Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

French Kingdom - Late Valois

EQ 2020  fr_valois_k_2 / FrValoL

The Late Valois (Valois dynasty) represent the last century of Valois rule over the French Kingdom from 1450-1589 CE. The period was greatly impacted by the French Renaissance, external war against the Italians and Habsburgs, and the internal Wars of Religion. First Late Valois king Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) continued to modernize the royal government, and implemented the first royal postal service. [1] The French Renaissance hit its cultural peak during the rule of Frances I (1515-1547 CE) and Henry II (1547-1559 CE). Artists and scholars traveled from Italy to France, and had an immense impact on architecture, culture, and art. Urban life was transformed by Renaissance culture and the printing press. [2]
Calais was returned to France from England, and Burgundy, Dauphiné, Provence, and the Three Bishoprics in Lorraine were secured in this period. [3] [1] The territory of the Kingdom of France was between 400,000 and 500,000 square meters during the rule of the Late Valois. [4] Outside of Europe, explorer Jacques Cartier paved the way for future French colonies in Canada, and French explorers and merchants began to exploit the west African coast. [5]
The Valois fought the Italian Wars from 1494-1559 CE over the French crown’s claim on the kingdom of Naples. In 1519 CE, Charles V of the Spanish Habsburgs became the Holy Roman Emperor. The wars in Italy were the start of a lasting rivalry between the Habsburgs and Valois. In 1559 CE, France gave up all claims in Italy. [3] The last Valois kings were weakened by the Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) (1562-1598 CE), between the Roman Catholics and Reformed Protestants. 3 million people died in the conflict or from famine or disease during the war. [6]
Population and political organization
Early Valois king Charles VII’s work to modernize the French government was continued by Louis XI. The royal council became less feudal and more bureaucratic, the king was advised by professional lawyers rather than feudal vassals, and the financial and judicial functions of government were separated. [7] [1]
The disasters of the late 14th and 15th century had decimated the population of many cities and towns in France. The nation recovered by the late 15th century. [3] The population of the Kingdom of France during the recovery period in 1470 CE is estimated to be between 10 million and 12 million. [8] In 1560 CE, the population reached 20 million. [9]

[1]: (Haine 2000, 46) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[2]: (Haine 2000, 47) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[3]: (Jones 1999, 130) Jones, Colin. 1999. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7QCEQCM6

[4]: (Potter, 1995, 4) Potter, D. 1995. A History of France, 1460-1560. The Emergence of a Nation State. Macmillan. London. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DVCUX6RX

[5]: (Haine 2000, 48) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[6]: (Knetcht 2002, 91) Knecht, Robert J. 2002. The French Religious Wars 1562-1598. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7QCEQCM6

[7]: (Jones 1999, 123) Jones, Colin. 1999. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7QCEQCM6

[8]: (Potter, 1995, 170) Potter, D. 1995. A History of France, 1460-1560. The Emergence of a Nation State. Macmillan. London. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DVCUX6RX

[9]: (Potter, 1995, 8) Potter, D. 1995. A History of France, 1460-1560. The Emergence of a Nation State. Macmillan. London. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DVCUX6RX

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
French Kingdom - Late Valois  
Capital:
Paris  
Alternative Name:
Valois dynasty  
Kingdom of France  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,515 CE  
Duration:
[1,450 CE ➜ 1,589 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Early Bourbon  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Early Valois  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
French  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250,000 to 300,000] people  
Polity Territory:
[400,000 to 500,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[10,000,000 to 12,000,000] people 1470 CE
16,000,000 people 1500 CE
18,000,000 people 1515 CE
20,000,000 people 1560 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
7  
Military Level:
[10 to 12]  
Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
unknown  
Bridge:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
unknown  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
inferred present  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred present 1450 CE 1487 CE
absent 1488 CE 1589 CE
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range French Kingdom - Late Valois (fr_valois_k_2) was in:
 (1450 CE 1588 CE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
French Kingdom - Late Valois

Main royal institutions, the Parlement and financial courts, were in Paris. The royal court, however, was peripatetic. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 4)



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,515 CE

Reigns of Charles VIII (1483-1498 CE) and Louis VII (1498-1515 CE) witnessed "a remarkable recovery and expansion." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 2)


Duration:
[1,450 CE ➜ 1,589 CE]

"But the accession of Louis XI and perhaps the conclusion of the War of the Public Weal in 1465 really did coincide with a reversal of the trend of demographic and political collapse which had dominated the history of France for a century." [1]
Reigns of Charles VIII (1483-1498 CE) and Louis VII (1498-1515 CE) witnessed "a remarkable recovery and expansion." [1]
"The crisis of 1557-62 was an ominous prelude to civil war and collapse." [2]
End 16th century according to Jean du Port: "France was then so ruined and depopulated that it seemed more like a desert than a flourishing kingdom, for there was no one in the fields, the country folk had fled to the churches and strongholds, not daring to emerge for fear of the gendarmerie which was usually in the countryside. It had become fallow, full of thickets and woods by the continuous wars under three kings and more like the haunt of beasts than of men." [3]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 2)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 7)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 1)


Political and Cultural Relations

Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Early Bourbon


Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Early Valois

Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Government was more centralized north of the Loire. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 5)

Degree of Centralization:
loose

Government was more centralized north of the Loire. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 5)


Language

Language:
French

Kingdom contained 5 languages: "French, occitan (Provencal, Auvergnat, Gascon etc.), Basque, Breton and Flemish." French language, favoured in court and central government, spread gradually into the regions. "The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 6)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[250,000 to 300,000] people

Lyon: 20,000: 1450 CE; 40,000: 1500 CE; 70,000: 1550 CE. [1]
Rouen: 20,000: 1450 CE; [60,000-70,000]: 1560 CE. [1]
Paris: 300,000: 1560 CE. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 10)


Polity Territory:
[400,000 to 500,000] km2

in squared kilometers.
425,000: 1461 CE; 460,000: 1483 CE [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 4)


Polity Population:
[10,000,000 to 12,000,000] people
1470 CE

Catastrophic collapse: 1350-1450 CE. Patchy revival: 1450-1500 CE. Population boom: 1500-1550 CE. Hesitated: 1550-1600 CE. [1]
[10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470s CE [2] (Mousnier) 18,000,000: 1515 CE [3] (Pierre Chaunu) 16,000,000: 1500 CE [3] (Ladurie) 20,000,000: 1560 CE [3]
Urbanization: 6-10% "much birth in the country, much death in the town." [4] [5]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 7-8)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 170)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 8)

[4]: (Potter 1995, 9

[5]: cite: Dupaquier 1996, 394)

Polity Population:
16,000,000 people
1500 CE

Catastrophic collapse: 1350-1450 CE. Patchy revival: 1450-1500 CE. Population boom: 1500-1550 CE. Hesitated: 1550-1600 CE. [1]
[10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470s CE [2] (Mousnier) 18,000,000: 1515 CE [3] (Pierre Chaunu) 16,000,000: 1500 CE [3] (Ladurie) 20,000,000: 1560 CE [3]
Urbanization: 6-10% "much birth in the country, much death in the town." [4] [5]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 7-8)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 170)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 8)

[4]: (Potter 1995, 9

[5]: cite: Dupaquier 1996, 394)

Polity Population:
18,000,000 people
1515 CE

Catastrophic collapse: 1350-1450 CE. Patchy revival: 1450-1500 CE. Population boom: 1500-1550 CE. Hesitated: 1550-1600 CE. [1]
[10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470s CE [2] (Mousnier) 18,000,000: 1515 CE [3] (Pierre Chaunu) 16,000,000: 1500 CE [3] (Ladurie) 20,000,000: 1560 CE [3]
Urbanization: 6-10% "much birth in the country, much death in the town." [4] [5]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 7-8)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 170)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 8)

[4]: (Potter 1995, 9

[5]: cite: Dupaquier 1996, 394)

Polity Population:
20,000,000 people
1560 CE

Catastrophic collapse: 1350-1450 CE. Patchy revival: 1450-1500 CE. Population boom: 1500-1550 CE. Hesitated: 1550-1600 CE. [1]
[10,000,000-12,000,000]: 1470s CE [2] (Mousnier) 18,000,000: 1515 CE [3] (Pierre Chaunu) 16,000,000: 1500 CE [3] (Ladurie) 20,000,000: 1560 CE [3]
Urbanization: 6-10% "much birth in the country, much death in the town." [4] [5]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 7-8)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 170)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 8)

[4]: (Potter 1995, 9

[5]: cite: Dupaquier 1996, 394)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels.
1. Capital city
Paris
2. Provincial capitalLyon? Rouen?
3. Bailliage or Sénéchiaussée townfew cities topped 30,000. [1]
4. Town associated with castle of a Prévôt10,000 was a substantial town. [1]
5. Village
6. Hamlet

[1]: (Potter 2008, 187)


Religious Level:
7

levels. [1]
"The struggles over the institutional government of the church were shaped by the formation of two main strands of thinking about the church in France which can be classified as "Gallician": the theological, which sought to make of the universal church a limited monarchy and to undertake a profound "reformation" of its structure; and the political, the doctrine above all of the Parlement of Paris, which invoked the king’s supreme jurisdiction in its refusal to allow the free exercise of papal jurisdiction in France. These two strands of thought came together in the idea of hostility to Rome..." [2]
1. Pope
de jure #1
1. King
de facto #1. made ecclesiastical appointments
2. Parlement of Paris"issued orders in January 1535 offering rewards for those who denounced heretics and punishments for concealments." [3]
3. Council of the French ChurchCardinals, Papal legates
4. Archbishop in archbishopric5. deputy called vicar-general?
5. Bishop in Diocese1551 CE diocese of Lombez had 154 priests in 91 parishes (low density priests to parishes) where as diocese of Leon (Brittany) had "an exceptionally dense concentration of clergy."
under Francis I "only six known commoners promoted as bishops who in fact owed their positions to their scholarship and close relationship to the royal household."6. Archdeacon7. Parish priestPriest / Cures / Vicaires. "in the 392 parishes of Beauvais, there were only 80 resident cures ... distributed unevenly, the rest replaced by vicaires."

[1]: (Potter 1995, 207-250)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 220)

[3]: (Potter 1995, 247)


Military Level:
[10 to 12]

levels.
1. King
Commander-in-chief
2. Secretaires des guerres / senior councillor
2. ConstableConstable of France [1]
3?. Marshall3-5 marshals [2]
4. CaptainCaptains of heavy cavalry important role among in the staff command structure [2]
5. Lieutenant-general"A deep pocket was a crucial advantage to a commander." Expected to lavish gifts on army. [3]
"successful commanders had to navigate the labyrinth of politics and patronage in order to obtain funds for their armies." [4]
6?. Marechal de camp / Maitre de camp (cavalry / infantry) [5]
6?. Marechal de logis / maitre l’artilerie [5] 7. Sergent de bataille [5] 8. Colonel [6] 9. CaptainCaptain of a company. [7]
10. LieutenantCould be promoted to captain. [7]
11. Sergeant [8] 12. Individual soldier
Louis XI wanted new permanent army with: 4 royal lieutenants over 10 vicaires each commanding 10 captains who each lead 10 dizainiers who each took charge of 10 soldiers. However reforms abandoned 1483 CE. [9]
By 1562 CE companies were formed into larger groups called regiments. [10]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 45)

[2]: (Potter 2008, 44)

[3]: (Potter 2008, 47)

[4]: (Potter 2008, 49)

[5]: (Potter 2008, 50)

[6]: (Potter 2008, 59)

[7]: (Potter 2008, 72)

[8]: (Potter 2008, 113)

[9]: (Potter 2008, 105-106)

[10]: (Potter 2008, 78-79)


Administrative Level:
[5 to 6]

levels. [1]
1. King
considered guardian of divine and human law
_Central government_

2. Conseil du roi3. Head of the Royal Secretariat (recorded council business and drafted acts, correspondence, etc. and archived. Head-quartered at Celestins monastery).title of Premier secretaire du roi not in use after 1460 CE but position still de facto occupied. gained further responsibilities including those of the secretaires des guerres (created 1472 CE) and greffier (clerk) of council.
4. Bureaucrats of the divisions of the Royal Secretariat head-quartered at the Celestins monastery5 Lesser bureaucrats inferred6. Lesser bureaucrats inferred
4?. secretaire des finances
Conseil du roi (highest organ of public power in 15th and 16th centuries) over-overwhelmingly composed of aristocrats, especially as cardinals from 1520s CE. councils of government reflected a strong ethos of collective decision-making process.
Grand conseil de justice emerged under Louis XI (1461-1483 CE).
Conseil Etroit (known by this name from 1484 CE) - inner councillors and princes of the blood.. Conseil secret within this conseil had 3 members. Conseil Etroit became known as Conseil prive from mid-1530s CE.
Conseil des affaires, morning council with the king which considered the latest despatches. mid-16th century?
Parlements of Paris. "Each Parlement claimed sovereign jurisdiction in its own territory and not all edicts registered at Paris were registered in the provinces. They thus remained unimplemented. However, only the Parlement of Paris could admit officiers or constitute itself as a chamber of peers."
_Provincial government_

2. Provincial Parlements"Each Parlement claimed sovereign jurisdiction in its own territory and not all edicts registered at Paris were registered in the provinces. They thus remained unimplemented. However, only the Parlement of Paris could admit officiers or constitute itself as a chamber of peers."
2. Provincial governor of provincial gouvernements (King’s lieutenant-general)"representatives of the King’s person in the provinces"
Limited terms, perhaps 3-5 years
Powers between provincial Parlements and provincial governments often contested.
3. Bailiff in a Bailliages (Northern France); seneschal in a Sénéchiaussée (Southern France)1515 CE France had about 100 bailliages
Bernard Guenee said: bailliages were not divided into chatellenies, they were made up of them.
4. Prévôt in a Prévôté (or vicomte)/Chatelleniethis level was the "bedrock of the system of law and administration."
consisted of a "castle, dependant lands and rights with, significantly, only one "custom" prevailing in it."
5. Leader of a parishwithin Chatellenies. E.g. in 1562 CE there were 43 parishes within the Pontoise chatellenie.
X. Seigneuries
Seigneuries (lordships) owned by seigneurs
The "chatellenie was the essential administrative unit, sometimes a royal chatellenie, sometimes seigneurial."
X. Great fiefs and (apanages of the crown) - level replaced by provincial bodies80 fiefs in 1480 CE, c40 in 1530 CE
Apanage of Orleans returned 1498 CE. Burgundy 1477 CE. Picardy-Artois 1477 CE. Avergne 1531 CE. Brittany 1536 CE. Maine 1481 CE. Anjou 1481 CE.

[1]: (Potter 1995)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Permanent armed forces. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 123)


Professional Priesthood:
present

Christianity.


Professional Military Officer:
present

Paid salary. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 50)


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Merit Promotion:
absent

Within the church, the papal Concordat of Bologna (negotiated between king of France and the pope) promulgated in Rome 1516 CE "dispensed princes of the blood and members of great families from the requirement of a University degree, although the king had the phrase: "the king will name a qualified person, that is to say a graduate or a noble" modified by deleting the last three words in order to minimise lobbying. However, the overwhelming noble status of the bishops appointed after 1516 CE is clear." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 225. 228-229)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

Provincial governor "paid fixed emoluments like other office-holders." [1]
Roland Mousnier estimated 1515 CE at least 4,041 executive office-holders. Pierre Chaunu estimated 5,000, and with clercs and commis the "administrative technostructure" would be 7,000-8,000, making 1 bureaucrat per 57.5 sq km, or 1 per 2,000 people. [2]
Offices could be bought and sold because they were thought of as property and thus profit-making. Sold by the state to raise money. For a price the office could be made hereditary (and thus withdrawn from market). Frequently new offices were created to raise money.

[1]: (Potter 1995, 118)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 123)


Examination System:
present

through the universities


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Trained lawyers. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 122)


Judge:
present

Coded present for Early Valois. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Formal Legal Code:
present

Customary law became codified between mid-15th to mid-16th century. The idea of a single code of law was discussed but not taken further by the Assembly of Notables in 1517 CE. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 5)


Coded present for Early Valois
Law courts called parlements established at the Royal Palace in Paris by Philip IV. Justice administration "in the hands of parlements staffed by professional lawyers organized in three chambers." [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 68)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
present

Water-mills. [1]

[1]: (Heller 2002, 170)



Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown

Cisterns?


Transport Infrastructure

[1] By early 14th century Paris had paved streets. Roads around Ile de France region also improved. [2] Royal toll stations, e.g. at Bapaume. [3]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 130)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 101)

[3]: (Spufford 2006, 162)


Many ports at mouth of Rhone. Louis IX in the 1260s CE built a new fortified port on royal lands called Aigues Mortes. [1]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 171-172)



Bridge:
present

Early Valois bridges built over Saone at St-Jean-de-Losne. [1] and bridge of St. Laurent at Macon. [2]

[1]: (Spufford 2006, 155)

[2]: (Spufford 2006, 164)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [1]

[1]: (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Anything written by the era’s literati.


Script:
present

French language.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

French language.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

French language.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Jean-Pierre de Mesmes "Institutions astronomiques (1557 CE): "celebrates the development of vernacular poetry and history and the beginnings of a distinctly French philosophy and mathematics." [1]

[1]: (Heller 2002, 24)



Religious Literature:
present

Jean du Tillet and Charles Dumoulin: 16th century Gallician theorists. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 220)


Practical Literature:
present

Maps "that began to disseminate a definitive visual image of the kingdom" [1] such as produced by Oronce Fine (1494-1555 CE) who was also a mathematician, and Charles Estienne (1504-1564 CE) who was also an anatomist.

[1]: (Potter 1998, 28)



Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Each region had own measures for dry goods and wine despite effort by Henri II (1547-1559 CE) in Paris to impose one standard. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, xvi)


History:
present

Nicolle Gilles: "Annales et Chroniques" (1492 CE) and Robert Gaguin: "Compendium de origine et gestis Francorum" (1495 CE) important for formation of French national identity under the monarchy. The early identity had France founded by Trojans. Paolo Emilio’s "De rebus gestis Francorum" (published between 1517-1539) was "the first complete humanist history" and he told that France was founded by Clovis. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 19-21)


Fiction:
present

Rabelais, La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel.



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

Livre tournois, of 20 sols and 240 deniers, was a unit of account. Widely used gold coin, ecu d’or soleil fixed at 36s3d in 1498 CE, 2 livres (i.e. 40s) in 1516 CE, 45s in 1533 CE, 50s in 1551 CE, 60s in 1574 CE. Widely used silver coin, teston, fixed at 10s in 1498 CE, 10s6d in 1541 CE, 12s in 1561 CE. The livre parisis was a lesser used larger unit of account: 1 sol tournois = 15 deniers parisis. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, xvi)




Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Royal postal system founded by Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) in 1464 CE. Network of stations and horses. Not for public use. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1998, 27)


General Postal Service:
absent

Royal postal system founded by Louis XI (1461-1483 CE) in 1464 CE. Network of stations and horses. Not for public use. [1]

[1]: (Potter 1998, 27)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Present in previous and subsequent periods.



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Present. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 352)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Present in previous and subsequent periods.


Modern Fortification:
present

"Castle architecture became increasingly complex from the 12th to 13th centuries. ... All of these precautions became obsolete with the widespread use of gunpowder in the 14th and 15th centuries, and castles became simply country residences for the nobility." [1]

[1]: (Jesse 1995, 181) Scott Jesse. Castles. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.



Fortified Camp:
present

Fortified camps particularly significant in 16th Century. Popular example 1536 CE fortified camp built under Montmorency near Avignon. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 203)


Earth Rampart:
present

Present. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 352)


Ditch:
present

Present in previous and subsequent periods.


Complex Fortification:
present

"The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada). [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.



Military use of Metals

Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with ’steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.’" [1] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869." [2]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


[1]

[1]: (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.


Copper:
present

Bronze sword hilts?


Bronze:
present

Bronze sword hilts?


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Cannon was in use at this time.


Sling Siege Engine:
present
1450 CE 1487 CE

"The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada). [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
absent
1488 CE 1589 CE

"The final use of the trebuchet in Europe was probably the siege of Malaga in 1487."(Castile and Aragon vs Emirate of Granada). [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


inferred from discussion in sources of projectile technology during this period


Self Bow:
present

Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: use of longbowman and mounted archer increased. [1]

[1]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Javelin:
absent

Absent in previous and subsequent periods.


Handheld Firearm:
present

After 1350 CE primitive handgun. [1] Arquebusiers [2]

[1]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[2]: (Potter 2008, 58)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Used from about 1380 CE. [1] Present. [2]

[1]: (De Vries 1995, 1837-1839) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[2]: (Potter 2008, 8)


Crossbow:
present

Crossbowmen. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 103)


Composite Bow:
unknown

"With the influx of crossbows, the use of short bows died out in French armies, and by the 13th century they were not considered a weapon of war in most parts of Europe. However, they did persist as hunting weapons. During the late Middle Ages, the crossbow dominated the archery of the French army, although some French military leaders attempted to hire groups of short - and longbowmen from Scotland and mounted archers from Spain and Italy." [1] Archers from Brittany - simple bow? [2]

[1]: (De Vries in Kibler 1995, 114)

[2]: (Potter 2008, 72)


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: mace. [1]

[1]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Present. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the ’mercy’ of death to the mortally wounded." [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 43)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Lances. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 78)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Polearm:
present

Pikemen. [1] Halberdiers. [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 102)

[2]: (Potter 2008, 103)


Dagger:
present

Present. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "In both armies, the basic weapon was a long straight sword, worn usually on the left side and balanced on the right by a short dagger called a misericord, because it was often used to grant the ’mercy’ of death to the mortally wounded." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: certain types of dagger used to exploit gaps in armour. [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 103)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Battle Axe:
present

Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [1]

[1]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Armor

Shield:
present

Rarely carried from mid-14th century. [1] From about 1380 CE shield abandoned. [2] Present. [3] Why does Potter say present? Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: "On horseback, the principal weapon was a 10-foot-long wooden lance carried with a small wedge-shaped shield and sometimes a short, steel-handled battleaxe." [4] Academic disagreement. Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: many knights discarded shields in the mid-15th CE but men-at-arms carried a light buckler. [4]

[1]: (Nicolle 2000, 15) David Nicolle. 2000. French Armies Of The Hundred Years War. Osprey Publishing. Oxford.

[2]: (Boulton 1995, 124-127) W W Kibler. G A Zinn. 1995. Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge.

[3]: (Potter 2008, 93)

[4]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Plate Armor:
present

As much as "350 lbs" - surely a typo for 35 lbs, or 15.9kg - after 1500 CE due to emergence of gunshot. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: pollaxe: 4-6 foot wooden shaft with spike and axehead. [3]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 78-79)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[3]: (Wagner 2006, 27) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

Gauntlets and greaves. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: plate shotes, greaves, cuisses (leg coverings), knee piece, vambraces (lower arm), rebraces (upper arm), cowters and pauldrons (elbows and shoulders), gauntlets (hands and wrists), bevor (triangular metal plate to protect the neck). [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 79)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: full metal armour worn over padded doublet. [1]

[1]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.



Helmet:
present

Present. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 79)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Chainmail:
present

Mail gorgets, mail skirts. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 103)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

Cuirasses. [1] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: typical French knight wore "plate armor for shoulders and limbs topped by a bascinet, a metal helmet with projecting hinged visors and air holes. Instead of the surcoat, they wore a shorter leather jupon, and their warhorses were also armored, with plate covering their heads and mail or leather their flanks." [2] Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) reference: upper and lower breastplates. [2]

[1]: (Carroll 2006, 113)

[2]: (Wagner 2006, 27-29) John A Wagner. 2006. Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Navy. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 355)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

Present. [1]

[1]: (Potter 2008, 60)




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.