Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Western Han Empire

EQ 2020  cn_western_han_dyn / CnWHan*

The Western Han dynasty (also known as the Former Han) was the first lasting imperial dynasty in China. [1] In 206 BCE, the first imperial Han emperor Liu Bang defeated the Qin and capture the capital of Xianyang, but was forced to yield to the rival Western Chu state. [2] A period of conflict between Chu and Han lasted until 202 BCE, when Liu Bang defeated the Western Chu and declared himself emperor of the Han dynasty. (San 68) He was the first commoner to become the emperor of China. [2]
The seventh emperor of Han, Emperor Wu (r. 141-87 BCE), expanded the Western Han territory to modern Xinjiang and south China. [1] During Wu Di’s rule Western Han dynasty encompassed modern China, northern Vietnam, Inner Mongolia, southern Manchuria, and parts of modern Korea. [3]
The Western Han dynasty is known for its economic, technological, and artistic innovations. The opening of the Silk Road in 130 BCE linked China to Central Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. [3] The state controlled the production of salt, iron, and coins, and developed waterways and irrigation. [4] The use of the iron plough and other iron agricultural tools became widespread. [5] Han artisans developed new techniques for metalwork, spinning, weaving, wood carving and pottery. [5]
The Western Han were overthrown by Wang Mang, who ruled as the emperor of the Xin dynasty from 9-23 CE. [6]
Population and political organization
The Western Han dynasty was marked by a strong imperial government and a combination of centrally-controlled commandaries and semi-autonomous kingdoms. [7] The central government promoted Confucianism as a state doctrine. [1] The Western Han gradually reduced the size of the semi-autonomous kingdoms within the empire. Many kings and marquises were eventually replaced by members of the imperial clan. [7] Commanderies were ruled a civil governor and military governor and were divided into counties or districts. [1]
An imperial academy was established in 124 BCE. Qualification through Confucian examinations slowly replaced hereditary assignment of government positions. [6] Although exams were used only sporadically due to the significantly aristocratic society of this period. [8]

The population of the Western Han empire was 57.6 million in 2 CE [9] , and 60 million at its peak. [10] The Western Han capital of Chang’an was home to between 250,000 and 400,000 people. [11] [12]

[1]: (Theobald, 2010a) Theobald, Ulrich. 2010. “Han Dynasty 206 BCE-220 CE.” Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han.html Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GJNWHHCH

[2]: (San 2014, 69) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[3]: -- “Han Dynasty.” Ancient History Encyclopedia.http://www.ancient.eu/Han_Dynasty/ Accessed June 12, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KVCUTKIW

[4]: (Theobald, 2010b) Theobald, Ulrich, 2010. “Han Period Science, Technology, and Inventions.” Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han-tech.html Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RU33Q6WJ/

[5]: (Theobald, 2010b) Theobald, Ulrich, 2010. “Han Period Science, Technology, and Inventions.” Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Han/han-tech.html Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RU33Q6WJ/

[6]: (Roberts 1999, 34) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9

[7]: (San 2014, 73) San, Tan Koon. 2014. Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Malaysia: The Other Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/TB95WB7F)

[8]: (Mostern, Ruth. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)

[9]: (Keay 2009, 144) Keay, J. 2009. China, A History, HarperPress, London. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z4ACHZRD

[10]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press. Seshat URL:https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QBD9EVZQ

[11]: (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)

[12]: (Loewe 1986 a ) Loewe, M. 1986a. "The Former Han," in Twitchett and Loewe (eds.) The Cambridge History of China. Vol. I: The Qi’in and Han Empires, 221 BC - 220 AD. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7NCDWJJ2

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
50 S  
Original Name:
Western Han  
Capital:
Chang 'an  
Alternative Name:
Han Empire  
Former Han  
Han Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
100 BCE  
Duration:
[202 BCE ➜ 9 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]  
vassalage to [---]  
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
China  
Succeeding Entity:
Wang Mang interregnum  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
Imperial Qin  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Sino-Tibetan  
Language:
Chinese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250,000 to 400,000] people  
Polity Territory:
2,433,000 km2 200 BCE
4,567,000 km2 100 BCE
4,917,000 km2 1 CE
Polity Population:
[45,000,000 to 60,000,000] people 200 BCE 9 CE
57,600,000 people 1 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
3  
Military Level:
7  
Administrative Level:
[7 to 8]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent  
Professional Priesthood:
inferred absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
inferred present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
inferred present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
inferred present  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred absent  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
inferred present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
7,200 km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Western Han Empire (cn_western_han_dyn) was in:
 (202 BCE 9 CE)   Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
100 BCE

Reign of Wudi (141-87 BCE) [1] "longest and most glorious." [2] c120 BCE armies reached Ferghana and Parnics. Colonisation of Gnsu panhandle. Trade along silk road. [3]
Peak territorial extent 90 BCE. [4]
99 BCE banditry in eastern China. 91 BCE dynastic crisis at end Wudi’s reign. 81 BCE population hardships. Power struggle c66 BCE virtually eliminated descendants of influential politician Huo Guang. [3]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 36)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 50)

[3]: (Roberts 2003, 51)

[4]: (Keay 2009, 143)


Duration:
[202 BCE ➜ 9 CE]

Keay refers to 209-202 BCE period as Civil War. [1]
Battle of Gaixia - Liu Bang vs Xiang Yu 202 BC. Before battle, king, after battle Liu Bang became emperor. [2] Start 202 BCE. [3]
Liu Bang’s statement on becoming Emperor:"... I am come to rule over you. With you, I further agree on three laws. For murder, death. For injury to person, proportionate punishment. For theft, proportionate punishment. The remainder of the Qin laws to be abrogated. The officials and people will continue to attend to their respective duties as heretofore. My sole object in coming here is to eradicate wrong. I desire to do violence to no one. Fear not." [2]
First Emperor Liu Bang (Emperor Gaozu 206-195 BCE) came to power leading faction that wanted continuation of centralised power but with a more moderate, modernised law system. [4]
206 BCE - 9 CE [5]
Followed by "Wang Mang Interregnum" 9-23 CE. [5]
Empress Wang, mother of Cheng di (33 - 7 BCE). Nephew Wang Mang held office of regent under Emperor Pingd (1 - 6 CE). Wang Mang launched a coup and declared himself Emperor Xin. [6]

[1]: (Keay 2009, 107)

[2]: (Kerr 2013, 35)

[3]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 130)

[4]: (Roberts 2003, 47)

[5]: (Roberts 2003)

[6]: (Roberts 2003, 55)


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
personal union with [---]

Gaozu recognized authority of hereditary Kings ruling 10 territories in eastern and southern China as semi-independent chiefs, providing mainly military support and a portion of the tax revenue they collected to the Han Emperor. Many of these Kings seem to have been relatives of Gaozu and placed in their position by the Emperor to ensure loyalty. [1]
Long-standing alliance, featuring cross-cultural marriage and the exchange of hostages and gifts, created between the Xiongnu and Han China for most of the 2nd century CE; the ’treaty’ was frequently broken and renewed during the later Western Han period. [2]

[1]: (Loewe 1986a,124)

[2]: (Ying-Shih 1986)

Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

Gaozu recognized authority of hereditary Kings ruling 10 territories in eastern and southern China as semi-independent chiefs, providing mainly military support and a portion of the tax revenue they collected to the Han Emperor. Many of these Kings seem to have been relatives of Gaozu and placed in their position by the Emperor to ensure loyalty. [1]
Long-standing alliance, featuring cross-cultural marriage and the exchange of hostages and gifts, created between the Xiongnu and Han China for most of the 2nd century CE; the ’treaty’ was frequently broken and renewed during the later Western Han period. [2]

[1]: (Loewe 1986a,124)

[2]: (Ying-Shih 1986)

Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Gaozu recognized authority of hereditary Kings ruling 10 territories in eastern and southern China as semi-independent chiefs, providing mainly military support and a portion of the tax revenue they collected to the Han Emperor. Many of these Kings seem to have been relatives of Gaozu and placed in their position by the Emperor to ensure loyalty. [1]
Long-standing alliance, featuring cross-cultural marriage and the exchange of hostages and gifts, created between the Xiongnu and Han China for most of the 2nd century CE; the ’treaty’ was frequently broken and renewed during the later Western Han period. [2]

[1]: (Loewe 1986a,124)

[2]: (Ying-Shih 1986)


Supracultural Entity:
China

shared linguistic and material culture between all states in the mainland area (Huaxia)


Succeeding Entity:
Wang Mang interregnum

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2

km.


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

Liu Bang / Gaozu led rebellion to take control of the polity after the death of Qin Empreor Shi Huangdi, replacing many of the former Qin officials and moving the capital from Xianyang, but retaining many Qin institutional features




Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250,000 to 400,000] people

People. Chang ’an.250,000 people given in the historical sources; [1] 400,000 from Chase-Dunn calculations [2]
300,000 at peak. [3]

[1]: (Loewe 1986a, 206)

[2]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[3]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 173) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.


Polity Territory:
2,433,000 km2
200 BCE

KM. 2,433,000: 200 BCE; 2,100,000: 180 BCE; 2,643,000: 160 BCE; 3,186,000: 140 BCE; 3,729,000: 120 BCE; 4,567,000: 100 BCE; 5,700,000: 80 BCE; 5,900,000: 60 BCE; 5,783,000: 40 BCE; 5,350,000: 20 BCE; 4,917,000: 1 CE (in kilometers). Contains interpolated data. [1]
Beginning with a territory of approximately 1.5 million square kilometers. [2]
"The Han culture spread as far as Xinjiang, where Han wuzhu coins, bronze mirrors, and silk have frequently been discovered (fig. 8.36)." [3]
"In 108 B.C.E., Emperor Wu set up four prefectures - Zhenfan, Lintun, Xuantu, and Lelang - in the northeastern region. ... Emperor Wu also set up four jun in Hexi in northwest China and established relationships with the thirty-six states in the Xiyu region of western China." [3]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Chang, Xu, Allan and Lu 2005, 277) Chang, Kwang-chih. Xu, Pingfang. Allan, Sarah. Lu, Liancheng. 2005. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press.

Polity Territory:
4,567,000 km2
100 BCE

KM. 2,433,000: 200 BCE; 2,100,000: 180 BCE; 2,643,000: 160 BCE; 3,186,000: 140 BCE; 3,729,000: 120 BCE; 4,567,000: 100 BCE; 5,700,000: 80 BCE; 5,900,000: 60 BCE; 5,783,000: 40 BCE; 5,350,000: 20 BCE; 4,917,000: 1 CE (in kilometers). Contains interpolated data. [1]
Beginning with a territory of approximately 1.5 million square kilometers. [2]
"The Han culture spread as far as Xinjiang, where Han wuzhu coins, bronze mirrors, and silk have frequently been discovered (fig. 8.36)." [3]
"In 108 B.C.E., Emperor Wu set up four prefectures - Zhenfan, Lintun, Xuantu, and Lelang - in the northeastern region. ... Emperor Wu also set up four jun in Hexi in northwest China and established relationships with the thirty-six states in the Xiyu region of western China." [3]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Chang, Xu, Allan and Lu 2005, 277) Chang, Kwang-chih. Xu, Pingfang. Allan, Sarah. Lu, Liancheng. 2005. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press.

Polity Territory:
4,917,000 km2
1 CE

KM. 2,433,000: 200 BCE; 2,100,000: 180 BCE; 2,643,000: 160 BCE; 3,186,000: 140 BCE; 3,729,000: 120 BCE; 4,567,000: 100 BCE; 5,700,000: 80 BCE; 5,900,000: 60 BCE; 5,783,000: 40 BCE; 5,350,000: 20 BCE; 4,917,000: 1 CE (in kilometers). Contains interpolated data. [1]
Beginning with a territory of approximately 1.5 million square kilometers. [2]
"The Han culture spread as far as Xinjiang, where Han wuzhu coins, bronze mirrors, and silk have frequently been discovered (fig. 8.36)." [3]
"In 108 B.C.E., Emperor Wu set up four prefectures - Zhenfan, Lintun, Xuantu, and Lelang - in the northeastern region. ... Emperor Wu also set up four jun in Hexi in northwest China and established relationships with the thirty-six states in the Xiyu region of western China." [3]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Chang, Xu, Allan and Lu 2005, 277) Chang, Kwang-chih. Xu, Pingfang. Allan, Sarah. Lu, Liancheng. 2005. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press.


Polity Population:
[45,000,000 to 60,000,000] people
200 BCE 9 CE

"Early on in the days of the Han Empire (206 BC - 220 AD) the population passed the 50m mark. But thereafter it was to stay in the band 45-60m for a thousand years. [1]
Government census. 57,600,000 in 2 CE. 12 million family households. [2]
Agricultural intensification: population growth occurred in Former Han despite no increase in available arable land. Population migration to south throughout period. [3]
60,000,000 at zenith. [4]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1979)

[2]: (Keay 2009, 144)

[3]: (Roberts 2003, 43-44)

[4]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

Polity Population:
57,600,000 people
1 CE

"Early on in the days of the Han Empire (206 BC - 220 AD) the population passed the 50m mark. But thereafter it was to stay in the band 45-60m for a thousand years. [1]
Government census. 57,600,000 in 2 CE. 12 million family households. [2]
Agricultural intensification: population growth occurred in Former Han despite no increase in available arable land. Population migration to south throughout period. [3]
60,000,000 at zenith. [4]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1979)

[2]: (Keay 2009, 144)

[3]: (Roberts 2003, 43-44)

[4]: (Zhao 2015, 56) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

1. Capital city2. Commanderie capital3. District capital3. Foreign vassal city (e.g. in Ferghana)4. Town5. Village.
Ruth Mostern (pers. comm) noted that district capital and foreign vassal city seem co-equal rather than one being subordinate to the other. [1]

[1]: (Mostern, Ruth. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)


Religious Level:
3

1. Emperor2. Upper level of ritual specialists inferred3. Lower level of ritual specialists inferred
Emperor was high priest. [1]
Eclectic mix of ancestor worship, sorcery, Daoism, polytheism [2]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 39)

[2]: (Theobald 2000f)


Military Level:
7

1. Emperor / Commander-in-chief

2. ying (division under a chiang-chun, or general)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels... Above the hou kuan were the sector headquarters or tu-wei fu for garrison troops, and the division or ying, under a chiang-chun or general, the highest permanent position." [1]
Generals could lead campaigns on their own without the presence of the Emperor. e.g. 121-119 BCE campaigns which overthrew "five sub-ordinate Hsiung-nu kingdoms" [2]
"A field command was usually an ad hoc appointment for a specific purpose, often reflected in the title given to the recipient - such as ’General Charged With Crossing the Liao’ for a campaign in Korea." [1]
3. Hsiao-wei"... often translated as ’colonel’, was a lower rank used for temporary appointments
3. Official in charge of tu-wei fu (sector headquarters)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels... Above the hou kuan were the sector headquarters or tu-wei fu for garrison troops, and the division or ying, under a chiang-chun or general, the highest permanent position." [1]
4. Official in charge of hou kuan (company)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [1]
5. Official in charge of hou (platoon)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [1]
6. Official in charge of sui (section)"Records from the north-western garrison give an outline of unit organization at lower levels: a hou kuan or company usually consisted of five hou (platoons), each with several sui or sections of an officer and four to ten men." [1]
7. Individual soldier"Conscripts served mainly as infantry; cavalry was provided by volunteers from noble families or by non-Chinese auxiliaries." [3]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 15)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 7)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 13)


Administrative Level:
[7 to 8]

"Interested readers should consult Hans Bielenstein for an excellent account of the Han bureaucracy structure and its changes over time." [1]
1. Emperor
"In comparison with Roman emperorship, the Han emperorship tended to be much more ritualistic and passive." [2] However, some Emperors, such as Emperor Wu, could be "active" which made the Inner Court more important at those times. [3]
2. Six Masters of the Inner CourtThese positions usually filled by eunuchs. [2]
According to Loewe 1986a, the Inner Court advisors were separate and distinct from the Outer Court (Senior Advisors and Councilors) after the reforms of Qudi. [4] Zhao though claims that the Inner Court advisors and attendants were subordinate to the Outer Court. [5]
3. Officials with no specific administrative positions. [2]
2. Two Ministries of the Outer Court: "the superintendent of the imperial clan and privy treasurer ... the officials of the Outer Court administrated the whole country." [2]
_Central government_
Outer Court headed by Three Excellencies (san gong)
2. Chancellor [6] of government administration and some role in military
3. Grandee secretary [6]
4. Two Assistants and a Master of Records under the Grandee secretary [6] 5. Lower-level assistants under the control of the Two Assistants and Master of Records under the Grande secretary. [6]
2. Supreme Commandant [6] of military affairsPosition mostly held by civilians. [6]
2. Imperial Counselor [6] of censorial matters
3. Thirteen Bureaux (cao) of the Secretariat [6] West Bureau (appointments), East Bureau (promotion, demotion, dismissal), Imperial Household, Memorials, Litigation, Communication and Standards (weights, measures, postal service), Military Transportation, Bandit Control, Criminal Executions, Soldiers, Gold (currency, state production monopolies), Granaries (levies, taxes, storage), Yellow Cabinet (records, supervision). [6]
3. Head of The Bureau for Communications and Standards4. Head of departmental division within postal service inferred level5. Lower-level official within postal service divisions inferred level6. On site managers of postal relay station inferred level7. On site workers at postal relay station e.g. messengers, stable hands etc. inferred level
3. Head of The Bureau for Granaries4. Head of foodstuff divisions within The Bureau for Granaries inferred level5. Head of regional divisions within the foodstuff divisions inferred level6. Other lower-level positions within regional divisions inferred level7. On site managers of granaries inferred level8. On site workers at granaries inferred level
3. Head of The Bureau for Gold4. Head of departmental division e.g. for iron production inferred level5. Sub-head within the department for iron production e.g. iron tools, weapons etc. inferred level6. Other lower-level positions within production type inferred level7. On site managers of production workshops inferred level
_Provincial government_
2. Grand governor of a commandery (tai shou) [7] "In the late Western Han era, the country was divided into 13 provinces, with 103 commanderies, that in turn were divided into 1500-plus county-level government units." [8] the provinces were technical boundaries used for administrative purposes and were not under the control of an individual so do not count as an administrative level. -- check this note
3. Several lower-ranked officials such as Assistant, Master of Records, Privy Treasure and Chief Clerk. [7]
3. Head of Bureaus, which included "Bureau of All Purposes, Bureau of Investigation, Bureau of Banditry, Bureau of Decisions, Bureau of Consultation, and Bureau of Agriculture Promotion." [7] "In the unearthed Donghai commandery documents dated to the late Western Han Dynasty, the total number of officials in that commandery is listed as 2,203, and most of these officials were grassroots personnel such as accessory clerk (492), chief of the officials’ hostel (688), and dou-salary clerks (501)." [1]
4. Sub-manager within a division inferred level5. Scribe inferred level6. Accessory clerk inferred at this level
2. Chief commandant (dou wei)"The grand governor was also assisted by an equivalent rank (2,000-shi) official entitled chief commandant (dou wei) who was in charge of all the military-related matters including training the local troops and militia, suppressing bandits, and inspecting fortifications and beacons." [7]
3. Heads of BureauUnder the chief commandant were "associates and assistants, heads of various bureaus, and military officers with titles such as jajors, captains, and millarians." [7]
4.
5.
3. County supervisors and Marquises (han-title holders) --- were Marquises directly appointed by Emperor?Regional inspectors. [9]
"We know that the Western Han Empire comprised 1,587 county-level government units at the time and the Donghai Commandery contained 38 counties."
4. district (xiang)
5. hamlet (li) chiefsFamilies grouped into "mutually responsible units" (5 - 10). These were organised into hamlets, which had a headman. Hamlets made up a commune, which had a chief. Multiple communes divided into districts/counties, which comprised the units of a commandery/prefecture. Only the last administrative level had outside-sourced, merit-appointed, salaried officials. [10]
Nine salary grades (in Shi) [11] suggests there could be up to nine administrative levels. However, perhaps we cannot directly infer this fact: might there be two officials at the same grade at different levels in a large department, or even grades skipped altogether, such as within a small but prestigious department?
10,000
2,000
1,000
600
400
300
200
100
 ?? dou-salary clerks

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 63) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 64) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Zhao 2015, 64-65) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Loewe 1986a)

[5]: (Zhao 2015)

[6]: (Zhao 2015, 65) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[7]: (Zhao 2015, 67) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[8]: (Zhao 2015, 66) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[9]: (Roberts 2003, 50)

[10]: (Keay 2009, 145)

[11]: (Zhao 2015, 68) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Conscripts spent a year of service in training [1] However, "... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 13)

[2]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Professional Priesthood:
absent

"... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Treasury, grain depots and storehouses. [1]
Mints. One report says 28 billion coins minted. [2]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 48)

[2]: (Lewis 2009, 65)


Merit Promotion:
present

"The criteria of official promotion during the Western Han Dynasty were by and large those of meritocracy, at least on paper, even though personal relations with superiors always played a crucial role in the promotion process." [1]
"During the Western Han Dynasty, the most common method of recruiting government officials was the recommendation system. In an edict of 134 BCE, Emperor Wu required each commandery or feudal kingdom to recommend someone "fially pious and incorrupt" (xiao lian) to the central government each year. This method was routinized and became the most important channel of recruiting government officials." [2]
"Liao has provided systematic data that give a sense of the recruitment and promotion of local government officials during the Western Han period. ... sixty of them (63 per cent) were promoted because of their good performance..." etc. [3]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 70) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 68-69) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Zhao 2015, 71) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"In the unearthed Donghai commandery documents dated to the late Western Han Dynasty, the total number of officials in that commandery is listed as 2,203, and most of these officials were grassroots personnel such as accessory clerk (492), chief of the officials’ hostel (688), and dou-salary clerks (501). We know that the Western Han Empire comprised 1,587 county-level government units at the time and the Donghai Commandery contained 38 counties. Based on the data, the estimated total number of officials below the commandery level is 2,203 x (1,587/38) = 92,004. Including the officials of the state-level government, the officials of the provincial level government, and officials at different censorial offices, the total number of 120,285 officials is a believable figure, and that figure should include the grassroots officials." [1]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 63-64) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


Examination System:
absent

1 year study and examination. Pass examination to become eligible for position in government. [1]
Crude examination system. [2]
"Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [3]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 50)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 68) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Examination System:
present

1 year study and examination. Pass examination to become eligible for position in government. [1]
Crude examination system. [2]
"Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [3]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 50)

[2]: (Zhao 2015, 68) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Lawyers are not mentioned in Loewe’s [1] detailed description of the legal process in Han times. However, their existence may be inferred from the existence of a Superintendent of trials [2] .

[1]: (Loewe 1968, 67-68)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)


Judge:
present

Judges are not mentioned in Loewe’s [1] detailed description of the legal process in Han times. However, their existence may be inferred from the existence of a Superintendent of trials [2] .

[1]: (Loewe 1968, 67-68)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Confucianism gradually replaced legalism. Qin legal code remained basically intact, some severe measures rescinded. [1]
Under Wudi students of legalism were prohibited from government. [2]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 48)

[2]: (Kerr 2013, 37)


Court:
present

Courts are not mentioned in Loewe’s [1] detailed description of the legal process in Han times. However, their existence may be inferred from the existence of a Superintendent of trials [2] .

[1]: (Loewe 1968, 67-68)

[2]: (Bielenstein 1986, 494-499)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Markets in Chang ’an. [1] Local markets were regulated. [2] "Bamboo slips excavated in a tomb in Linyi, Shangdong province, in 1972 contain sections of a document known as Shi fa (Rules about markets). According to Shi fa, markets were administered by officials, specific products were sold in prescribed locations, and misconduct in the marketplace was punished." [3] "Although markets are a stipulation of the ideal Chinese city since Zhou times, Han is the first period from which one can confirm their presence." [4]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 49)

[2]: (Keay 2009, 146)

[3]: (Steinhardt 2013, 113) Steinhardt, N in Clark, Peter ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press.

[4]: (Steinhardt 2013, 114) Steinhardt, N in Clark, Peter ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press.


Irrigation System:
present

[1] List of agricultural practices includes irrigation: "intensive cultivation, field preparation, seed selection, irrigation, manuring, crop rotation, multicropping, animal power, specialised tools." [2]

[1]: (Keay 2009, 146)

[2]: (Roberts 2003, 43)


Food Storage Site:
present

Government grain depots and storehouses. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 49)


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China’s ancient water civilization." [1] "The entire underground water supply pipeline system of Yangcheng [Warring States Period?] was discovered in archaeological excavations (Figure 8.2), providing important physical evidence of early water supply of cities in ancient China." [2] Emperor Wu ordered the Kunming Reservoir to provide water for Chang’an which was delivered to the city via "water-transfer channels." One channel provided water to canals other "specifically for supplying water within the city." [3]

[1]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 169) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[2]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 171) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[3]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 172) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.


Transport Infrastructure

Local governments "needed to keep the local road system and postal system well maintained." [1]

[1]: (Zhao 2015, 72) Zhao, Dingxin in Scheidel, Walter. ed. 2015. State Power in Ancient China and Rome. Oxford University Press.


There was a coast and there was trade with Japanese peoples.



Bridge:
present

[1]

[1]: (Keay 2009, 146)


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System





Mnemonic Device:
present

The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [1]

[1]: Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471396710.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Discovery of wrought iron process and invention of multi-tube seed drill, and heavy mouldboard iron plough (could sow 11.3 acres land per day). [1] Mathematicians use negative numbers in multiple author book "Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art." [1] Jing Fang (78-37 BCE) said 53 perfect fifths approximate 31 octaves, and suggested moonlight was reflection from the sun. [2] "...sulfur and saltpeter were recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the Divine Agriculturist compiled during the Han dynasty." [3]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 38)

[2]: (Kerr 2013, 39)

[3]: (Lorge 2011, 33)


Religious Literature:
present

"Huainanzi" - compilation under patronage of prince of Huainan. Daoist concept of creation. Eclecticism. [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 50)



Philosophy:
present

Dong Zhongshu - philiosopher. "Chunqiu fanlu". [1]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 50)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

E.g. Sima Qian’s "Shiji" genealogical tables and ruler lists.


History:
present

Sima Qian d.85 BCE. "Shiji." Historian. Comprehensive history of China. Father held post of "Grand Recorder " at court. [1] Ssu-ma Ch’ien [2] (d.86 BCE).

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 50)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 5)



Calendar:
present

Carried Qin calendar. In 104 BCE emperor Wudi declared a "Grand Beginning" for a new phase in the Five Phase cycle. [1]

[1]: (Lewis 2009, 65)


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

Continuation from Qin monetary system: bronze coins; gold and silver bullion used as store of wealth. [1] gold and silver bullion used as store of wealth. [2]

[1]: (Thierry 2003)

[2]: (Scheidel 2009)


Paper Currency:
present

Emperor Wu experimented with "paper" money. Used the hide of a rare white deer that only he possessed. 1 note to 400,000 copper coins. Money raising exercise. [1]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 36)


Indigenous Coin:
present

"The Qin ban liang gave way to the smaller wu zhu coin in the Han. This coin weighed five zhu (hence the name), about three grams, and it continued in use until the Tang dynasty (618-906 A.D.)." [1] Along with wide variety of bronze denominations.

[1]: (Lewis 2009, 65)




Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Liu Bang was a "minor functionary in charge of a postal relay station" before he became a politician and eventually king, and Emperor. [1]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 35


General Postal Service:
present

claims of state-organized communication service by many kingdoms already in the Warring States period; infer that it was continued and expanded by the Qin Empire and adapted by the Han as well.


Courier:
present

Liu Bang was a "minor functionary in charge of a postal relay station" before he became a politician and eventually king, and Emperor. [1]

[1]: (Kerr 2013, 35


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

"Next to some chidao were also built yongdao (palisaded roads), which were reserved for the emperor and his relatives." [1] A palisaded road is not really a fortification. Inferred that palisades would also be used in various instances as minor form of fortification, such as for some small towns.

[1]: (Nyland 2015, 128) Michael Nyland. Supplying The Capital With Water And Food. Michael Nylan. ed. 2015. Chang’an 26 BCE: An Augustan Age in China. University of Washington Press. Seattle.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

[1] Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [2]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1980, 15)

[2]: (Feinman, Gary and Liye, Xie. North China Workshop 2016)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

Beacon towers etc, were not mortared? "Relief sculpture from the Han dynasty includes numerous examples of two-story and three-story towers." [1]

[1]: (Steinhardt, Nancy. 2002. Chinese Architecture. 新世界出版社. 38)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Frontiers settled with military colonies. [1] Military fortresses e.g. Luntai, Xinjiang. [2] "The border defense system had five basic architectural components. First were the border towns...most of them have moats, walls, gates, wall towers, corner towers, streets, administrative offices, shops, residences and storehouses. Some had additional wall fortifications and beacon towers." [3]

[1]: (Roberts 2003, 44)

[2]: (Chang, Xu, Allan and Lu 2005, 277) Chang, Kwang-chih. Xu, Pingfang. Allan, Sarah. Lu, Liancheng. 2005. The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective. Yale University Press.

[3]: (Steinhardt, Nancy. 2002. Chinese Architecture. 新世界出版社. 38)



possible cities still had moats from previous eras when they were necessary. however, with the unification of China under the Qin and Han, they might have lost them. "The border defense system had five basic architectural components. First were the border towns...most of them have moats, walls, gates, wall towers, corner towers, streets, administrative offices, shops, residences and storehouses. Some had additional wall fortifications and beacon towers." [1]

[1]: (Steinhardt, Nancy. 2002. Chinese Architecture. 新世界出版社. 38)



Earth Rampart:
present

Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city. [1] After the 121-119 BCE campaigns against Hsiung-nu "A line of earthworks was built to extend the Ch’in defence line further into the steppe. For the next 18 years, there were no recorded Hsiung-nu raids into China." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Peers 1995, 7)


[1] Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city. [2]

[1]: (Bielenstein 1980, 15)

[2]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Complex Fortification:
present

Up until the Tang and Song Dynasties wide ramparts and ditches were a typical part of the defense system for a fortified town or city. [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.



Military use of Metals

"During the Spring and Autumn period, China developed steel and iron-made weaponry, and as the raw iron castings technique was widely practiced - and the ‘folded hundred times steel’ casting method was on the rise, along with various polishing techniques for steel - Chinese steel weapons were very much on the ascendant." [1] First steel adapted by Chu in 5th century BCE [2] , likely spread quickly to other states "As the smiths in time learned the possibilities of their material, and began producing quench-hardened steel swords ... bronze swords could not longer compete and went out of use completely. This seems likely to have occurred all over China by the late third century B.C. at the latest." [3] "As early as the later Han dynasty and the early Jin dynasty, the Chinese were already capable of producing steel." [4] Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also." [5] First high-quality steel 450 CE.

[1]: Hangang, Cao. Undated. A Study of Chinese Weapons Cast During Pre-Qin and Han Periods in the Central Plains of China. Retrieved December 2015: http://www.arscives.com/historysteel/cn.article.htm

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 96)

[3]: (Wagner 1996, 197) Donald B Wagner. 1996. Iron and Steel in Ancient China. 2nd Edition. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[4]: (Lu 2015, 251) ed. Lu, Yongxiang. 2005. A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 3. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University Press.

[5]: (Needham 1962, 282) Joseph Needham. 1962. Science and Civilization in China. Volume IV. Physics and Physical Technology. Part 1: Physics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Iron-clad armor replaced copper. [1]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)



Bronze:
present

"Bronze weapons were still in widespread use at the beginning of the Han." [1] Bronze weapons, e.g. axe. [2] bronze sword [3]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 4)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 11)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 10)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"early versions of siege crossbows and traction trebuchets may be noted in the accounts of the wars of the Qin and Han dynasties, and appear in the early military writings associated with the name of Mo Zi." [1] "There were various grades of crossbow of different draw-weight. The heaviest required a pull of over 350lbs to cock them, and were suitable only for static positions, where they could be fixed on revolving mounts. Strong men capable of loading the larger weapons were known as chuch chang, and were highly valued specialists." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Sling Siege Engine:
present

arcuballiste and lever-operated stone-throwing catapults (trebuchets) approaches ..." from Warring States period, and "There was to be very little change in the Chinese art of siege warfare ... until the introduction of gunpowder" [1] "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders." [2] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [3]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 23)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 20)

[3]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

arcuballiste and lever-operated stone-throwing catapults (trebuchets) approaches ..." from Warring States period, and "There was to be very little change in the Chinese art of siege warfare ... until the introduction of gunpowder" [1] "Siege equipment mentioned by Ssu-ma Kuang includes artillery, moveable towers, and artificial mounds erected to enable besiegers to shoot over city walls, and scaling ladders." [2] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [3]

[1]: (Graff 2002, 23)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 20)

[3]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Unnecessary when peasants can be equipped with the easy-to-use crossbow.


Self Bow:
present

Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)



Handheld Firearm:
absent

Technology invented later


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Technology invented later


Crossbow:
present

"The crossbow is the most frequently mentioned weapon in the sources, and was often given credit for the Han army’s superiority over its enemies." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Composite Bow:
present

Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


New world weapon


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

present in previous polities


Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


[1] Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [2] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [2]

[1]: (Lewis 2007, 107)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Polearm:
present

Han infantry "were equipped with spears or halberds, swords, and bows or crossbows." [1] "Like the infantry, cavalry also used halberds, spears, swords and bows." [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Dagger:
present

were known in China from earlier periods. "Halberd or dagger-axe blade, from a 1st century BC site at Liang-wang-shani in Yunnan (British Museum)." [1] "Bronze knife, Han period (British Museum)." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 12)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 17)


Battle Axe:
present

Bronze axe. [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 11)


Animals used in warfare

Emperor Wudi wanted to breed better horses to compete with Xiongnu. [1] Cavalry. [2] Use of the four-horse chariot discontinued during first century BCE. [3]

[1]: (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 133)

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[3]: (Peers 1995, 17)


Donkey:
present

Supply train included donkeys. [1] Never used in warfare, besides as pack animals. [2] Supply train: oxen, donkeys, horses, mules, camels. [1]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 12)

[2]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Never used in warfare, besides as pack animals. [1] Supply train: oxen, donkeys, horses, mules, camels. [2]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 12)


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

present in previous polities


Shield:
present

"In sieges, and occasionally in the field, missile troops were drawn up behind men carrying spears or shields, but separate deployment seems to be the norm." [1] "A relief from I-nan, possibly late Han, appears to show two cavalry figures with shields, but this was uncommon, perhaps because weapons such as halberds, bows and crossbows required the use of both hands." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 16)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 17)



Plate Armor:
present

Comprised "plates stitched together and divided into several section for the chest, shoulder and collar." [1]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)


Limb Protection:
present

present in previous polities


Leather Cloth:
present

[1] "Infantry were often protected with leather or iron lamellar armour." [2]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Laminar Armor:
present

"Iron lamellar cuirass from Erh-shih-chia-tzu, Inner Mongolia. Han period." [1] "Infantry were often protected with leather or iron lamellar armour." [2]

[1]: (Peers 1995, 10)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)


Helmet:
present

[1] Infantry "wore caps or iron helmets" [2]

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)

[2]: (Peers 1995, 16)



Breastplate:
present

Comprised "plates stitched together and divided into several section for the chest, shoulder and collar." [1] suggests plate armor covered chest

[1]: (Di Cosmo 2004, 234)


Naval technology

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Ships were used for naval assaults in China for centuries




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.