Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

French Kingdom - Early Valois

EQ 2020  fr_valois_k_1 / FrValoE

The French crown passed to the Valois Dynasty in 1328 after a succession crisis within the ruling Capetian family, and the Valois reigned over the French kingdom until 1589 CE. Here we focus on the early Valois period, 1328-1450 CE, which was marked by the Hundred Years’ War and the economic and human devastation caused by the Black Death. By the mid-15th century, the beginnings of a more modern bureaucracy had developed under Charles VII.
In this period, the territory of the Kingdom of France was considerably smaller than that of modern France. [1] The kingdom covered 390,000 square kilometres in 1350 and 340,000 square kilometres in 1450. [2]
In response to the decline in population and production during the Black Death in the mid-fourteenth century, the crown instituted harsh financial reforms and higher taxes. This led to revolts by peasants and in urban areas. [3] At the same time, the Valois faced the English Plantagenet dynasty in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). The French suffered major defeats at Bruges (1340 CE) and Agincourt (1415 CE). Historian of France W. Scott Haine notes that, “In the darkest days of this war France’s very existence seemed in question.” [3] In 1439 CE, inspired by the actions of peasant leader Joan of Arc, Charles VII of France instituted a professional standing army. [4] Charles VII conquered Normandy and Aquitaine by 1453 CE, and England only maintained control over Calais.
Population and political organization
We have estimated the population of the French Kingdom as 12 million in 1350 CE using data from Turchin and Nefedov’s Secular Cycles. [5] The population declined drastically during the Black Plague in the mid-fourteenth century. [6] An estimated one-third of population died in the plague by 1400 CE. [3] In 1450 CE, the population was only 9 million. [5]
The king and royal lineage dominated French political society. Others were divided into estates: the clergy, the nobles, and the common people. [7] During the time of the Valois there were 40,000 noble families in France- nobility was either inherited or bestowed by the king. [7] Charles VII (1422-1461 CE) began the process to modernize the crown- instituting reforms to change the government from feudal to bureaucratic. This was continued by Late Valois ruler Louis XI (1461-1483 CE). [8]

[1]: (Knecht 2004, 2) Knecht, Robert J. 2004. The Valois: Kings of France 1328-1589. London: Hambledon and London. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JBFZ35AI.

[2]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113) Turchin, Peter and Sergey Nefedov. 2009. Secular Cycles. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7MDE5MUH.

[3]: (Haine 2000, 44) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[4]: (Haine 2000, 45) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[5]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113) Turchin, Peter and Sergey Nefedov. 2009. Secular Cycles. Princeton: Princeton, University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7MDE5MUH/

[6]: (Knecth 2004, 2) Knecht. Robert. 2004. The Valois: Kings of France 1328-1589. London: Hambledon Continuum. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JBFZ35AI

[7]: (Knecth 2004, 8) Knecht. Robert. 2004. The Valois: Kings of France 1328-1589. London: Hambledon Continuum. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JBFZ35AI

[8]: (Haine 2000, 46) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
French Kingdom - Early Valois  
Capital:
Paris  
Alternative Name:
Valois dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,364 CE ➜ 1,380 CE]  
Duration:
[1,328 CE ➜ 1,450 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Supracultural Entity:
Christendom  
Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Valois  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Capetian  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
French  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Christianity  
Religion Family:
Catholic  
Religion:
Roman Catholic  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
200,000 people 1350 CE
300,000 people 1400 CE
150,000 people 1450 CE
Polity Territory:
390,000 km2 1350 CE
390,000 km2 1400 CE
340,000 km2 1450 CE
Polity Population:
11,500,000 people 1350 CE
9,000,000 people 1400 CE
9,500,000 people 1450 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
[6 to 7]  
Military Level:
[5 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred absent 1328 CE 1364 CE
present 1365 CE 1450 CE
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present 1350 CE 1450 CE
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Information / Postal System
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
inferred present  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
unknown  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent 1328 CE 1349 CE
present 1350 CE 1450 CE
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent 1328 CE 1379 CE
present 1380 CE 1450 CE
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
present 1328 CE 1380 CE
unknown 1381 CE 1450 CE
  Shield:
present 1328 CE 1380 CE
inferred present 1381 CE 1450 CE
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present 1328 CE 1349 CE
unknown 1351 CE 1450 CE
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range French Kingdom - Early Valois (fr_valois_k_1) was in:
 (1328 CE 1449 CE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
French Kingdom - Early Valois

Charles VI was last King resident in Paris. 1422-1575 CE royal palace in Paris abandoned. Charles VII lived in Bourges and then Chinon. Location of ruler’s residence kept changing. However, the royal administration remained in Paris. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 136-138)


Alternative Name:
Valois dynasty

Valois dynasty: 1328-1589 CE. [1]
"Although the Capetian line is considered to have ended with the advent of the Valois in 1328, in fact the Valois and all succeeding French monarchs through Louis XVI were descended in the male line from Hugh Capet." [2]

[1]: (Solon 1995, 1784-1785)

[2]: (Bouchard 1995, 313)


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,364 CE ➜ 1,380 CE]

Charles V (reign 1364-1380 CE) "revitalised the monarchy." [1]

[1]: (Solon 1995, 1785)


Duration:
[1,328 CE ➜ 1,450 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations

Supracultural Entity:
Christendom

This ended: "during the period 1300-1450 CE "the idea of Christendom as a supranational entity toward which all Christians felt supreme loyalty and affection slowly collapsed. With the evolution of independent political and physical territories, soon to be called national monarchies or states, Christians began to choose between allegiance to state and devotion to church, and many chose the former. By the fifteenth century, the papacy ceased to function as a universal power and more and more like another regional Italian prince jealously guarding his fiefdom." [1]

[1]: (Madigan 2015, 369)


Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Valois


Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Capetian

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Institutions of a centralized state were present. However, civil war meant frequent state breakdown.


Language

Language:
French

"The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 6)



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
200,000 people
1350 CE

Paris. [1]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 120)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
300,000 people
1400 CE

Paris. [1]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 120)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
150,000 people
1450 CE

Paris. [1]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 120)


Polity Territory:
390,000 km2
1350 CE

in squared kilometers. [1]
Territory of French Kingdom in Km2
1350 CE: 390,000
1400 CE: 390,000
1450 CE: 340,000

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)

Polity Territory:
390,000 km2
1400 CE

in squared kilometers. [1]
Territory of French Kingdom in Km2
1350 CE: 390,000
1400 CE: 390,000
1450 CE: 340,000

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)

Polity Territory:
340,000 km2
1450 CE

in squared kilometers. [1]
Territory of French Kingdom in Km2
1350 CE: 390,000
1400 CE: 390,000
1450 CE: 340,000

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)


Polity Population:
11,500,000 people
1350 CE

Population of France and estimate for French Kingdom
1350 CE - 12 million11.5 million
1400 CE - 10 million9 million
1450 CE - 11 million9.5 million
Population of medieval France derived from Turchin and Nefedov (2009). [1] Estimates take account of territory of France in the possession of the French Kingdom. [1]
Plague from 1348 CE. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)

[2]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 142)

Polity Population:
9,000,000 people
1400 CE

Population of France and estimate for French Kingdom
1350 CE - 12 million11.5 million
1400 CE - 10 million9 million
1450 CE - 11 million9.5 million
Population of medieval France derived from Turchin and Nefedov (2009). [1] Estimates take account of territory of France in the possession of the French Kingdom. [1]
Plague from 1348 CE. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)

[2]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 142)

Polity Population:
9,500,000 people
1450 CE

Population of France and estimate for French Kingdom
1350 CE - 12 million11.5 million
1400 CE - 10 million9 million
1450 CE - 11 million9.5 million
Population of medieval France derived from Turchin and Nefedov (2009). [1] Estimates take account of territory of France in the possession of the French Kingdom. [1]
Plague from 1348 CE. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 113)

[2]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 142)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels.
1. Capital city
Paris may have grown from about 25,000 in 1200 to 210,000 in 1328 CE. [1]
Regional City or colonial city (Kingdom of Navarre c.1200 CE)
2. Capital of a principalityFrance c1300 CE 12 cities 20,000-50,000 population [2]
Marseille, Montpellier, Lyon, and Bordeaux about 30,000. [1]
3. Large Town - with district administrative buildingsFrance c1300 CE 20 cities 10,000-20,000 population [2]
Avignon about 1300 CE population 5,000-6,000 [3] ballooned to 40,000 ten years after arrival of Pope [4] - 1319 CE.
Provins over 10,000 population 1200-1300 CE [5]
4. Small town
5. Hamlet90% population lived in rural settlements [1]

[1]: (Percy Jr 1995)

[2]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 118)

[3]: (Spufford 2006, 169)

[4]: (Spufford 2006, 84)

[5]: (Kibler and Clark 1995, 1446)


Religious Level:
[6 to 7]

King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.
Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France
1. King as divine ruler, especially encouraged by Philip IV who was the first of the Valois kings.
1. Pope
Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs. [1]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops"the term ’bishop’ applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the ’ecumenical’ patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church." [2]
"The title ’archbishop’ emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan." [2]
3. Bishops and ChorepiskopoiBishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops [1]
3. Priest"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned." [2]
4. Deacon"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese’s finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople." [3]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)"The deaconess’s chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women." [3]
5. Subdeacon"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon." [4]
6. Reader (anagnostesj"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy." [4]
7. Minor orders"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes." [4]

[1]: (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)

[2]: (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[3]: (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

[4]: (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Military Level:
[5 to 6]

levels.
1. King

2. Constable (from 1091 CE)regional armies usually commanded by relatives of king [1]
senechal was the senior royal official, and senior military commander [2] - only until 1091 CE [3]
3. Marshal (sometime after 1226 CE - 14th century, by 1314 CE)Without responsibilities under Philip II and Louis VIII. [4]
gained military command duties in 14th century. Philip VI "appointed two marshals as second in command of the French army below the constable." [4] "Helped by a provost and some lieutenants, they were responsible for recruiting captains, inspecting the troops, and organizing the pay for the army." [4]
4. KnightDuring a crisis the garrison at Bordeaux had 4 bannerets, 23 knights, 227 squires and 192 sergeants" and local militia. [1]
Grand Master of the Crossbowmen (from 1200 CE) - additional level?
5. Sergeant"In the military context, sergeants were lightly armed fighting men who served and
supported knights." [5] Also had civilian "enforcer" role.
Mid-12th century professional sergeants equipped by nobles [6]
Infantry sergeants paid 9 deniers a day [7]
Also mounted sergeants [7]
6. Individual soldierlower level below Sergeant?
Militia leader (this level also called constable?)
Lead a milita, paid slightly less than a sergeant [7]
Captains [8]
Each city parish had its own captain

[1]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)

[2]: (Henneman 1995, 1645)

[3]: (Henneman 1995, 486-487)

[4]: (De Vries 1995, 1122)

[5]: (Henneman 1995, 1658)

[6]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[7]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)

[8]: (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)


Administrative Level:
5

levels. Is central government separate from provincial? Probably not.

1. King

_Central government_
Foundations of administrative system laid by Philip II. [1]
2. who replaced the senechal at this level?3. Department heads. Finance, Justice, Chancery, Treasury (from Philip IV - previously the treasury was kept by the Knights Templar at their Temple), auditors, law-courts (parlements), archives (muniments in tresor des chartres)Government departments within the Royal Palace, Ile de la City [2]
4. Lesser officials
Law courts Parlement De Paris from 1250-1790 CE
_Provincial government_
2. Leader of semi-autonomous city-state3.4.autonomous urban governments had independent judicial institutions, legal system, and administration and managed its own relations with the church and the monarchy. [3]
Some cities were semi-autonomous city-states, e.g. Flanders [4]
2. Ruler of appanage3.4."Beginning with the sons of Blanche of Castile and Louis VIII (r. 1223-26), apanages became normal in France. By installing their sons as rulers, monarchs could control newly acquired outlying areas, as northern French nobles had long done." [5]
Apanage: "province or jurisdiction, or later for an office or annuity, granted (with the reservation that in the absence of direct heirs the land escheated to the crown)" - often granted to sons of the Capetian king [6]
2. Dukes/Barons/Counts who ruled principalities3. Principalities had capitals with their own mini-government system [7] 4.Example: the Dauphine of Vienne an independent principality (until 1349 CE). Territory from Rhone to The Alps. "Capital" city was Vienne. [8]
Example: Burgundy. Duke of Burgundy had his administration based at Beaune, which moved to Dijon in the 14th century. [9]
"Between 1120 and 1481, no lord in France is known to have made any regular use of prince as a title of lordship" [10]
3. District: Bailiff in a Bailliage (Northern France); seneschal in a Sénéchiaussée (Southern France)The basic provincial administrative unit of late-medieval France from late in the reign of Philip II [11]
bailliage and sénéchiaussé were administrative subdivisions of France established by Philip II after 1190. [12]
seneschals of dukes, barons, counts became royal appointees, continued their role as chief administrative officers. the lands under their control became known as sénéchaussées. [13]
baillis of royal provinces, particularly important under Philip II (1180-1222 CE) [14]
late Middle Ages 30-40 districts governed by a bailiff or a seneschal. [13]
4. Prévôt in a Prévôté.The district for which a prévôt was responsible was called the prévôté, and there were half a dozen of these in each bailliage. [15]
prévot farmed the revenues of the royal domain and rendered justice at a local level.
a "prevote" was a military region used in the raising of armed forces (end 12th century) [16]
5. Leader of a parishCities could be divided into parishes [17]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 67)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 68)

[3]: (Pegues 1995, 1005-1010)

[4]: (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 3)

[5]: (Medieval France: An Encyclopedia 1995, 97)

[6]: (Suarez 1995, 97-98)

[7]: (Spufford 2006, 74-76)

[8]: (Spufford 2006, 165)

[9]: (Spufford 2006, 154-155)

[10]: (Boulton 1995, 1430)

[11]: (Henneman 1995, 147)

[12]: (Pegues 1995, 1333)

[13]: (Henneman 1995, 1645)

[14]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)

[15]: (Henneman 1995, 1427-1428)

[16]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[17]: (Nicolle and McBridge 2000, 4)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent
1328 CE 1364 CE

From 1365 [1]
Nicolle 1991
"By the first years of the 13th century the French king could maintain a virtual standing army on his frontier with English-ruled Normandy. [2]
Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century. [3]
Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [4]
Inferred absent under Philip IV: Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [4]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 128)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 7)

[3]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[4]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)

Professional Soldier:
present
1365 CE 1450 CE

From 1365 [1]
Nicolle 1991
"By the first years of the 13th century the French king could maintain a virtual standing army on his frontier with English-ruled Normandy. [2]
Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century. [3]
Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [4]
Inferred absent under Philip IV: Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [4]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 128)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 7)

[3]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[4]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Christianity


Professional Military Officer:
present

From 1365 [1]
Nicolle 1991
Professional sergeants in the mid 12th century. [2]
Permanent command structure under Philip IV (reign 1284-1314 CE) but no permanent army [3]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 128)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[3]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 35)


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Royal mint. Offices of the government departments in Paris. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 148)


Merit Promotion:
present

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Professional maitres des comptes in auditing department. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Examination System:
present

Department of Chancery hired university trained bureaucrats. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

[1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


[1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Formal Legal Code:
present
1350 CE 1450 CE

Salic law. Reestablished during 100 Years War (approximate date). DH: needs ref.


Law courts called parlements established at the Royal Palace in Paris by Philip IV. Justice administration "in the hands of parlements staffed by professional lawyers organized in three chambers." [1]
Justice system with courts set up for fairs to enable dispute resolution. [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 146)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Halles au ble [1] : Established since Philip II ET: Still run?; Market in Paris for sales of wheat/grain "French kings conceded fairs as privileges to some locales by regalian right, uncontested except in the case of the most rebellious of lords, such as the duke of Burgundy under Louis XI. [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 99)

[2]: (Reyerson 1995, 640)


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation canals. [1] (from 10th century?) 12th and 13th centuries flaz and hemp cultivated from networks of shallow canals. [1]

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 115)



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

Cisterns. By 1000 CE most communities obtained water from rivers, wells and cisterns and this was still the case at the end of the Middle Ages. However, in the 11th and 12th centuries new water supply systems were developed which became installed in towns. [1] (within this time period?) "Pilgrims, crusaders, university students, and merchants would have encountered conduits and fountains in the course of their travels." [1] By end of Middle Ages [1] : piped water to public fountains; artificial lifting devices and water towers; Gravity flow systems of channels and pipes in the High Middle Ages very similar to Roman engineering. [1]

[1]: (Glick, Steven Livesey and Wallis 2014, 505-506)


Transport Infrastructure

By early 14th century Paris had paved streets. Roads around Ile de France region also improved. [1] Royal toll stations, e.g. at Bapaume. [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 101)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 162)


Many ports at mouth of Rhone. Louis IX in the 1260s CE built a new fortified port on royal lands called Aigues Mortes. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 171-172)



Bridge:
present

Bridge built over Saone at St-Jean-de-Losne. [1] Bridge of St. Laurent at Macon. [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 155)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 164)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [1]

[1]: (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Anything written by the era’s literati.


Script:
present

French language.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

French language.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

French language.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents


Philosophy:
present

Nicholas of Autrecourt (ca. 1300-after 1350) on Aristotelian scholasticism [1]

[1]: (Vanderjagt in Kibler et al 1995, 1388-1389)


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Weight standard of Troyes - became an international standard [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 146)


History:
present

"Christine de Pizan (1363-ca. 1429) wrote a prose biography of Charles V, which would have interested the court, as well as other works, such as her verse universal history, with a broader appeal. Likewise, the historical works of Gilles le Bouvier (1386-ca. 1455), the Berry Herald, the Chronique du roi Charles VII, the Histoire de Richard II, and the Recouvrement de Normandie, were probably written with the court in mind; Gilles also kept the Grandes chroniques for a time (1403-22)." [1]

[1]: (Shopkow in Kibler et al 1995, 866)


Fiction:
present

"Secular Latin plays were produced in the 12th century alongside religious and liturgical drama." [1] "By the late 12th century, plays were being written in French, though a few nonliturgical Latin plays were also performed." [2] Miracle plays, written for the Guild of Parisian Goldsmiths, 14th Century. Passion plays common in 15th century France. [3]

[1]: (Bates 1995, 1716 CE)

[2]: (Knight 1995, 1714 CE)

[3]: (Knight 1995, 1714-1715 CE)



Information / Money

Information / Postal System

Courier:
present

End of 13th century there were "specialised carriers" of goods from Italian merchants in Italy. They could deliver spices directly to Paris. This by-passed and helped lead to the demise of the International Fairs. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 148)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Fortified towns. [1] Fortified port of Aigues Mortes. [2]

[1]: (Turchin and Nefedov 2009, 128)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 172)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Modern Fortification:
present

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.



Earth Rampart:
present

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Ditch:
present

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.


Complex Fortification:
present

"At the height of the Middle Ages, great castles were built with deep, defensive ditches or moats and several concentric rings of stone walls reinforced with towers that required attackers to fight their way through several layers of defense to achieve victory." [1] "Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [2]

[1]: (Newman 2001, 75) Paul B Newman. 2001. Daily Life in the Middle Ages. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.

[2]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.



Military use of Metals

Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with ’steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.’" [1] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869." [2]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


[1]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


Copper:
present

Bronze sword hilts?


Bronze:
present

Bronze sword hilts?


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchets. "A drawing of a thirteenth-century stone carving at the Church of Saint-Nazaire in Carcassonne that is believed to depict the siege of Toulouse in 1218. It shows a traction trebuchet, and illustrates two important points. First, some of the hauliers (who include a woman in their number) are pulling horizontally, a method that is implied by Chinese illustrations. Second, there is apparently a heavy weight on the pulling end of the beam to assist the effort, thus showing the transition of the traction trebuchet toward the full counterweight version with no hauliers." [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Simon de Montford’s stone throwing trebuchets. [1] [2] First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon. [2] "The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada). [2]

[1]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 15)

[2]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


inferred from discussion in sources of projectile technology in this period


Self Bow:
present

"The rise of crossbows lead to the virtual disappearance of the simple bows as war weapons in France and no hand bows are recorded in surviving castle inventories from 1230 to the mid-14th century." [1] Longbowmen and mounted archers hired as mercenaries. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 1991, 11-12) David Nicolle. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.

[2]: (De Vries 1995, 114) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Javelin:
unknown

Present? [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 39) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Handheld Firearm:
absent
1328 CE 1349 CE

Cannon used in greater numbers late 14th century, and at sea. [1] Hand gunners. [2] Infantry using in 1430s CE. [3] After 1350 CE primitive handgun. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 21-22) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 2000, 47) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[4]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

Handheld Firearm:
present
1350 CE 1450 CE

Cannon used in greater numbers late 14th century, and at sea. [1] Hand gunners. [2] Infantry using in 1430s CE. [3] After 1350 CE primitive handgun. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 21-22) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 2000, 47) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[4]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent
1328 CE 1379 CE

Bombards. [1] Used from about 1380 CE. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 33) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present
1380 CE 1450 CE

Bombards. [1] Used from about 1380 CE. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 33) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.


Crossbow:
present

Crossbow armed infantry gained in importance during the 13th century. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1991, 11) David Nicolle. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.


Composite Bow:
present

"The rise of crossbows lead to the virtual disappearance of the simple bows as war weapons in France and no hand bows are recorded in surviving castle inventories from 1230 to the mid-14th century." [1] With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war [2] Longbowmen and mounted archers hired as mercenaries. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1991, 11-12) David Nicolle. 1991. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300. Osprey Publishing Ltd. London.

[2]: (De Vries 1995, 114) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [1] Mace armed cavalry at Battle of Bouvines. [2] Maces used by infantry in 13th century. [3] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: mace. [4]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)

[3]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 12)

[4]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Long, straight, double-edged, sword. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the ’mercy’ of death to the mortally wounded." [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Lance/spear. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Polearm:
present

New forms of polearm introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries [1] - implies there were old forms of polearm, or spears used as a polearm. Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries from modern Brabant, Belgium fought with pikes or long spears. [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 10)


Dagger:
present

Most knights and squires used a dagger after 1350 CE [1] but maybe in use more rarely before this time as well? Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the ’mercy’ of death to the mortally wounded." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: certain types of dagger used to exploit gaps in armour. [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Battle Axe:
present

Common 12th century infantry weapon. [1] "Lesser weapons were also employed by knights after 1050. Special forms of ax, hammer (bec), mace, club, and flail were introduced in the 12th and 13th centuries to supplement the sword, but it was only after 1300 that these were both fully developed and commonly used." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [3]

[1]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 6)

[2]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

War horses brought from Italy. [1] Lance armed cavalry (late 12th century) [2] Aristocrats "usually dismounted and fought on foot throughout the Merovingian, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods." [3] 12th century saddle innovations made the horseback charge with a lance possible. [4]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 156, 167)

[2]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 4-5)

[3]: (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.

[4]: (Fanning 1995, 346)






Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present
1328 CE 1380 CE

Part-time urban militia men often used wooden buckler shields. [1] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

Wood Bark Etc:
unknown
1381 CE 1450 CE

Part-time urban militia men often used wooden buckler shields. [1] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.


Shield:
present
1328 CE 1380 CE

Rarely carried from mid-14th century. [1] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [3] Academic disagreement Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: many knights discarded shields in the mid-15th CE but men-at-arms carried a light buckler. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.

Shield:
present
1381 CE 1450 CE

Rarely carried from mid-14th century. [1] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [3] Academic disagreement Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: many knights discarded shields in the mid-15th CE but men-at-arms carried a light buckler. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Plate Armor:
present

Coat of plates "a defence made of several butted plates attached to a poncho-like fabric garment" [1] Breastplate late 13th century. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [3] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate armour for horses. [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Nicolle 2000, 19) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present
1328 CE 1349 CE

In 13th and 14th centuries. [1] Mail leggings worn to about 1350 CE. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [3] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate shotes, greaves, cuisses (leg coverings), knee piece, vambraces (lower arm), rebraces (upper arm), cowters and pauldrons (elbows and shoulders), gauntlets (hands and wrists), bevor (triangular metal plate to protect the neck). [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15-17) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.

Limb Protection:
unknown
1351 CE 1450 CE

In 13th and 14th centuries. [1] Mail leggings worn to about 1350 CE. [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [3] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate shotes, greaves, cuisses (leg coverings), knee piece, vambraces (lower arm), rebraces (upper arm), cowters and pauldrons (elbows and shoulders), gauntlets (hands and wrists), bevor (triangular metal plate to protect the neck). [3]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15-17) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

Early 13th century Brabancon mercenaries often wore leather, quilted armour. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: full metal armour worn over padded doublet. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1991, 10) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Helmet:
present

Present. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1991, 6) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Chainmail:
present

Mail haubeck. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

Breastplate late 13th century. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: upper and lower breastplates. [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 19) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

"The English possessions in France led to Anglo-French warfare in the 13th and 14th centuries. The French pieced together a navy for use in the Atlantic and the Channel, often hiring Genose galleys to fight the English, especially in the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). France also built a naval base and shipyard, the Clos des Galées, at Rouen." [1] The ’cog’ was mostly used in the northern waters while galleys were used in the Mediterranean. [2]

[1]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.

[2]: (Nicolle 2000, 39) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Present. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle and McBridge 1991, 41) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present

"French fleets consisted mainly of merchant vessels recruited for royal service. Galleys were built or hired to fight, but by the 15th century these were replaced by large sailing ships over a hundred feet in length with carrying capacities of up to 1,000 tons." [1]

[1]: (Runyan 1995, 1246-1247) Timothy J Runyan. 1995. Naval Power. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
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