Home Region:  Iran (Southwest Asia)

Elam II

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  ir_neo_elam_2 / IrNElm2

Preceding:
[continuity; Elam - Neo-Elamite I] [continuity]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

Our Neo-Elamite II period runs from 743 BCE, when the Elamite king Humban-nikash I came to the throne (according to the Babylonian Chronicle), [1] to 647 BCE, the date of the invasion of Elam and sack of Susa by the Neo-Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. [2] By that time, the Elamite civilization had occupied the highlands of the south-western Iranian plateau and the fertile lowlands of the Susiana plain for almost two millennia.
Population and political organization
The accession of King Humban-nikash I in the 8th century marks the re-emergence of Elam from the ’obscure’ phase of its history: there is an almost complete lack of written evidence for Elamite society, politics and history between c. 1100 and 743 BCE. [3] [4] During the Neo-Elamite II period, in contrast, a combination of archaeological evidence and both local and Mesopotamian written sources has provided historians with a better (if not comprehensive) understanding of Elamite political organization and key events affecting the polity.
The Elamite king exercised power from his seat at Susa through a series of high officials, most of whom were related to him. [5] A governmental body called the ’elders of Elam’, also attested from the Middle Elamite period, exercised independent executive power, perhaps indicating that there were institutional checks on the king’s authority. [6] However, the Neo-Elamite monarchy was unstable and fell prey to frequent coups d’état. [7] This instability was exacerbated by Neo-Assyrian interference, especially after Ashurbanipal began his Elamite campaigns in 653 BCE. [8] It is likely that Elam in this period sometimes functioned as a centralized state but at other times was split into smaller, autonomous kingdoms. [9]
Secure population estimates for the area under Elamite control in this period are lacking.

[1]: (Potts 2004, 263) Potts, D. T. 2004. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WDUEEBGQ.

[2]: (Álvarez-Mon, Garrison and Stronach 2011, 10) Álvarez-Mon, Javier, Mark B. Garrison, and David Stronach. 2011. "Introduction." In Elam and Persia, edited by Javier Álvarez-Mon and Mark B. Garrison, 1-32. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WF4UWMWH.

[3]: (Liverani 2014, 526) Liverani, Marco. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Translated by Soraia Tabatabai. Abingdon: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q.

[4]: (Amiet, Chevalier and Carter 1992, 13) Amiet, Pierre, Nicole Chevalier, and Elizabeth Carter. 1992. "Susa in the Ancient Near East." In The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre, edited by Prudence O. Harper, Joan Aruz, and Françoise Tallon, 1-24. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9KQATXPQ.

[5]: (Liverani 2014, 529) Liverani, Marco. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Translated by Soraia Tabatabai. Abingdon: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q.

[6]: (Henkelman 2008, 17) Henkelman, Wouter. 2008. The Other Gods Who Are: Studies in Elamite-Iranian Acculturation Based on the Persepolis Fortification Texts. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T6UFW9CW.

[7]: (Carter and Stolper 1984, 47) Carter, Elizabeth, and Matthew W. Stolper. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SDF8S3B.

[8]: (Potts 2012, 46) Potts, Daniel T. 2012. "The Elamites." In The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History, edited by Touraj Daryaee, 37-56. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/BEAERFCW.

[9]: (Liverani 2014, 530) Liverani, Marco. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Translated by Soraia Tabatabai. Abingdon: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
39 S  
Original Name:
Elam  
Capital:
Susa  
Madaktu  
Hidalu  
Alternative Name:
Elam - Neo-Elamite II  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[743 BCE ➜ 717 BCE]  
Duration:
[743 BCE ➜ 647 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
vassalage to [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Neo-Assyrian Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [continuity]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
language isolate  
Indo-European  
Language:
Elamite  
native Iranian languages  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[300,000 to 340,000] km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4  
Military Level:
4  
Administrative Level:
[3 to 5]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present  
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown  
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
unknown  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
inferred present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
unknown  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
inferred absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred absent  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
unknown  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Elam II (ir_neo_elam_2) was in:
 (743 BCE 647 BCE)   Susiana
Home NGA: Susiana

General Variables
Identity and Location


Susa was the capital of the early kings. Kudur Nahhunte moved his capital to Madaktu and later, upon the advance of the Assyrians, to Hidalu (Haidala) in the mountains. [1] [2]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.47

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 271

Capital:
Madaktu

Susa was the capital of the early kings. Kudur Nahhunte moved his capital to Madaktu and later, upon the advance of the Assyrians, to Hidalu (Haidala) in the mountains. [1] [2]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.47

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 271

Capital:
Hidalu

Susa was the capital of the early kings. Kudur Nahhunte moved his capital to Madaktu and later, upon the advance of the Assyrians, to Hidalu (Haidala) in the mountains. [1] [2]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.47

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 271


Alternative Name:
Elam - Neo-Elamite II

Neo-Elamite II (743-647 BCE).


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[743 BCE ➜ 717 BCE]

Reign of Humban-nikash I, considered the most stable period of an otherwise unstable kingdom. Sources disagree as to his success: the Assyrian’s claim it as a victory for themselves, while the Babylonians claim victory for Humban-nikash I. Being the least invested in the outcome of the battle, the Babylonian source is generally believed. It suggests he beat the Assyrian’s in battle which lead to a decade of peace. After his death royal political power appears to begin to diffuse to regional power. [1]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.45


Duration:
[743 BCE ➜ 647 BCE]

Neo-Elamite II 743-646 BCE. Neo-Elamite II ends 646 BCE. [1]
Neo-Elamite II (743-647 BCE). The Elamite historical record is very limited, but Neo-Babylonian and Assyrian documents record the presence of Elamite armies in the battles against Assyria dating from around 820 BCE. [2]
640 BCE is generally considered the end of the Neo-Elamite kingdom. Traditional academic belief is that in this year Susa was sacked by the Assyrian army. Ashurbanipal’s texts describe fierce looting of the city. Susa was destroyed and the Neo- Elamite Kingdom ended. [3] However, more evidence is appearing to suggest that the Elamite Kingdom may have continued after the attacks of 640 BCE. For example, a few names of what are thought to be post 640 BCE Elamite kings are known. [4] Also, archaeological evidence of material culture does not show any discontinuity over this period . [5] 3. what is the archaeological evidence? be specific if specifics are available so what the code is based on is obvious. however - specifics aren’t always available so if they’re not available write what you can.
Evidence of continuity: the Assyrian sack of Susa ’has dominated the traditional interpretative model for the end of Elamite civilization. However, the material, textual, and artistic assemblages at Susa, together with the reliefs from Izeh/Malamir (KF [Kul-e Farah] I, c.650-550 BC), Naqsh-e Rustam (c.674-626 BC), and the elite material from Arjan (c.600-570 BC) and Ram Hormuz (c.585-539 BC) provide evidence of the survival of Elamite political power, culture, and traditions after the Assyrian raids on western Elam.’ [6]

[1]: (Potts 2016, 249) Potts, D T. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.44-45

[3]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.52

[4]: Henkelman, W. 2003. Persians, Medes and Elamites: Acculturation in the Neo-Elamite Period. In Lanfranchi, E. B. et al (eds) Continuity of Empire: Assyria, Media and Persia. Padua: SARGON p.74-75

[5]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.182

[6]: (Álvarez-Mon 2013, 472) Javier Álvarez-Mon. 2013. ’Elam in the Iron Age’, in The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, edited by Daniel T. Potts, 457-77. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

alliance: 820-653 BCE; vassalage: 653-640 BCE Neo Elamites were widely referred to as allies of Babylonia against the Assyria Empire. [1] In 653 BCE the Assyrian army defeated the Elamite army and beheaded the king; thereafter, Elamite became a vassal state to Assyria, with an appointed Assyrian on the Elamite throne. [2]

[1]: Hinz, W. 1972. The Lost World of Elam: Re-creation of a Vanished Civilization. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. p.138

[2]: Potts, D.T. 2012. ’The Elamites’, in Daryaee, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 46

Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

alliance: 820-653 BCE; vassalage: 653-640 BCE Neo Elamites were widely referred to as allies of Babylonia against the Assyria Empire. [1] In 653 BCE the Assyrian army defeated the Elamite army and beheaded the king; thereafter, Elamite became a vassal state to Assyria, with an appointed Assyrian on the Elamite throne. [2]

[1]: Hinz, W. 1972. The Lost World of Elam: Re-creation of a Vanished Civilization. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. p.138

[2]: Potts, D.T. 2012. ’The Elamites’, in Daryaee, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 46


Succeeding Entity:
Neo-Assyrian Empire

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity

"Even so and despite their isolation from the aggressive Mesopotamians, the inhabitants of Fars were eventually to suffer new pressures from Iranian migrants moving down from the north. Whether or not the coming of the Iranians caused the divided provinces of Elam to support the rise of a new centralized authority in south-west Iran is a question which cannot be answered on present evidence. Whatever the reason, by c.742 BC Humbannikash I had become king of an apparently reconstituted Elamite federation." [1]

[1]: (Hansman 1985, 30-31)


Preceding Entity:
Elam - Neo-Elamite I

"Even so and despite their isolation from the aggressive Mesopotamians, the inhabitants of Fars were eventually to suffer new pressures from Iranian migrants moving down from the north. Whether or not the coming of the Iranians caused the divided provinces of Elam to support the rise of a new centralized authority in south-west Iran is a question which cannot be answered on present evidence. Whatever the reason, by c.742 BC Humbannikash I had become king of an apparently reconstituted Elamite federation." [1]

[1]: (Hansman 1985, 30-31)


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

unitary state: 820-693 BCE; confederated state: 693-640 BCE In 693 BCE, the new king Kudur Nahhunte relocated his residence from Susa to Madaktu, likely a marginal stronghold, and later Hidalu. These areas had little administrative power and as a result local autonomy increased significantly throughout the rest of the Neo-Elamite Kingdom. [1] [2] Liveracki suggests that the Assyrian king set three Median princes as kings in the three capitals (Susa, Madaktu and Hidalu) after the battle of 653 BCE, thus further dispersing power. [3]
"Without exaggeration, the Elamite federated system of government can be considered as perhaps the earliest formal federalism on a large scale in history." [4]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.47

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259

[3]: Liveraki, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.530

[4]: (Farazmand 2009, 21-22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

unitary state: 820-693 BCE; confederated state: 693-640 BCE In 693 BCE, the new king Kudur Nahhunte relocated his residence from Susa to Madaktu, likely a marginal stronghold, and later Hidalu. These areas had little administrative power and as a result local autonomy increased significantly throughout the rest of the Neo-Elamite Kingdom. [1] [2] Liveracki suggests that the Assyrian king set three Median princes as kings in the three capitals (Susa, Madaktu and Hidalu) after the battle of 653 BCE, thus further dispersing power. [3]
"Without exaggeration, the Elamite federated system of government can be considered as perhaps the earliest formal federalism on a large scale in history." [4]

[1]: Carter, E. and Stopler, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Press. p.47

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259

[3]: Liveraki, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.530

[4]: (Farazmand 2009, 21-22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Language
Linguistic Family:
language isolate
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Elamite

From the re-emergence of the Elamite Kingdom the Susian plane was occupied by people speaking a number of native languages. [1] In later periods the written Elamite shows close links with what would become the Persian language. [2] "The Elamite written language was used as the official language in the bureaucracy for a long time, rivaling the Sumerian and Akkadian languages even over a thousand years later, during the Old Persian Empire of the Achaemenids." [3]

[1]: Stolpher, M.W. 2008. Elamite. In Woodard, R. D.(ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.49-50

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259

[3]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Language:
native Iranian languages

From the re-emergence of the Elamite Kingdom the Susian plane was occupied by people speaking a number of native languages. [1] In later periods the written Elamite shows close links with what would become the Persian language. [2] "The Elamite written language was used as the official language in the bureaucracy for a long time, rivaling the Sumerian and Akkadian languages even over a thousand years later, during the Old Persian Empire of the Achaemenids." [3]

[1]: Stolpher, M.W. 2008. Elamite. In Woodard, R. D.(ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.49-50

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259

[3]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[300,000 to 340,000] km2

in squared kilometers. There is little evidence to be certain of the extent of Elamite rule. For example, cities in the eastern highlands wrote in a form of Elamite, but it is not known whether they were under the control of the Elamite kings. [1]

[1]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 259


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
4

levels.
1. Large cities. Susa. Madaktu, identified as Tepe Patak, a 6 ha site, although this is debated [1]
2. Small cities. In his annals Sennacherib (an Assyrian king) describes destroying the ’strong cities’ and the ’small cities’ [2] . This infers heirarchy between different cities.3. towns4. villages
According to Quintana, there were 14 royal cities (main cities), with their territories; 12 districts and 20 cities near the boundary with Hidalu. "En su saqueo del territorio elamita, allá por el año 646 a.C., nos dice que destruyó 14 ciudades reales, es decir principales, con sus territorios, 12 distritos y 20 ciudades de la frontera con Hidalu, en una distancia de 60 beru (entre 650 y 700 kms): “asolé Elam hasta su más lejana frontera,” dice. Otro texto del mismo rey asegura: “todo el país de Elam abatí como un diluvio,” confirmando así que recorrió todo el territorio elamita (Weidner 1931-32: 3)." [3]
Names of the royal cities: " Así podemos ver mencionadas las ciudades de Bitimbi, Naditu, Bit- bunaku, Hartabanu, Tubula, Madaktu, Haltemas, Susa, Dinsarri, Sumuntunas, Pidilma, Bubilu, Albinak, Duruntas, Hamanu, etc.11 Como las ciudades más fundamentales, es decir como ca- pitales o residencias reales nos encontramos con Madaktu.12 Luego están Susa, Bubilu y Hidalu que tiene su propio rey." [4]

[1]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 272

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 271

[3]: (Quintana 2011, 169-170)

[4]: (Quintana 2011, 170)


Military Level:
4

levels. [1]
1. General
2. ’tashlishu-official’3. Commanders4. Individual Soldiers (predominantly bowmen)

[1]: Brinkman, J. A. 1986. The Elamite-Babylonian frontier in the Neo-Elamite Period, 750-625 BC. In DeMeyer, Gasche and Vallat (eds.) Fragmenta Historia Elamica, Festschrift, p199-207


Administrative Level:
[3 to 5]

According to Quintana, there were 14 royal cities (main cities), with their territories; 12 districts and 20 cities near the boundary with Hidalu. "En su saqueo del territorio elamita, allá por el año 646 a.C., nos dice que destruyo 14 ciudades reales, es decir principales, con sus territorios, 12 distritos y 20 ciudades de la frontera con Hidalu, en una distancia de 60 beru (entre 650 y 700 kms): "asole Elam hasta su mas lejana frontera," dice. Otro texto del mismo rey asegura: “todo el pais de Elam abati como un diluvio,” confirmando así que recorrió todo el territorio elamita (Weidner 1931-32: 3)." [1]
1. King
2. Provincial districts

[1]: (Quintana 2011, 169-170)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

[1] Difficult to say that the Elamite soldiers were employed full time, but they were known in Mesopotamia for being good bowmen, which might imply professionalism.

[1]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p.268


Professional Priesthood:
present

In the destruction of Elam, in particular Susa, by the Assyrians, written accounts describe ’gods and goddesses, their ritual paraphernalia and their priesthood’ being captured for Assyria. [1] "Religion strongly flourished in ancient Elam, where the female Great Goddess was considered to be very powerful and equivalent to the male God. In addition, certain kings of Elam were also elevated to the level of ’Messenger of God,’ ’regent,’ and ruler on earth. It also appears that Elamites had some conceptions of an ’after-life, in which various burial gifts would be of use.’ Administration of Elam was developed and reflected both secular and religious aspects of law, politics and government." [2] -- period not specified. could be general reference to whole period.

[1]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p.284

[2]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Professional Military Officer:
present

[1] Commanders and Generals referred to in texts.

[1]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p.273


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

"The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires." [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 21) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Merit Promotion:
absent

"The old characteristic of the sukkal-mah is not attested anymore, or at least is not as visible. However, it is still possible to see a system in which the ruling king (residing in Susa) was surrounded by a series of high functionaries. These were all more or less his relatives, ruled over regions and cities, and were involved in the succession to the throne." [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 529) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires." [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 21) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Examination System:
absent

"The old characteristic of the sukkal-mah is not attested anymore, or at least is not as visible. However, it is still possible to see a system in which the ruling king (residing in Susa) was surrounded by a series of high functionaries. These were all more or less his relatives, ruled over regions and cities, and were involved in the succession to the throne." [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 529) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
unknown


Formal Legal Code:
present

"Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the development and use of an advanced legal system - Elamite Penal Law, Civil Law, and Administrative Law." [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.



Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers" [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Irrigation System:
present

"Ruins of reservoirs have been discovered along with water intakes, spillways and outlets and even the sewerage systems dating as far back as the Pre-Archaemenid and Assyrian (1500-600 BC) periods." [1] "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the development and management of a gigantic system of underground canals (Qanat) for irrigation" [2]

[1]: (Mahmoudian and Mahmoudian 2012, 97) Angelakis A N, Mays L W, Koutsoyiannis, D. 2012.Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[2]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Transport Infrastructure

In the year 694 BCE Hallusu-Insusinak invaded Babylonia using the usual road and took Sennacherib’s son as prisoner. [1] "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers" [2]

[1]: (Diakonoff 1985, 21)

[2]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Bridge:
present

"Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers" [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

 : Shutruk-Nahhunte (699-693 BCE) "royal inscriptions reappeared in Susa and in the monumental complex of Malamir, a mountain pass midway between Susa and Esfahan." [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 528) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Script:
present

cuneiform. Elamites developed their own script [1] "the proto-Elamite script - the designation applied to the earliest pictographic stage in contrast with the later Elamite linear script." [1]

[1]: (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Nonwritten Record:
present

 : Shutruk-Nahhunte (699-693 BCE) "royal inscriptions reappeared in Susa and in the monumental complex of Malamir, a mountain pass midway between Susa and Esfahan." [1]

[1]: (Leverani 2014, 528) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Mnemonic Device:
present

In neighbouring Mesopotamia c2200 BCE: "The Akkadians invented the abacus as a tool for counting" [1]

[1]: J J O’Connor, J J. Robertson, E F. December 2000. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Babylonian_mathematics.html


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Lists Tables and Classification:
present

"Apart from this ’Chronicle’, there exists some Neo-Elamite inscriptions of the late 8th and the 7th centuries BC, a few documents in Elamite from the same period (mostly concerning loans and not very informative) and an archive of the shops of the royal craftsmen, dating from the very end of the existence of independent Elam, viz. the 6th century BC." [1]

[1]: (Diakonoff 1985, 19)


Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
absent

"Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [1]

[1]: (Powell 1996, 225-226)


Foreign Coin:
absent

"Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [1]

[1]: (Powell 1996, 225-226)


Article:
present

inferred continuity with earlier and later periods


Information / Postal System

General Postal Service:
unknown

Present in the second millennium BCE but not mentioned for the Neo Elamite period.

Present in the second millennium BCE but not mentioned for the Neo Elamite period.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
unknown

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart". [1]

[1]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers. [1] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone." [2]

[1]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 468

[2]: The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers. [1] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone." [2] Mortar existed at the time of Sumer because they also built with brick which would have required mortar. Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "Now Aratta’s battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows." [3] During the Shutrukid Period new construction activity replaced mudbrick with glazed and baked brick (but no specific mention is made of defensive structures). [4] "Like the Assyrian walls on which they are modeled, Persian walls were built of air-dried brick". [5]

[1]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 468

[2]: The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.

[3]: Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.

[4]: (Bryce 2009, 676). Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. Abingdon.

[5]: (Semper 2004, 754-755) Gottfried Semper. 2004. Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts; Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Publications. Los Angeles.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Late Bronze, Early Iron Age: ‘Large fortresses occupied mountain spurs at strategic points, and smaller forts were built along important lines of communication’. [1] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "the fortress is too high and cannot be reached". [2] If forts were positioned on hills were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and in Elam in c1000 BCE it is likely they also were used between times, and possibly after.

[1]: Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 368

[2]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.



The ancient city of Madaktu in Elam was moated at the time of Assurbanipal (668-631 BCE) of Assyria. [1]

[1]: (Russell 2017, 490) John M Russell. Assyrian Art. Eckart Frahm. ed. 2017. A Companion to Assuria. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Hoboken.


Fortified Camp:
unknown

No reference.


Earth Rampart:
present

Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam. [1] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart". [2] The unfinished city of Chogha Zanbil began by Elamite king Untash-napirisha (1275-1240 BCE) had a section "designated as the royal city, covers an area of c. 85 ha, lying to the east of the temenos, and protected by a rampart." [3] Later, after c500 BCE?, the Achaemenids built a long rammed mud defensive wall (the Kam Pirak). [4] Earth ramparts are a known defensive fortification c2000 BCE and c500 BCE and there is also a reference to them being used during the Elamite period. They seem to be a consistent feature of the architectural landscape over the period.

[1]: (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.

[3]: (Bryce 2009, 160-163). Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. Abingdon.

[4]: (Ball 2001, 315) Warwick Ball. 2001. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. Routledge. London.


Irrigation ditches referred to frequently in late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian texts but I cannot find any in the context of a fortification. [1]

[1]: Ninurta’s exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.


Complex Fortification:
unknown

In the north-west of Persia by c800 BCE: "Double and triple stone walls, with a thickness of 3.6 m and a height of 12 m, surrounded some cities" [1] - present for that region at that time; however this is not a direct reference to the Elamite region.

[1]: (Hejazi and Saradj 2015, 6) Mehrdad Hejazi. Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj. 2015. Persian Architectural Heritage: Architecture, Structure and Conservation. WITPress. Southampton.



Military use of Metals

no mention of this technology in the sources


Iron’s use had become widespread throughout the region by now [1] . Copper and Iron weaponry found in Neo-Elamite territory dating to the early 7th century [2] Archaeologists have dated Iron Age Period III to 800-500 BCE. [3] Luristan borders Susiana region to the NW. Here Vanden Berghe divided the Iron Age into three periods 1000-800/750 BCE in which bronze and iron used together and 800/750-600 BCE when weapons were made from iron and ritual articles from bronze. [4]

[1]: Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 331

[2]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 461-2

[3]: (Potts 2016, 251) D T Potts. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Kuz’mina 2007, 368) Elena E Kuz’mina. J P Mallory ed. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. Leiden.


Copper and Iron weaponry found in Neo-Elamite territory dating to the early 7th century [1]

[1]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 461-2


‘Bronze was still used for expendable weapons such as arrowheads, however, indicating that the value of iron remained high.’ [1]

[1]: Bruno Overlaet, ‘Luristan During the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 381


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records. [1] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [2] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE. [3] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did. [4] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [5] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons. [6] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.

[1]: Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300

[2]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[3]: (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.

[5]: (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley

[6]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.


Before the Archaemenid king Cyrus (c600 BCE), Persian light infantry carried only the bow and sling. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 162-1643 Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


"Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [1] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the ’bow’ for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces. [2] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless." [3] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.

[1]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 162-164) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


"Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon." [1] The last reference for the military use of the javelin in this region was Ur. The lament for Sumer and Ur mentions javelins in the battle for Ur c2000 BCE. [2] There now is also an Iron Age reference for the use of the javelin by horse riders: ‘the iconographic emergence of a distinctive equestrian art characterized by a rider on a leaping horse in the act of firing an arrow or throwing a spear at a rearing animal or human.’ [3]

[1]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 59) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: Hamblin, W. J. 2006. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. New York: Routledge.

[3]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 465


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Not invented at this time.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Not invented at this time.


Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting." [1] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE. [2]

[1]: (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.

[2]: (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Composite Bow:
present

"The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards." [1] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments. [2] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads." [1] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders." [3] Elam: ‘the iconographic emergence of a distinctive equestrian art characterized by a rider on a leaping horse in the act of firing an arrow or throwing a spear at a rearing animal or human.’ [4] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the ’bow’ for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces. [5] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless." [2] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.

[1]: (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.

[4]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 465

[5]: (Gabriel 2002, 162-164) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

A mace is depicted on the Apotropaic Plaque [1]

[1]: Carter, E. et al. 1992. The Neo-Elamite Period. In Harper, P. O., Aruz, J. and Tallon, F. (eds.) The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.201


In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle. [1] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier’s primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken." [2] Depicted on the Apotropaic Plaque. [3]

[1]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 63) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: Carter, E. et al. 1992. The Neo-Elamite Period. In Harper, P. O., Aruz, J. and Tallon, F. (eds.) The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.201


Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE. [1] A Neo-Elamite cylinder seal depicts a figure with a spear, however, there is some debate over the origins of the man. He wears clothes similar to those which Herodotus describes as Median. [2] "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon." [3]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: Carter, E. et al. 1992. The Neo-Elamite Period. In Harper, P. O., Aruz, J. and Tallon, F. (eds.) The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.214

[3]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 59) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


This was found in the immediately neighboring and close Luristan region for this period "Horse gear includes horse-harness trappings and horse-bits with decorative cheek-pieces. Arms and equipment include spiked axheads and adzes, halberds, daggers or swords, and whetstone handles." [1]

[1]: Bruno Overlaet, ‘Luristan During the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 385


Depicted on the Apotropaic Plaque [1]

[1]: Carter, E. et al. 1992. The Neo-Elamite Period. In Harper, P. O., Aruz, J. and Tallon, F. (eds.) The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.201


Battle Axe:
present

Bronze axes found in the neighboring polity for this time and had been long present in the region. [1] The war axe evolved after the development of body and head armour. Invented by the Sumerians, the socketed penetrating axe was "one of the most devastating close-combat weapons of the Bronze and Iron ages." [2]

[1]: Bruno Overlaet, ‘Luristan During the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 380-381

[2]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 61) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry: ‘the iconographic emergence of a distinctive equestrian art characterized by a rider on a leaping horse in the act of firing an arrow or throwing a spear at a rearing animal or human.’ [1] ‘Horse gear includes horse-harness trappings and horse-bits with decorative cheek-pieces. Arms and equipment include spiked axheads and adzes, halberds, daggers or swords, and whetstone handles.’ [2]

[1]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 465

[2]: Bruno Overlaet, ‘Luristan During the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 385



The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass ’in more than one place’ but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan. [1] Donkey herder was a profession in Akkadian (c2200 BCE) period Mesopotamia. [2] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)." [3] The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train. [4] Likely to have been used as donkeys appear to have been raised in the wider region at least since Akkadian times. It is possible they were not used frequently, however, as there were other options.

[1]: (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[2]: (Foster 2016, 73-74) Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade. Inventing Empire In Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. London

[3]: (Gabriel 2002, 7) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[4]: (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train. [1]

[1]: (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured. The Archaemenids used cane: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence." [1]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Last reference to shields present is during Ur III c2000 BCE. [1] Next reference for shields is the Archaemenids: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence." [2]

[1]: (Rutkowski 2007 24)Rutkowski, Ł. 2007. Problematyka militarna w Państwie Ur III. In: D. Szeląg (ed.), Historia i kultura państwa III dynastii z Ur. Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 17-28.

[2]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

"Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples." [1] Higher ranks in the Assyrian army (9th century CE?) wore scale armour. [2]

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.

[2]: (Chadwick 2005, 77) Chadwick, R (2005) First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.


Plate Armor:
absent

No mention of plate armour until the Archaemenids who used iron breastplates. [1]

[1]: (Farrokh 2007, 76) Farrokh, K. 2007. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing.


Limb Protection:
unknown

Reference for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply." [1] Reference for Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection. [2] Reference for ’Etruscan Rome’ (400 BCE?): "bronze greaves to protect the shins and forearms of the soldier were standard items of military equipment." [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers’ Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured. Long garments and kilts mentioned possibly in reference to soldiers for Iron Age Elam. [1]

[1]: Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 466


Laminar Armor:
absent

"Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples." [1] No mentioned of laminar armour up to the Medes (715-550 BCE).

[1]: (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.


Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread. [1] Members of Te-Umman’s royal house wore rounded helmets with ear flaps. They were not very effective as Te-Umman’s head was cut off in battle and taken to Nineveh by the Assyrians as war booty and hung in the gardens. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[2]: Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p.280


Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples. [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.


Breastplate:
unknown

Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "May Ninurta, Enlil’s son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast!" [1] In India, cuirasses or breastplates of copper, iron, silver and gold are referenced in the Vedic epic literature. [2] Breastplates are known to have been worn by early Romans [3] and the advanced Greek Cairan armour c600 BCE included the breastplate. [4] In Persia, the Archaemenids (c5th century CE?) are known to have used iron breastplates [5] - did the cavalry of the Medes (715-550 BCE), who preceded them, wear breastplates? Physical evidence for the breastplate does not appear to be common in the ancient world though there appears to be some text references. We also code present on the basis of fabric/textile breastplates which are least likely to survive in archaeological contexts.

[1]: Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.

[2]: Singh, Sarva Daman. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989. p. 116

[3]: (Cornell 1995, 179) Cornell, T.J. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.

[4]: (J G Manning 2015, Personal Communication to Seshat Databanak)

[5]: (Farrokh 2007, 76) Farrokh, K. 2007. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu’abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops. [1] The Achaemenids (from c500 BCE?) possessed possibly the first large-scale militarised naval force [2] (one imagines largely based in the Mediterranean but presumably also some craft in the Persian Gulf) - the fleet consisted of over 600 tiremes that had 170 oarsmen and 30 fighters. [3] Have not found any earlier reference to naval operations occurring on the Persian Gulf that would require fighting ships. Did the Achaemenid fleet come out of nowhere or did it have some smaller-scale precedents in the Neo-Elamite civilization or Sumerian before that? Perhaps most unlikely before the Neo-Elamite Period.

[1]: (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Gabriel 2002, 8) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.

[3]: (Shahbazi 2012, 129) Shahbazi, A Shapour. The Archaemenid Persian Empire (550-330 BCE) Daryaee, Touraj. ed. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford University Press.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu’abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops. [1] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf in all periods. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.

[1]: (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu’abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops. [1] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.

[1]: (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.