Home Region:  Pakistan (South Asia)

Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period

EQ 2020  pk_kachi_proto_historic / PkProto

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley. [1] Here, the settlement of Pirak was established not long after the beginning of the second millennium BCE, and it was continuously occupied from that time up until the sixth or seventh century BCE. Here we consider Pirak II and III, that is, the phases of Pirak’s occupation that go from the end of the second millennium to the middle of the first millennium BCE. [2] It seems very likely that Pirak was part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains. [3] Notable archaeological finds from the site at this time include terracotta seals, horse and camel figurines, and zoomorphic game pieces, and the site’s architecture and agricultural infrastructure is somewhat reminiscent of the Indus Valley Civilization. [4]
Population and political organization
Not much appears to be known about Pirak’s political organization, although the retrieval of terracotta seals [5] suggests perhaps the existence of some form of bureaucracy.
The scholarly literature does not provide population estimates.

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[2]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 32-33) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[3]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 45-46) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[4]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 33-36) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

[5]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 36) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
42 R  
Original Name:
Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period  
Capital:
unknown  
Alternative Name:
Pirak II  
Pirak III  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,300 BCE ➜ 500 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Succeeding Entity:
Achaemenid Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Post-Urban Period  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
unknown  
Language:
unknown  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Population:
[450 to 1,800] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
unknown  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown  
Examination System:
unknown  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred absent  
Judge:
inferred absent  
Formal Legal Code:
unknown  
Court:
inferred absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Canal:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
inferred present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred present 800 BCE
unknown 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
unknown  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
unknown 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred present 800 BCE
unknown 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred present 800 BCE
unknown 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred present 800 BCE
unknown 799 BCE 500 BCE
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
absent 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred absent 800 BCE
absent 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Plate Armor:
absent 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred absent 800 BCE
absent 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
unknown  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
unknown  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown 1300 BCE 801 BCE
inferred present 800 BCE
unknown 799 BCE 500 BCE
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period (pk_kachi_proto_historic) was in:
 (1300 BCE 551 BCE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,300 BCE ➜ 500 BCE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
unknown [---]

Unclear. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains [1]

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 45-46) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.


Supracultural Entity:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

Unclear. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains [1]

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 45-46) Jean-Francois Jarrige and Jean-Francois Enault. 1976. Fouilles de Pirak. Arts Asiatiques 32: 29-70.






Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Population:
[450 to 1,800] people

Assuming 50-200 people per ha and 9 ha, we have an estimate of 450-1800. “The extent of the built up areas [of Pirak] remains practically constant, almost 9 hectares, and the apparent conservatism of the material culture are factors that bear witness to an undeniable stability of the settlement.” [1] but "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind." [2] . Although, the material culture found at Pirak has also been uncovered in a much wider area in the north of the Kachi Plain [3] , and as far as southern Central Asia and the Ganges valley. [4] The population of Pirak has not been estimated. [5] [6]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p390

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.p388

[3]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard. p389

[4]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p355

[5]: Jarrige, J-F. (1997) From Nausharo to Pirak: Continuity and Change in the Kachi/Bolan Region from the 3rd to the 2nd Millennium BC. In, Allchin, R. and Allchin, B. (eds) South Asian Archaeology, 1995, volume I. The Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge., pp 11-32.

[6]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

Inferred. Pirak is the best-preserved site in the Kachi Plain from this time. Although other sites such as Pathani Damb have also been found, it is difficult to estimate their extent due to the poor preservation of the site. “Although no systematic surveys have been carried out in the Kachi plain, it appears that this region lying between highland Baluchistan and the Indus valley was occupied without break by sizable settlements throughout the second and into the first millennium BC.” [1] [2]

[1]: Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362. p346

[2]: Jarrige, J-F. (1979) Fouilles de Pirak. Paris : Diffusion de Boccard.p390


Administrative Level:
[1 to 2]

levels. Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Professions
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production. [1] There is one building that might have fulfilled some sort of administrative role during Pirak II. PK.C building complex surrounded by monumental wall, with, inside seals and seal impressions [2] .

[1]: (Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins: Jan 2017)

[2]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Merit Promotion:
unknown

Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least [1] . Neither archaeology nor written documents shed light on this particular variable.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
unknown

Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Examination System:
unknown

Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least [1] . Neither archaeology nor written documents shed light on this particular variable.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

[1]

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


[1]

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Formal Legal Code:
unknown

There is no archaeological evidence for this either [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


[1]

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Suggested by evidence for long-distance trade [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Irrigation System:
present

Based on plant remains, including rice suggests a certain degree of control over water to produce food. Also reported discovery of large channel running along western side of Pirak during Pirak IA [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Food Storage Site:
present

Pirak; circular silos on the bottom of which remains of cereals found [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Based on plant remains, including rice suggests a certain degree of control over water to produce food. Also reported discovery of large channel running along western side of Pirak during Pirak IA [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)


Transport Infrastructure

Evidence for town planning during Pirak II at least [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017)



Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Clay for ceramics would have been extracted from quarries.


Information / Writing System



Nonwritten Record:
present

Terracotta seals. [1] [2]

[1]: (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 33-36) Jarrige, Jean-François, and Jean-François Enault. 1976. “Fouilles de Pirak - Baluchistan.” Arts Asiatiques 32 (1):29-70. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q32UJUPX.

[2]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, February 2017.



Information / Kinds of Written Documents









Information / Money




Information / Postal System


Courier:
unknown

No archaeological evidence.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Military use of Metals

Ed: Steel may have been produced in the region of modern India at earliest toward the end of this period.


From beginning of Pirak III, iron weapons but not agricultural implements. First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used chariots. [1]

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.


Copper:
present

On same level as Pirak III iron weapons, bronze and copper arrowheads.


Bronze:
present

On same level as Pirak III iron weapons, bronze and copper arrowheads. First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used chariots. [1]

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.


Projectiles


Sling:
unknown
1300 BCE 801 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Sling:
present
800 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Sling:
unknown
799 BCE 500 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Self Bow:
present

“At Pirak, (Jarrige and Santoni 1989:400) a handful of bone points in the early, Chalcolithic, stratum contrasts with mass-produced square-sectioned and tanged bone points/arrows in iron-using Period III - debitage pieces occur here in the thousands.” [1] Arrowheads found in archaeological contexts. [2] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [3] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [4] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [6] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [7] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ratnagar, S. (2007) Markers and Shapers, Early Indian technology in the household, village and urban workshop. Tulika Books: New Delhi. p198

[2]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[3]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[7]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1] First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used javelins. [2] Javelins presumably thrown from war elephants. If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [3] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Jarrige 2000: 353) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/R7PUFAT5/q/jarrige.

[2]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1] First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used javelins. [2] Javelins presumably thrown from war elephants. If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [3] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Jarrige 2000: 353) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/R7PUFAT5/q/jarrige.

[2]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.





Composite Bow:
absent

Developed later.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
unknown
1300 BCE 801 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

War Club:
present
800 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

War Club:
unknown
799 BCE 500 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Bronze swords [is this a typo - swords?] found in archaeological contexts. [1] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [2] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [3] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [4] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [5] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[5]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [2] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [3] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [4] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [5] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Jarrige 2000: 353) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/R7PUFAT5/q/jarrige.

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[5]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Polearm:
absent

Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.” [1]

[1]: (Jarrige 2000: 353) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/R7PUFAT5/q/jarrige.


Dagger:
present

Blades found in archaeological contexts [1] . If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [2] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [3] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [4] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [5] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[5]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Battle Axe:
present

Bronze axes found in archaeological contexts [1] . If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [2] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [3] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [4] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [5] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[5]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

Figurines found in archaeological contexts depict horsemen. [1] First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used horses. [2] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [3] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [4] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [2] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[3]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Elephant:
unknown
1300 BCE 801 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used elephants. [1] In the 9th century BCE king Stabrobates of India used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?). [2] Elephants used in warfare in India since at least 1000 BCE. [3] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [4] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [1] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Elephant:
present
800 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used elephants. [1] In the 9th century BCE king Stabrobates of India used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?). [2] Elephants used in warfare in India since at least 1000 BCE. [3] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [4] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [1] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Elephant:
unknown
799 BCE 500 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used elephants. [1] In the 9th century BCE king Stabrobates of India used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?). [2] Elephants used in warfare in India since at least 1000 BCE. [3] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [4] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [1] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [6] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Donkey:
present

(From the ’Historical Dictionary of Ancient India’) Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey." [1]

[1]: (Roy ed. 2009, 17) Kumkum Roy. ed. 2009. Historical Dictionary of Ancient India. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham.


Skeletal remains of dogs found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare [1] .

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017


Camel:
unknown
1300 BCE 801 BCE

Skeletal remains of camels found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare [1] - but at least from the time of war elephants had been developed camels could have been used to carry baggage? "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC." [2] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [3] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [4] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [6] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km. [7] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[7]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Camel:
present
800 BCE

Skeletal remains of camels found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare [1] - but at least from the time of war elephants had been developed camels could have been used to carry baggage? "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC." [2] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [3] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [4] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [6] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km. [7] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[7]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Camel:
unknown
799 BCE 500 BCE

Skeletal remains of camels found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare [1] - but at least from the time of war elephants had been developed camels could have been used to carry baggage? "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC." [2] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [3] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [4] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [5] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [6] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km. [7] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[5]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[6]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[7]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Shield:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Scaled Armor:
absent
1300 BCE 801 BCE
Scaled Armor:
absent
800 BCE
Scaled Armor:
absent
799 BCE 500 BCE

Plate Armor:
absent
1300 BCE 801 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Plate Armor:
absent
800 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Plate Armor:
absent
799 BCE 500 BCE

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Limb Protection:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces. According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specific expert) "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points." [6]

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[6]: (Gabriel 2007, 79) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Helmet:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.



Breastplate:
unknown

If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C." [1] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE? [2] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from ’India’. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India). [3] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?). [4] If king Stabrobates’s polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [5] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

[1]: (Ahmed 2014, 64) Mukhtar Ahmed. 2014. Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History: Volume V: The End of the Harappan Civilization, and the Aftermath. Foursome Group.

[2]: (Mayor 2014, 289) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Kistler 2007, 18) John M Kistler. 2007. War Elephants. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln.

[4]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Naval technology

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown
1300 BCE 801 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a presumed 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used riverboats: 4000 river boats made out of reeds "for along its rivers and marshy places India produces a great abundance of reeds, so large in diameter that a man cannot easily put his arms about them; and it is said, furthermore, that ships built of these are exceedingly serviceable, since this wood does not rot." [1] Actually Diodorus Siculus in this passage suggests Kachi Plain/Indus river may have been possessed by the Assyrians or contested: "For the Indus river, by reason of its being the largest in that region and the boundary of her kingdom, required many boats, some for the passage across and others from which to defend the former from the Indians; and since there was no timber near the river the boats had to be brought from Bactriana by land." [1] Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [2] which places the Indus region in reach of Assyrian forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present
800 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a presumed 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used riverboats: 4000 river boats made out of reeds "for along its rivers and marshy places India produces a great abundance of reeds, so large in diameter that a man cannot easily put his arms about them; and it is said, furthermore, that ships built of these are exceedingly serviceable, since this wood does not rot." [1] Actually Diodorus Siculus in this passage suggests Kachi Plain/Indus river may have been possessed by the Assyrians or contested: "For the Indus river, by reason of its being the largest in that region and the boundary of her kingdom, required many boats, some for the passage across and others from which to defend the former from the Indians; and since there was no timber near the river the boats had to be brought from Bactriana by land." [1] Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [2] which places the Indus region in reach of Assyrian forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown
799 BCE 500 BCE

First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a presumed 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used riverboats: 4000 river boats made out of reeds "for along its rivers and marshy places India produces a great abundance of reeds, so large in diameter that a man cannot easily put his arms about them; and it is said, furthermore, that ships built of these are exceedingly serviceable, since this wood does not rot." [1] Actually Diodorus Siculus in this passage suggests Kachi Plain/Indus river may have been possessed by the Assyrians or contested: "For the Indus river, by reason of its being the largest in that region and the boundary of her kingdom, required many boats, some for the passage across and others from which to defend the former from the Indians; and since there was no timber near the river the boats had to be brought from Bactriana by land." [1] Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km [2] which places the Indus region in reach of Assyrian forces.

[1]: Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Complete Works of Diodorus Siculus. Delphi Classics.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 9) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.