Home Region:  Western Europe (Europe)

French Kingdom - Early Bourbon

EQ 2020  fr_bourbon_k_1 / FrBurbE

The House of Bourbon (The Ancien Regime) ruled France from the death of the childless Late Valois king Henry III in 1589 CE to the re-convening of the Estates General during the French Revolution. The Early Bourbon period covers the Kingdom of France from the inheritance of the monarchy by Henry VI to the rise of Louis XIV in 1661 CE. Henry VI inherited the crown amidst the Wars of Religion between the Roman Catholics and the Reformed Protestants, and is celebrated for his tolerance because of his the Edict of Nantes, which granted some rights to Protestants. [1] The reign of Henry VI restored the French monarchy to full power, and his superintendent of finance Sully was able to double state revenues. [1] The French army was modernized by King Louis XIII’s cardinal minister Richelieu. The Fronde, a series of revolts in the 1640s against cardinal minister Mazarin, led the crown to consolidate its power even further. [2] This paved the way for the absolute rule of King Louis XIV in the Late Bourbon period.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Québec, and the surrounding territory was claimed as New France. France obtained land from Spain in the south and German land from the Holy Roman Empire in the north in treaties from the Thirty Years’ War in 1648 CE and 1659 CE. [1] Because of these new claims, the territory of the French Kingdom covered 931,000 in 1600 CE and 2.6 million square meters by 1650 CE. [3]
Population and political organization
Important institutional and military reforms were instituted in this period. King Henry IV instituted a tax on holders of government and judicial offices which gave the owners of the office the right to transfer their position. The expansion and modernization of the French army under Richelieu led to the large-scale expansion of the French bureaucracy. [4]
The population within the boundaries of present day France is estimated at 18.5 million in 1600 CE, and 21 million in 1650 CE. [5]

[1]: (Haine 2000, 50) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[2]: (Haine 2000, 55) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[3]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[4]: (Haine 2000, 50-51) Haine, W. Scott. 2000. The History of France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/9RS462P7

[5]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 56. McEvedy C, Jones, R (1979) Atlas of World Population History, Allen Lane, London. https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6U4QZXCG/).

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
31 U  
Original Name:
French Kingdom - Early Bourbon  
Capital:
Paris  
Alternative Name:
The Ancien Regime  
Kingdom of France  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,611 CE  
Duration:
[1,589 CE ➜ 1,660 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
none  
Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Bourbon  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Valois  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
French  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
200,000 people 1590 CE
245,000 people 1600 CE
430,000 people 1637 CE
455,000 people 1650 CE
Polity Territory:
931,000 km2 1600 CE
2,600,000 km2 1650 CE
Polity Population:
18,500,000 people 1600 CE
21,000,000 people 1650 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6  
Religious Level:
7  
Military Level:
[10 to 12]  
Administrative Level:
6  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
inferred present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
unknown  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
unknown  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
present  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred absent  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred absent  
  Javelin:
inferred absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred absent  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
inferred absent  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
unknown  
  Scaled Armor:
inferred absent  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred absent  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range French Kingdom - Early Bourbon (fr_bourbon_k_1) was in:
 (1589 CE 1659 CE)   Paris Basin
Home NGA: Paris Basin

General Variables
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,611 CE

Before Sully, superintendant of finances, was fired? [1] Or Richelieu? - however, wars lead to "ruinous state of the finances" c1630 CE. [2]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 65)

[2]: (Briggs 1998, 95)


Duration:
[1,589 CE ➜ 1,660 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations

Succeeding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Bourbon


Preceding Entity:
French Kingdom - Late Valois


Language

Language:
French

"The jurists of the chancellery and high courts had worked essentially in French from the fourteenth century and this opened the way for the triumph of French as the literary language." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 6)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
200,000 people
1590 CE

Paris.
245,000: 1600 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE [1]
200,000: 1590 CE (in aftermath of siege); 430,000: 1637 CE [2]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 97)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
245,000 people
1600 CE

Paris.
245,000: 1600 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE [1]
200,000: 1590 CE (in aftermath of siege); 430,000: 1637 CE [2]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 97)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
430,000 people
1637 CE

Paris.
245,000: 1600 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE [1]
200,000: 1590 CE (in aftermath of siege); 430,000: 1637 CE [2]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 97)

Population of the Largest Settlement:
455,000 people
1650 CE

Paris.
245,000: 1600 CE; 455,000: 1650 CE [1]
200,000: 1590 CE (in aftermath of siege); 430,000: 1637 CE [2]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 97)


Polity Territory:
931,000 km2
1600 CE

in squared kilometers.
931,000: 1600 CE; 2,600,000: 1650 CE [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)

Polity Territory:
2,600,000 km2
1650 CE

in squared kilometers.
931,000: 1600 CE; 2,600,000: 1650 CE [1]

[1]: (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)


Polity Population:
18,500,000 people
1600 CE

Estimate, within boundaries of present day France: 18,500,000: 1600 CE; 21,000,000: 1650 CE [1]
20,000,000 at time of Richelieu. [2]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 56)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 40)

Polity Population:
21,000,000 people
1650 CE

Estimate, within boundaries of present day France: 18,500,000: 1600 CE; 21,000,000: 1650 CE [1]
20,000,000 at time of Richelieu. [2]

[1]: (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 56)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 40)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
6

levels.
1. Capital city
2. Provincial city3?. ColoniesQuebec, Antilles, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominica. [1]
3. Large town4. Town - Prévôt5. Village6. HamletUrbanization: 14% 1600 CE. [2]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 65)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 306)


Religious Level:
7

levels. [1]
1. Pope
de jure #1
1. King
de facto #1. made ecclesiastical appointments
2. Parlement of Paris"issued orders in January 1535 offering rewards for those who denounced heretics and punishments for concealments." [2]
3. Council of the French ChurchCardinals, Papal legates
4. Archbishop in archbishopric5. deputy called vicar-general?
5. Bishop in Diocese1551 CE diocese of Lombez had 154 priests in 91 parishes (low density priests to parishes) where as diocese of Leon (Brittany) had "an exceptionally dense concentration of clergy."
under Francis I "only six known commoners promoted as bishops who in fact owed their positions to their scholarship and close relationship to the royal household."6. Archdeacon7. Parish priestPriest / Cures / Vicaires. "in the 392 parishes of Beauvais, there were only 80 resident cures ... distributed unevenly, the rest replaced by vicaires."

[1]: (Potter 1995, 207-250)

[2]: (Potter 1995, 247)


Military Level:
[10 to 12]

levels.
Lieutenant-General
[1]
possibly 10-12 levels in 1450-1589 CE period (below):
1. King
Commander-in-chief
2. Secretaires des guerres / senior councillor
2. ConstableConstable of France [2]
3?. Marshall3-5 marshals [3]
4. CaptainCaptains of heavy cavalry important role among in the staff command structure [3]
5. Lieutenant-general"A deep pocket was a crucial advantage to a commander." Expected to lavish gifts on army. [4]
"successful commanders had to navigate the labyrinth of politics and patronage in order to obtain funds for their armies." [5]
6?. Marechal de camp / Maitre de camp (cavalry / infantry) [6]
6?. Marechal de logis / maitre l’artilerie [6] 7. Sergent de bataille [6] 8. Colonel [7] 9. CaptainCaptain of a company. [8]
10. LieutenantCould be promoted to captain. [8]
11. Sergeant [9] 12. Individual soldier

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 119)

[2]: (Potter 2008, 45)

[3]: (Potter 2008, 44)

[4]: (Potter 2008, 47)

[5]: (Potter 2008, 49)

[6]: (Potter 2008, 50)

[7]: (Potter 2008, 59)

[8]: (Potter 2008, 72)

[9]: (Potter 2008, 113)


Administrative Level:
6

levels.
1. King

_Central government_
2. Conseil d’en haut. Dominated by influential figure such as Cardinal Richelieu, then Marazin.3. Officials of other councils of government. (The Conseil d’en haut being the "supreme governing council of the state.") [1] 4.5.
2. Estates-General (until 1614 CE).3.Last session until 1789 CE [2]
2. Parlement of Paris3.
_Provincial government_
2. Superintendant
3. Intendant [3] in a generalite [4] 4. Subdelegue"the office of subdelegue quickly established itself as an essential aid to the overworked intendants, who desperately needed reliable subordinates with local knowledge. There were always some ambitious local officials who were prepared to accept these unpopular positions..." [4]
"During the 1630s the presence of an intendant became the normal rule, where it had previously been sporadic; without an clear intention, the crown was establishing a parallel system of non-venal administrators, with tremendous potential as a tool for centralization." [5]
Intendants were about 80 men [6] who "could rely on the council to issue arrets in line with their recommendations." [6]
4. City governorGovernor of Paris [7]
5.
4. Provincial governor [8] ; Governors [4] 5. Lieutenant-governor [4]
5. Prévôt [7] in a Prévôté
6. Leader of a parish

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 76)

[2]: (Ladurie 1991, 514)

[3]: (Ladurie 1991, 73)

[4]: (Briggs 1998, 120)

[5]: (Briggs 1998, 118)

[6]: (Briggs 1998, 119)

[7]: (Ladurie 1991, 119)

[8]: (Ladurie 1991, 75)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Lynn notes that armies of the fifteenth, sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries were assembled for particular campaigns from a combination of native French units, foreign hired mercenary bands (usually Swiss) and the private armies of major nobles who offered their services in exchange for money or favor. This is known an “aggregate contract army” rather than a standing army composed of professional officers and soldiers. “The quality of the foreign mercenaries was much higher than the far less professional French.” [1] According to historian Henrico Davila, Henry IV was the General of a volunteer army [2] in addition to the hired mercenaries. Lynn notes that “the French army, particularly its infantry, had once been an aggregate of temporary mercenary units and private forces raised by grandees, but by the mid-1600s, it had become the province of the King alone, a royal instrument with a large permanent establishment directly commanded by the monarch,” and yet, “ostensibly voluntary enlistment provided most of the recruits.” [3] “The state never mastered the ability to pay for its own army.” [4] According to Mears, it was not until later that professionalism came under regular control. “In 1670, a uniform scale of pay was laid down for each branch of the service, and what was more important, the pay was actually forthcoming.” [5]

[1]: (Lynn 1997, 6-7)

[2]: (Davila p.534)

[3]: (Lynn 1997, xvi-xvii, 7-8)

[4]: (Lynn 1997, xvii, 8)

[5]: (Mears 1969, 113)


Professional Priesthood:
present

1620s were a turning point in terms of ecclesiastic growth, reaching a peak in the 1630s with nine out of every ten bishops being ordained priests, “and thereby fully committed to ecclesiastical careers.” Bergin also notes that the decision to be ordained a priest could never really be divorced from career prospects, especially that of the episcopate itself. [1] [2] Essentially, the transformation of parish priests into liturgical performers was also part of this larger effort to professionalize the secular clergy during the second half of the seventeenth century. In addition, by 1640 a new professional identity for priesthood was being forged through seminary education. [3]

[1]: (Bergin 1996, 253-254)

[2]: (de Franceschi 2001, 41)

[3]: (Palacios 2012, 14-16, 81)


Professional Military Officer:
present

eg. Captains, commanders, colonels [1] “Parma commanded a disciplined, professional army in contrast to Henry’s largely volunteer forces, at least where the nobility were concerned.” [2] Between 1610 and 1652, French military officers were lured to the Netherlands for expert training from the Dutch. Here the most important innovation was the incorporation of drill and discipline to control a large standing army. 1652 the Royal Army created, consisting of professional officers and soldiers, marking the first major step becoming a “premier land force in Europe.” [3] Until the changes of the mid-1600s, “the officer corps reflected a unique culture of command based upon aristocratic values that attracted young nobles to the service but limited the professionalization of the army.” [4] For example, there came a need to commission rich men because of their wealth and credit were required for the proper maintenance of units, which came a at a cost to the professionalization of both officer and soldier. “The state never mastered the ability to pay for its own army.” [5] Despite efforts to create a more professional military by moving through the seventeenth century culture of command, by the close of the grand siècle, the French officer straddled archaic values of aristocratic honor and independence, on one side, and new standards of professional competence and hierarchy, on the other. [6]

[1]: (Potter 2008: 44, 47, 50, 59)

[2]: (Love 2005, 75)

[3]: (Lynn 1985, 177)

[4]: (Lynn 1997, xvi, 8-9)

[5]: (Lynn 1997, xvii, 9)

[6]: (Lynn 1997, 248)

Professional Military Officer:
absent

eg. Captains, commanders, colonels [1] “Parma commanded a disciplined, professional army in contrast to Henry’s largely volunteer forces, at least where the nobility were concerned.” [2] Between 1610 and 1652, French military officers were lured to the Netherlands for expert training from the Dutch. Here the most important innovation was the incorporation of drill and discipline to control a large standing army. 1652 the Royal Army created, consisting of professional officers and soldiers, marking the first major step becoming a “premier land force in Europe.” [3] Until the changes of the mid-1600s, “the officer corps reflected a unique culture of command based upon aristocratic values that attracted young nobles to the service but limited the professionalization of the army.” [4] For example, there came a need to commission rich men because of their wealth and credit were required for the proper maintenance of units, which came a at a cost to the professionalization of both officer and soldier. “The state never mastered the ability to pay for its own army.” [5] Despite efforts to create a more professional military by moving through the seventeenth century culture of command, by the close of the grand siècle, the French officer straddled archaic values of aristocratic honor and independence, on one side, and new standards of professional competence and hierarchy, on the other. [6]

[1]: (Potter 2008: 44, 47, 50, 59)

[2]: (Love 2005, 75)

[3]: (Lynn 1985, 177)

[4]: (Lynn 1997, xvi, 8-9)

[5]: (Lynn 1997, xvii, 9)

[6]: (Lynn 1997, 248)


Bureaucracy Characteristics

Merit Promotion:
absent

Within the church, the papal Concordat of Bologna (negotiated between king of France and the pope) promulgated in Rome 1516 CE "dispensed princes of the blood and members of great families from the requirement of a University degree, although the king had the phrase: "the king will name a qualified person, that is to say a graduate or a noble" modified by deleting the last three words in order to minimise lobbying. However, the overwhelming noble status of the bishops appointed after 1516 CE is clear." [1]

[1]: (Potter 1995, 225. 228-229)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

50,000 state officials in 1661 CE. [1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 2)


Examination System:
present

In theory university qualifications were required for many top posts in government.


Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

Magistrates, advocates. [1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 73)


Magistrates. [1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 73)


Formal Legal Code:
present

"After the dissolution of the Assembly, Marillac was charged with preparing an enormous ordinance, clarifying and regulating virtually every aspect of the relations between crown and subjects. Nicknamed the "code Michaud" after its draughtsman, this was an unwieldy collection of pious hopes, which inevitably contained something to upset almost everybody; all that was lacking was any plausible scheme for enforcing it. ... Like its sixteenth-century predecessors, the code soon became a dead letter in most respects; after Marillac’s disgrace the government openly connived at the evasion of many of its provisions by the courts, while ignoring others itself." (Assembly refers to Assembly of Notables 1626-1627 CE). [1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 95-96)


[1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 74)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

Inspectors and product regulations. [1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 67)


Irrigation System:
present

[1]

[1]: (Heller 2002, 170)



Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"The actual conditions of life in towns were often pirmitive, even squalid; sanitation was virtually non-existent, water supplies unreliable, housing cramped and uncomfortable." [1] - what did the water supplies entail?

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 53)


Transport Infrastructure

Sully (1560-1641), as superintendant of finances, improved the transport system: "under his control a higher proportion of royal expenditure went on roads, canals, and port facilities than at any other time during the century." However, "after his dismissal in 1611 progress was minimal." [1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 65)


[1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 65)


[1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 65)



Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [1]

[1]: (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)


Information / Writing System





Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 CE) mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. René Descartes (1596-1650 CE) philosopher, mathematician and writer (however he mostly lived abroad).




Practical Literature:
present

Daniel de Priézac (1590-1662 CE) writer and jurist, founding member French Academy.


Philosophy:
present

Jean de Silhon (1596-1667 CE) founding member French Academy.




Fiction:
present

Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac (1597-1654 CE), founding member French Academy. François de La Mothe Le Vayer (1588-1672 CE), founding member French Academy.



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

Livre tournois. Silver livre tournois which was worth 20 sous or 240 deniers. Early in the eighteenth century two attempts were made to introduce a paper currency which both failed. [1] [2]

[1]: Ladurie, E L. 1991. The Ancien Regime. A History of France, 1610-1774. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. p. 336, 554, 290.

[2]: Briggs, R. 1998. Early Modern France 1560-1715. Second edition. Oxford. Oxford University Press. p 151.



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

Postal relays were for exclusive royal and administrative use until 1603 CE when relays opened to the public. Starting in Paris 1760 CE mail began to be delivered to homes. [1]

[1]: (http://www.ladressemuseedelaposte.fr/La-Poste-en-quelques-dates)


General Postal Service:
absent

Postal relays were for exclusive royal and administrative use until 1603 CE when relays opened to the public. Starting in Paris 1760 CE mail began to be delivered to homes. [1] A general service did not exist in the year 1600 CE

[1]: (http://www.ladressemuseedelaposte.fr/La-Poste-en-quelques-dates)



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Present in previous and subsequent polities. ’



Stone Walls Mortared:
present

[1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 80)


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Present in previous and subsequent polities.


Modern Fortification:
present

Fortifications at Brouage. [1]

[1]: (Ladurie 1991, 80)




Earth Rampart:
present

Present in previous and subsequent polities. ’


Ditch:
present

Present in previous and subsequent polities. ’




Military use of Metals

[1]

[1]: (Horn 2006, 142) Jeff Horn. 2006. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830. The MIT Press. Cambridge.


[1]

[1]: (Horn 2006, 142) Jeff Horn. 2006. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830. The MIT Press. Cambridge.


Copper:
present

Minor role. [1]

[1]: (Horn 2006, 142) Jeff Horn. 2006. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830. The MIT Press. Cambridge.


Bronze:
present

Minor role. [1]

[1]: (Horn 2006, 142) Jeff Horn. 2006. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830. The MIT Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

Cannon took over as the siege weapon. Had they eliminated other projectile machines by this time?

Tension Siege Engine:
absent

Cannon took over as the siege weapon. Had they eliminated other projectile machines by this time?


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Absent in previous and subsequent periods.


Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Self Bow:
absent

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Javelin:
absent

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Handheld Firearm:
present

Louis XIII changed from rifled carbines to matchlock muskets (mousquets) in 1622 CE. From the 1680s CE muskets with "cheap but reliable flintlock mechanism replaced the older weapons in which the charge in the musket’s breech was ignited by applying a piece of lighted, slow-burning match." [1]

[1]: (Parrott 2012, 62) David Parrott. Armed Forces. William Doyle. ed. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of the Ancien Régime. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present

Gunpowder cannon smashed through castles, keeps, towers and walls bringing down the old aristocracy with it. [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 369) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Crossbow:
present

Maybe still some use of the crossbow? Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Composite Bow:
absent

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Sword:
present

Cavalry officers? Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned. Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats. [2] Still some lancers?

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Polearm:
present

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned. Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats. [2] Still some pikemen?

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Dagger:
unknown

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Battle Axe:
absent

Lances, swords, crossbowmen, longbows, pikemen were of central importance on the battlefield for at least 200 years after the first guns until the Battle of Carignola (1503 CE) which was probably decided by guns and Marignano (1515 CE) when Swiss squares were beaten by cavalry shooting pistols and cannon artillery. [1] The first Bourbon era 1589-1660 CE is firmly after the transition to firearm dominance so at this time the old weapons must have played only a minor role in warfare or had been completely abandoned.

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry carried guns. [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 367) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Elephant:
absent

Absent in previous and subsequent periods.




Absent in previous and subsequent periods.


Armor

Shield:
unknown

"Montgommery and Rohan were enthusiastic proponents of the use of small shields to defend musketeers against pikes. [1] Shields not mentioned by Nolan (2006) who covers the 1000-1650 CE period. [2]

[1]: David Parrott, Richelieu’s Army (2003), p. xiv

[2]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Scaled Armor:
absent

Only references are to plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds." [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 25) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Plate Armor:
present

The cuirass counts as plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds." [1] Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass". [2] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade." [2]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 25) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.

[2]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Limb Protection:
present

"By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade." [1] Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats. [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Leather Cloth:
present

"These negatives came to outweigh suit armor’s protective quality ... Instead, cloth or leather garments were worn and smaller, fleeter steeds were newly desired: the fully armed knight and the destrier retired from war together". [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 25) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Laminar Armor:
absent

Only references are to plate armour. "The full suit of body armor was thus a product of the end of the age of armor, and still in use into the 16th century. But personal plate became ineffective and obsolete with introduction of more powerful firearms capable of using corned gunpowder, which gave far greater penetrating power to handguns and cannon. At that point, the weight of ever-thickening plate became too great a burden: a fully articulated suit of 16th-century plate weighed 60 pounds." [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 25) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Helmet:
present

Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass". [1] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate. Leg armor went first, replaced by three-quarter leather skirts. ... By the end of the 17th century only bits and pieces of burnished metal survived here and there, and then mostly as polished ceremonial accouterments for officers-on-parade." [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Chainmail:
absent

Chainmail was standard in the 12th century against bladed weapons but in the 15th century was replaced by plate armour which could better deflect missiles and glancing blows. [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 24) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Breastplate:
present

Mercenary professionals: "By the 17th century most had discarded all armor other than a helmet and cuirass". [1] "By the mid-17th century even cavalry units, which were still predominantly aristocratic in origin, discarded most armor other than the helm and breastplate." [1] Infantry armor became heavier as cavalry armor was discarded. e.g. pikeman who faced lancers. Breastplates and steel leggings were available but most wore stiff leather coats. [1]

[1]: (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

Richelieu one of the founders of the modern French navy. [1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 66)


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

[1]

[1]: (Briggs 1998, 66)




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.