally agree that it was an egalitarian society with little to no political organisation and that settlements were small and self-sufficient. [1]

[1]: (Liu, 2005. 25)Li Liu. 2005. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,000 BCE ➜ 5,001 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Preceding Entity:
Succeeding: Yangshao (cn_yangshao)    [None]  
Language
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,000 to 4,000] people  
Polity Territory:
-  
Polity Population:
-  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1  
Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
absent  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
present  
absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred absent  
  Long Wall:
inferred absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
unknown  
  Polearm:
inferred absent  
  Dagger:
inferred absent  
  Battle Axe:
inferred absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
inferred present  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Peiligang (cn_peiligang) was in:
 (7000 BCE 5001 BCE)   Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[7,000 BCE ➜ 5,001 BCE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Preceding Entity:
Peiligang [cn_peiligang] ---> Yangshao [cn_yangshao]

[1]

[1]: (Peregrine in Peregrine and Ember 2001, 283)


Language
Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[1,000 to 4,000] people

Estimate based on 50-200 inhabitants per hectare. Tanghu is the largest Peiligang settlement that has been discovered. [1] Peregrine (2001: 283) writes that settlements were between 10,000 and 20,000 square meters. [2]

[1]: (Zhang et al. 2012: e52146) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WVR8Q6DM.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Polity Territory:
-

in squared kilometers. Likely unknown.


Polity Population:
-

Likely unknown.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
1

levels. "No settlement hierarchy may be observed." (Liu 2005: 163) Larger sites on the alluvial plains and smaller sites in hilly areas". [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY $ https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H.


Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

Peiligang had no government or chiefs. There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure. [1]

[1]: (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.


Law
Specialized Buildings: polity owned

There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. [1] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining. [2]

[1]: (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.

There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. [1] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining. [2]

[1]: (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.



Food Storage Site:
present

There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. [1] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining. [2]

[1]: (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.

Food Storage Site:
absent

There was a pile-dwelling in Jiahu Phase I that was not a residence. [1] No ritual or domestic artifacts were found under the structure which signals that it might be a communal space. However, Peregrine (2001: 284) writes that households were independent and self-sustaining. [2]

[1]: (Liu 2005: 75) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q77FKW2H?.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 284) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Information / Money
Information / Postal System
Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Military use of Metals

Bone and stone tools; ceramics. [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


Bone and stone tools; ceramics. [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


Bone and stone tools; ceramics. [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


Bone and stone tools; ceramics. [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 142: 146: 148) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Technology first seen in Warring States period [1]

[1]: (Liang 2005)


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Earliest references to siege weaponry are from the Warring States Period [1]

[1]: (Liang 2005)



Arrows with bone points point to evidence of some type of bow. [1] Composite bow not known to have been developed at this early time.

[1]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Harpoons with bone points. [1] Stone spears existed in the Neolithic, however, according to Sawyer (2011) the"Spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang." [2] More research needed.

[1]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.

[2]: (Sawyer 2011: 428) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RTEZZDY8.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Gunpowder not invented for another few thousand years.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Earliest evidence of cannons and firearms is in the Song. [1]

[1]: (Liang 2005)


Technology first seen in Warring States period [1]

[1]: (Liang 2005)


Composite Bow:
absent

Composite bow not known to have been developed at this early time.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

Likely unknown.



Harpoons with bone points. [1] Stone spears existed in the Neolithic, however, according to Sawyer (2011) the"Spear appears to have remained relatively uncommon prior to the late Shang.";(Sawyer 2011: 428) Seshat URL: EXTERNAL_INLINE_LINK: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RTEZZDY8 .; More research needed.

[1]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Not mentioned in sources.


Microlithic knives used as tools, no mention of knives used as weapons in sources. [1] [2]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 143) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Battle Axe:
absent

Stone axes used as tools, no mention of axes used as weapons in sources. [1] [2]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 143) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.

[2]: (Peregrine 2001: 283) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QUL2KD3Z.


Animals used in warfare

"Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals." [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


"Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals." [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


"Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals." [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


"Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals." [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


"Dogs and pigs were the domesticated animals." [1]

[1]: (Liu and Chen 2012: 144, 107) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DE5TU7HY.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Scaled Armor:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Plate Armor:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Limb Protection:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Leather Cloth:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Breastplate:
absent

Widespread use of armor seems to have developed alongside rise of large infantry forces only in Warring States period, 5th c. BCE. [1] [2]

[1]: (Dien 1981) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F82EE9ZF.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/CSPZPNV5?.


Naval technology

Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.