Home Region:  Central India (South Asia)

Vakataka Kingdom

D G SC WF HS EQ 2020  in_vakataka_k / InVakat

Preceding:
100 BCE 203 CE Satavahana Empire (in_satavahana_emp)    [None]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Vakataka dynasty ruled over the central Indian region of Vidarbha and surrounding areas between the 3rd and 6th centuries CE. This polity was founded by King Vindhyasakti in around 255 CE, reached its zenith around 510, and had been replaced by the Chalukya polity by the mid-6th century. [1] The Vakataka period was characterized by the establishment of a centrally ruling authority, agrarian expansion, and the revival of Hinduism, aided by an increase in royal land grants assigned for religious purposes and the construction of new temples. [2]
Population and political organization
The Vakataka polity was ruled by a king. [3] Inscriptions suggest that he was aided at court by ministers and administrative personnel, including revenue officers, and in the provinces by a hierarchy of provincial and local authorities. [2]
No population estimates for this period could be found in the specialist literature.

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 44, 123) Ramesh Chandra Majumdar and Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age circa 200-550 A.D. Benares: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ’State Formation Process in the Vidarbha during the Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-62.

[3]: (Sawant 2009, 145) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ’State Formation Process in the Vidarbha during the Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-62.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 Q  
Original Name:
Vakataka Kingdom  
Capital:
Padmapura  
Alternative Name:
Vakataka Dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
510 CE  
Duration:
[255 CE ➜ 550 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Satavahana Empire (in_satavahana_emp)    [None]  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Sanskrit  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Hinduism  
Religion Family:
Saivist Traditions  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[900,000 to 1,000,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[6,000,000 to 7,000,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5  
Religious Level:
[1 to 3]  
Military Level:
[4 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred absent  
Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
unknown  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
inferred present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Vakataka Kingdom (in_vakataka_k) was in:
 (286 CE 400 CE)   Deccan
Home NGA: Deccan

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Vakataka Kingdom

Vakataka Kingdom. [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 44) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Capital:
Padmapura

Eastern Vakatakas of Vidarbha. [1] Vidarbha is a region
Padmapura? "Vakataka queen (nee Gupta) followed in her father’s footsteps by favouring religious organisations and building temples. She may have been the major source of inspiration of her husband and have brought the Satvata ritual experts from Vatsagulma to Padmapura in order to serve in her new temple."
"the official records of Padmapura - Nandivardhana - Pravarapura branch" [2]

[1]: Bakker, Hans. October 2010. Royal Patronage and Religious Tolerance: The Formative Period of Gupta-Vakataka Culture. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 20. No. 4. pp.461-475.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Alternative Name:
Vakataka Dynasty

Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
510 CE

"The Vakataka empire, which was thus at the zenith of its glory at about 510 A.D., disappeared within less than forty years. By c. 500 A.D. the Chalukyas occupied the greater part of it." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 123) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Duration:
[255 CE ➜ 550 CE]

Start 255 CE
"Vindhyasakti, the founder of the Vakataka kingdom, ruled for about 20 years from c. 255 to 275 A.D. He was a contemporary of Rudra-sena II and seems to have annexed a part of eastern Malwa." [1]
The Vakataka-Gupta age "spread Indian religion and culture in eastern Asia. Hindu colonising activity was, no doubt, started long before our period, but it is after the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. that we are able to trace its definite course and achievements." [2]
End: c550 CE
"The Vakataka empire, which was thus at the zenith of its glory at about 510 A.D., disappeared within less than forty years. By c. 500 A.D. the Chalukyas occupied the greater part of it." [3]
"Around the middle of sixth century CE the territory of the Padmapura - Nandivardhana - Pravarapura branch came under the control of early Kalacuri king Krishnaraja who governed it through his vassals (Mirashi 1957: 62-65)." [4]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 44) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[2]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[3]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 123) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[4]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Alliance
"The Vakatakas and Guptas were closely related, with the Vakatakas being arguably the most important partner kingdom of the Gupta dynasty." [1] "Vakataka dynasty which flourished at the same time as its mightier neighbour, the Empire of the Guptas - first precariously in their shadow, but later in an alliance with them which was sealed by the marriage of the Vakataka king Rudrasena II to a daughter of Chandra Gupta II Vikramaditya (cc 380-415)." [2] "It is stated by H. Kulke (quoted in Kapur 2006: 35) that ‘the matrimonial alliance with Guptas raised the status of eastern Vakatakas and initiated three important innovations: land donations to Brahmanas (individual or community); foundation of state sanctuary (Ramgiri); and copper-plate donations to legitimate and strengthen their rule.’" [3]

[1]: Lacey, Harriet. Department of Archaeology. Durham University. https://www.dur.ac.uk/research/directory/staff/?mode=staff&id=10069

[2]: Karel, Werner. 1998. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 8. pp 459-461. The Vakaṭakas. An Essay in Hindu Iconology. By Hans T. Bakker. (Gonda Indological Studies, Vol V). 1997. pp. xiv, 211. Pl. xlvii.

[3]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Preceding Entity:
Satavahana Empire [in_satavahana_emp] ---> Vakataka Kingdom [in_vakataka_k]

"The Vakatakas succeeded the Satavahanas and rose to regal power sometime around the middle of the 3rd century CE" [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Degree of Centralization:
unitary state

Central authority
"the Vakataka period is represented by, 1. change in settlement pattern, 2. permanent land grants, 3. centrally ruling authority, 4. absence of long distance trade, and 5. revival of Brahmanism" [1]
Under Harishena, "no contemporary kingdom was so extensive and powerful. Hari-shena must have been an able ruler, a skilful administrator, and a renowned general to render this achievement possible." [2]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<

[2]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 123) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European

Language:
Sanskrit

Sanskrit. Gupta-Vakataka period: "The literary products of the age were numerous and varied, and some of the great masterpieces of Sanskrit literature like the Sakuntala, the Raghuvamsa and the Mrichohhakatika were composed in our period." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6-7) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Religion

Religion Family:
Saivist Traditions

Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[900,000 to 1,000,000] km2



Polity Population:
[6,000,000 to 7,000,000] people

People."In India the climate was quite congenial from 5th century BCE to 4th century CE, when Europe enjoyed a warmer phase. There was again as intensely cold phase in Europe from the 4th century - 10th century CE therefore it is inferred that India had an arid phase at that time (for details see Dhavalikar 2002)." [1] "The visible impact is - change in the pattern of settlements; change from urban (monetary) to more village-based economy; increase in land grants (minimizing cash transaction); probably the hardships and adverse conditions in life gave rise to propensity towards godly faith visibly resulted in large number of religious structures." [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
5

levels.
"The Vakataka period is particularly important as far as Vidarbha (eastern part of Maharashtra) history is concerned, as it witnessed a drastic change in settlement pattern" [1]
1. Capital
2. Capital town (pura, nagara?)3. Town (gramma? gulma?)4 Village (agra)5. Khetaka, Vataka, Palli?
"As against six capital towns or nagaras, 103 villages are mentioned in 34 inscriptions of the Vakatakas. The suffxes added to the names seem to grade the settlements in some kind of hierarchical position depending upon the density of population. Their relative density of population indicated by their names with the suffixes like khetaka, palli, vataka, etc. (see for details Misra 1987)." [1] List of suffixes to villages in Vakataka inscriptions [1]
Khetaka - surrounded by rivers or hills? smallness? [1]
Vataka - settlement surrounded by an enclosure [1]
Palli - same as ghosha in Amarakosha, ghosgha means pastoral or cowherd settlement [1] the word Palli is of Telugu origin, and means "a small village". [1]
Gramma"Grama could vary in size as regards their population; they could consist of one or more kuti (s) according to the Vinayapitaka, or on the other hand, could have 100 to 500 families, according to Kautilya. Villages were also know as adra." [1]
Pura
capital town "The words pura and nagara seem to be synonymous." [1]
Nagara
Gulma"The suffix gulma in the name Vatsagulma is also interesting. Manu regards gulma as a station where an army unit was posted for protection of the kingdom (Misra 1987: 645-647)." [1]
Vardhana

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Religious Level:
[1 to 3]

levels.
Hindu religion. "Followers of both Siva and Visnu, referred to as Mahesvaras and Bhagavatas respectively, were prevalent among the upper classes and each probably occurred with equal frequence, among the elite + the kings. (Impressive sculptures of Brahma have also been found, but nothing is said about his cult.) ... Village worshippers favoured the Devi (goddess)" [1]
"Some kings ... adopted the title ’Dharmamaharaja’ which suggests, in the absence of any clear indications of their religious allegiance, at the very least their ecumenical attitude to all faiths (and it might allow speculation about their Buddhist leanings since there is evidence that they were great patrons of the Buddhist Sangha)." [1]
Royal court patronised religious institutions and foundations. This could be through financing building projects or gifts of money or land. The Gupta’s "patronage extended to religions other than their personal persuasions, thus spreading an atmosphere of religious tolerance throughout the realm." [2]
Rudrasena II of the Vakatakas, possibly inspired by the Guptas (he was married to a Gupta princess), "initiated a tradition of large-scale religious patronage within the Vakataka kingdom." [2]
Gupta-Vakataka age: "The followers of the different religions, however, lived in harmony and there was complete toleration. Hindu kings endowed Buddhist monasteries. Buddhist kings performed Hindu rituals. In the same family some members followed the Buddhist, and some the Vedic religion." [3]
"The hill of Ramtek in Maharashtra was a major religious centre of the Vakataka dynasty during the Gupta-Vakataka period, which is considered a time of momentous change in Indian history with significant cultural, political and religious developments." [4]

[1]: Karel, Werner. 1998. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 8. pp 459-461. The Vakaṭakas. An Essay in Hindu Iconology. By Hans T. Bakker. (Gonda Indological Studies, Vol V). 1997. pp. xiv, 211. Pl. xlvii.

[2]: Bakker, Hans. October 2010. Royal Patronage and Religious Tolerance: The Formative Period of Gupta-Vakataka Culture. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 20. No. 4. pp.461-475.

[3]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 9) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[4]: Lacey, Harriet. Department of Archaeology. Durham University. https://www.dur.ac.uk/research/directory/staff/?mode=staff&id=10069


Military Level:
[4 to 6]

levels.
1. King
2. senapati (commander-in-chief) [1] 3. General?4. Officer/s?Leader of a army unit. "The suffix gulma in the name Vatsagulma is also interesting. Manu regards gulma as a station where an army unit was posted for protection of the kingdom (Misra 1987: 645-647)." [1]
5.6. Individual soldier

According to the Mahabharata: ’A file is made up of five footmen, three horses, one chariot, and one elephant ... Three files form one troop-head; three troop-heads, one cluster; three clusters, one troop; three troops make one convoy. Three convoys ... make a column, three columns, a brigade; and three brigades, a division. And ten such divisions constitute ... one army.’" [2] 1. King inferred
2. Division3. Brigade4. Column5. Convoy6. Troop7. Cluster8. Troop-head9. File10. Soldier
According to Kautilya’s Arthasastra (after 200 BCE): "a squad of ten soldiers, a platoon of ten squads, and a regiment of ten platoons. ’For every ten members of each of the constituents of the army, there should be one commander called padika ... ten padikas should be placed under a senapati, and ten senaptis under a nayaka.’ [2] 1. King inferred
2. Nayaka of a regiment3. Senapati of a platoon4. Padika of a squad

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 171) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Administrative Level:
5

levels.
1. King [1]
"The concept of territorial lordship appears in some earlier text like Jaya Samhita, but it is only around second century CE or a little later that it is linked to the king’s claims for taxes (Sharma 1991: 191). Thus a king was entitled to levy taxes because he protect people and was the lord of the earth i.e. Bhupati. The Vakatakas had possession over land and also had control over raw material and hidden treasures. This probably reflected contemporary ideology that the king was regarded as a lord of a land, i.e. Bhupati. Thus, the inference of gradual transformation in king’s role from Gopati to Bhupati in Vidarbha can be drawn on the basis of archaeological as well as literary data." [2]
_Royal Court [3] _

2. sachiv (minister)
"inscriptions revealed various names of administrative personals" (see Mirashi 1957, 1963) [2] 2-3. kulaputras, rajuka (revenue officer) [2] 4. Scribes inferred
2-3. rahasika (private secretary) [2]
 ?. dandanayak (???) [2]
"The powerful alliance with the Guptas must have left some influence on Vakataka politics, administration, religion, art and architecture (see Sharma 1991: 339, Jamkhedkar 1983: 25-36)." [2]
_Provincial government_
2. Touring official"Normally the villagers were expected to provide all amenities to touring offcial in the form of grass for horses, hides for seat and charcoal for cooking, etc. Nevertheless, villages which were donated in grants were exempted from these tax collections." [2]
2. Feudatories
2. rajyadhikruta (Governor). [2] Province (Rajya) [2] 3. District (Ahara, Bhoga) [2] 4. Division (Marga, Patta) [2] 5. Village officialsis this the level for the sarvadhyaksha (civic superintendent)? [2]
"The inscriptions revealed that the village officials were authorized to collect the taxes in the kinds." [2]
5. Brahmans given villages in grant"During the Satavahana time kings had only granted revenue of particular village to religious benefciaries. However, surprisingly, the Vakatakas had granted villages to religious benefciaries along with exemption of all sort of taxes, nullifying all royal authority over that granted village." [2]

"Vakataka inscriptions also provide information about administrative divisions, as it appeared in Satavahana inscriptions. Some administrative divisions of Satavahanas and Vakatakas are same, viz. Rashtraka, Ahara, and Patha." [2]
"the general imperial administrative structure of Kautilya was adaptable for smaller empires after the seventh century, of the Vakatakas, Pratiharas, and Paias and they were also borrowed by the Mughal Empire later. But they could not be sustained in their fullness in a gemeinshaft society, without the total commitment of the intellectual elite. They underwent serious erosion in several ways. The later empires, including even Harsha’s empire were loose - and ultimately local power centers of a feudal tributary nature grew up. ... postseventh-century Hindu administration in North or South Indian empires was essentially a comibination of fuedalism, bureaucracy, and village self-government. This combination had the advantage of avoiding anarchy when central power weakened." [4]
Decentralization trend through this period (still relatively centralized 300 CE) created Indian state of 400-1200 CE: "The essence of the state structure, beginings of which are located with varying emphasis in both pre-Gupta and Gupta periods, may be understood by referring to two interrelated points which feature repeatedly in writings on the period under review: (i) decentralized administration and (ii) political hierarchy. Both points are posited as making a sharp contrast to the state structure of the Mauryas (Close of the fourth century BC to the beginning of the second century BC), the perceived contrast being expressed in such positive statements as: ’... the Kusana political organization did not possess that rigid centralization which characterized the Mauryan administrative machinery.’ Corrosion of centralization acquired a faster pace in the Gupta period. According to one opinion which envisages severage stages in the evolution of early Indian polity, ’the fifth stage was marked by the process of decentralized administration in which towns, feudatories and military elements came to the forefront in both the Deccan and the north. This was partly neutralized by the emphasis on the divinity of the king. The Kusana princes assumed the official title of devaputra and instituted the cult of the worship of the dead king, and the Satavahana princes came to be compared to deified epic heroes. The last age, identical with the Gupta period, may be called the period of proto-feudal polity.’ The processes which worked towards administrative decentralization are essentially seen to have derived from: (i) the practice of making land grants along with administrative privileges, and (ii) the breakdown of the state’s monopoly over the army. It is thus stressed that the beneficiaries who received grants of land from kings and their feudatories were given a wide range of fiscal and administrative immunities and the immunities were such that: ’In grants, from the time of Pravarasena II Vakataka onwards (fifth century AD) the ruler gave up his control over almost all sources of revenue, including pasturage, hides and charcoal, mines for the production of salt, forced labour, and all hidden treasures and deposits.’ The administrative concomitant of these fiscal immunities was that the ’donor abandoned the right to govern the inhabitants of the village that were granted’. The image of a decentralized administrative apparatus, or, more appropriately, of the virtual absence of any administrative apparatus, comes through most vividly in the following statement: ’The function of the collection of taxs, levy of forced labour, regulation of mines, agriculture, etc., together with those of the maintenance of law and order, and defence, which were hitherto performed by the state officials, were now step by step abandoned, first to the priestly class, and later to the warrior class.’ That the decay of state power was comprehensive is also suggested, it is believed, by the breakup of the army into ’small police garrisons’ as also through the process of the emergence of virtually autonomous military officials. At the level of commerce, the departure from the Mauryan pattern of rigidly state-controlled commerce and industry is seen in the emergence of autonomous nigamas and srenis, both connoting corporate bodies which regulated their own affairs without interference from the state. The autonomy of the corporations is again believed to have crystallized by the late Gupta period. An example, often cited, is provided by a set of charters from western India dated to the close of the sixth century. The charters were addressed to a group of traders and granted them various immunities; they exempted them from various dues, ’left them free to deal with labourers, herdsmen, etc. and authorised them to impose forced labour on certain artisans. The traders were allowed immunity from the entry of royal officials in their area and from payment of dues and rations for supporting these officials. ... Administrative decentralization, manifest in different ways, was linked primarily with the emergence of political hierarchy, which again contrasts sharply with Mauryan bureaucratic centralization and the absence of intermediary layers in the Mauryan political system." [5]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 124) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<

[3]: Bakker, Hans. October 2010. Royal Patronage and Religious Tolerance: The Formative Period of Gupta-Vakataka Culture. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 20. No. 4. pp.461-475.

[4]: (Farazmand 2009, 60-61) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

[5]: (Chattopadhyaya 2003, 178) Chattopadhyaya, Brajadulal. 2003. Studying Early India: Archaeology, Texts and Historical Issues. Anthem Press.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"The suffix gulma in the name Vatsagulma is also interesting. Manu regards gulma as a station where an army unit was posted for protection of the kingdom (Misra 1987: 645-647)." [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Professional Priesthood:
present

Brahmanas in Hindu temples. [1] "The Vakataka period is particularly important as far as Vidarbha (eastern part of Maharashtra) history is concerned, as it witnessed ... increase in the land grants for religious purpose, revival of brahmanization in the form of construction of temples and evolution of Brahmanical iconography." [2]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 7) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Professional Military Officer:
present

senapati (commander-in-chief) [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Mints for the (limited amount of) coinage.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"The Poona plates offer a clear proof of the fact that even the members of lower bureaucracy and scribes and engravers etc. of north Indian origin found ample job opportunities in the Vakataka, court. " [1]

[1]: Journal of Indian History, Volume 63. p.138


Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent

"The class of professional pleasders had not yet come into existence; the jurors were expected to analyse the case, ascertain the points favourable for either party and weigh them impartially for coming to a proper decision. Brahmana Durdhara, who proceeds to plead the cause of the defendant against his creditors in the famous case from Pataliputra described by Asahaya in his commentary on Narada-Smriti, IV, 5, no doubt plays the role of the pleader; but he is rebuked by the judge for advocating the cause of a third party in return for a fee. So even in the 8th century the pleader class had not acquired a respectable status." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278-279) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


"Hindu tradition required the king to administer justice himself when he was present at the capital. If ill-health or pressure of other work prevented him from discharging this duty, the Chief Justice presided over the court at the capital, and decided cases with the help of jurors. The Supreme Court tried important local cases and also entertained appeals against the decisions of the lower courts in the moffusil. The evidence of the contemporary Smritis like Narada and Brihaspati shows that the judicial procedure was very well developed in the Gupta period." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Formal Legal Code:
present

"The evidence of the contemporary Smritis like Narada and Brihaspati shows that the judicial procedure was very well developed in the Gupta period. We may well presume that the sound rules which have been laid down in these Smritis about restraint, res judicata, the relative importance of the oral and the documentary evience, etc., were evolved in the Gupta, Vakataka and Pallava law-courts." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


"Hindu tradition required the king to administer justice himself when he was present at the capital. If ill-health or pressure of other work prevented him from discharging this duty, the Chief Justice presided over the court at the capital, and decided cases with the help of jurors. The Supreme Court tried important local cases and also entertained appeals against the decisions of the lower courts in the moffusil. The evidence of the contemporary Smritis like Narada and Brihaspati shows that the judicial procedure was very well developed in the Gupta period." [1]
"In addition to the official courts at the headquarters of districts and provinces, there existed a number of popular courts in our period. Guilds of traders and caravans had their own courts ..." [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 288) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
absent

"absence of trade centres, restricted use of coinage (numismatic findings are limited), and absence of objects showing long distance trade." [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Transport Infrastructure
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

"Forests and mines of salt and metals were the state property" and their administration also was most probably in the charge of the revenue department. [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Vakataka rulers issued "copper plate grants" [1] "Deotek is a small village in Chandrapur district, about 50 miles southeast of Nagpur. It contains an old temple and a large inscribed slab (now in Central Museum, Nagpur) bearing two epigraphs. Out of the two inscriptions, one dates back to the time of Asoka and the other to that of the Vakatakas." [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Script:
present

"Deotek is a small village in Chandrapur district, about 50 miles southeast of Nagpur. It contains an old temple and a large inscribed slab (now in Central Museum, Nagpur) bearing two epigraphs. Out of the two inscriptions, one dates back to the time of Asoka and the other to that of the Vakatakas." [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

Non Phonetic Writing:
absent

Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Gupta-Vakataka period: "The epoch-making discovery of the decimal system of notation with the place value of zero, which was to simplify the arithmetical processes all over the world, was made by the Hindus during our age. They had a lead over their contemporaries in the fields of algebra and arithmetic. Their progress in astronomy was also remarkable. The discovery that the earth rotates round its axis was made by Aryabhata in the 5th century. The length of his solar year is nearer its true duration than that postulated by Ptolemy." [1] Gupta-Vakataka period: "The six systems of Hindu philosophy assumed their classical form in our age." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6-8) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Sacred Text:
present

Buddhist, Hindu and Jain texts.


Religious Literature:
present

Gupta-Vakataka period: "Philosophy was mostly critical in our period, but it was remarkably creative as well in the case of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. The most original, the most daring and the most far-reaching contributions of this school to the progress of Indian philosophy were made by its thinkers who flourished in our period." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6-7) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Practical Literature:
present

Vakataka rulers issued "copper plate grants" [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Philosophy:
present

Gupta-Vakataka period: "Philosophy was mostly critical in our period, but it was remarkably creative as well in the case of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. The most original, the most daring and the most far-reaching contributions of this school to the progress of Indian philosophy were made by its thinkers who flourished in our period." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6-7) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Fiction:
present

Gupta-Vakataka period: "The literary products of the age were numerous and varied, and some of the great masterpieces of Sanskrit literature like the Sakuntala, the Raghuvamsa and the Mrichohhakatika were composed in our period." [1]

[1]: (Majumbar and Altekar 1946, 6-7) Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.


Calendar:
present

Kautilya’s Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time." [1] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks". [2]

[1]: (Subramaniam 2001, 79) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.

[2]: (Schlingloff 2013: 15) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DAMFF2NV.


Information / Money

Indigenous Coin:
present

"The Vakataka period was considered to be a dark phase in Indian numismatics. But recently, Ajay Mitra Shastri has made a startling discovery of a copper coin of the Vakataka king Prithvisena (II ?)" [1] "It was assumed by some scholars that the Vakatakas themselves did not issue any coins, but allowed coins of other rulers to circulate in their territory. However, this assumption has been proved wrong in the light of new discoveries about Vakataka coinage" [2]

[1]: Hackens, Tony. Moucharte, Ghislaine. Courtois, Catherine. Dewit, H. Van Diressche, Veronique. 1993. Actes du XIe Congrès international de numismatique: Monnaies byzantines, monnaies médiévales et orientales. Association Professeur Marcel Hoc pour l’encouragement des recherches numismatiques.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<


Article:
present

"The inscriptions revealed that the village officials were authorized to collect the taxes in the kinds. Some important objects of the revenue were cattle, flowers, milk, grass, hides as seat, charcoal, fermenting liquor, digging of salt, all kinds of forced labor, hidden treasure and deposits, along with other major and minor taxes called asklipta and upklipta." [1] Taxes paid in cash and partly in kind. [2]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.<

[2]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 278) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Information / Postal System
Courier:
unknown

Couriers for the state.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
present

Early Satavahanas (a few hundred years before this time): "The excavations also gave evidence of wooden palisade of the early Satavahana times which might indicate that Ter was one of the thirty fortified towns of the Satavahanas." [1]

[1]: (Dikshit 1985, 89) K N Dikshit. 1985. Archaeological Perspective of India Since Independence. Books & Books.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

"Bilav - Kuji Nala, district Nagpur. Remains of fortification wall. [1] During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [2] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned.

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.

[2]: S. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 27


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

"Bilav - Kuji Nala, district Nagpur. Remains of fortification wall. [1] During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [2] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned.

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.

[2]: S. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka (1980), p. 27


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

Commenting on Jean Deloche’s ’Studies on Fortification in India’ a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution". [1] There were "Sites of royal importance with fortifications, e.g. Pauni, Nagaradhan, Bilav-Kuji nala, Ghugusgad, etc." [2] however, what those fortification were is not stated.

[1]: (Smith 2010, 273) Monica L Smith. January 2010. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130.2. Studies on Fortification in India. Collection Indologie, vol. 104. Four Forts of the Deccan vol. 111. Senji (Gingee): A Fortified City in the Tamil Country. vol. 101 by Jean Deloche.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.



Moats around defensive walls are known in the Ganga valley in India from about 500 BCE, or perhaps earlier. [1] Present for the preceding Satavahana period. [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [3]

[1]: (? 1990, 298) Amalananda Ghosh ed. 1990. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Volume I. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[2]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Earth Rampart:
present

"Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche’s monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable." [1] Deloche’s studies on Indian fortifications are in French. There were "Sites of royal importance with fortifications, e.g. Pauni, Nagaradhan, Bilav-Kuji nala, Ghugusgad, etc." [2] however, what those fortification were is not stated. Ditches and moats were present during the preceding Satavahana period [3] and the simpler technology of earth rampart is also likely. Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats. [4]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 123) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.

[3]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[4]: (Olivelle 2016, 103) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Present for the preceding Satavahana period. [1] . There were "Sites of royal importance with fortifications, e.g. Pauni, Nagaradhan, Bilav-Kuji nala, Ghugusgad, etc." [2] however, what those fortification were is not stated.

[1]: (Chakrabarti 1995, 306) D K Chakrabarti. Post-Mauryan states of mainland South Asia (c. BC 185-AD 320). F R Allchin. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.


Complex Fortification:
unknown

There were "Sites of royal importance with fortifications, e.g. Pauni, Nagaradhan, Bilav-Kuji nala, Ghugusgad, etc." [1] however, what those fortification were is not stated.

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.


Military use of Metals

Indian iron smiths invented the ’wootz’ method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [1]

[1]: (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.


Iron arrow heads. [1]

[1]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.


A military historian suggests that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.


A military historian suggests that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE [1]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone". [1] Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that ’liquid fires’ containing naphtha were in use in ancient India." [2]

[1]: (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.

[2]: (Forbes 1959, 88-89) Robert James Forbes. 1959. More studies in early petroleum history. Brill Archive.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Byzantines, or perhaps the Chinese, were the first.


Slings were used by the preceding Satavahanas. [1] .

[1]: C. Margabandhu, Archaeology of the Satavahana Kshatrapa Times (1985), p. 311


In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition." [1] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [2] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [2] Iron arrow heads. [3] Weapons included bows and arrows. [4]

[1]: (O’Bryan 2013, 54) A History of Weapons: Crossbows, Caltrops, Catapults & Lots of Other Things that Can Seriously Mess You Up. Chronicle Books LLC. San Francisco.

[2]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[3]: (Sawant 2009) Reshma Sawant. 2008. ‘State Formation Process In The Vidarbha During The Vakataka Period’. Bulletin of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute 68-69: 137-162.

[4]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Weapons included the javelin. [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Known to Chinese in the first millennium BCE but Vedic literature does not describe anything like a crossbow although Pant suggests "the weapon mentioned as the nalika in ancient Sanskrit literature was a crossbow." [1] "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: ’... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....’ Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow." [1]

[1]: (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.


Composite Bow:
unknown

"The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows." [1] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India." [1] ’From the Kushans, the Indians learnt the use of composite bows. The Sanchi sculptures which can be dated to the first century BC show many soldiers carrying strung and unstrung composite bows. Murray B. Emeneau writes that the Guptas used Sassanian types of composite bows.’ [2]

[1]: (Roy 2011, 122) Kaushik Roy. Historiographical Survey of the Writings on Indian Military History. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya. ed. 2011. Approaches to History: Essays in Indian Historiography. Primus Books. Delhi.

[2]: (Roy 2013, 23) Kaushik Roy. 2013. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. London.


Weapon found only in the New World.


Handheld weapons

"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Weapons included the sword. [1] "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Weapons included the spear. [1] "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.



"There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Battle Axe:
present

Weapons included the battle-axe. [1] "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo." [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Eraly 2011, 169) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Animals used in warfare

"The fighting force was divided into infantry, cavalry and the elephant corps." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


"The fighting force was divided into infantry, cavalry and the elephant corps." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.



In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport [1] [2] in different regions according to local conditions. [2]

[1]: (Mishra 1987, 83) Kamal Kishore Mishra. 1987. Police Administration in Ancient India. Mittal Publications. Delhi.

[2]: Prakash Charan Prasad. 1977. Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. New Delhi.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

A military historian states that the Maurayans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame [1] - do Maurayan specialists agree? The Vakatakas were likely no less advanced in terms of their military technology.

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.


A military historian states that the Maurayans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame [1] - do Maurayan specialists agree? Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield. [3]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 219) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Scaled Armor:
unknown

Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Plate Armor:
present

Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used. [1] Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a metal coat of mail, metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate. [3]

[1]: (Singh 1997) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.

[2]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Limb Protection:
present

Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard. [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Leather Cloth:
present

A military historian states helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads [1] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield. [2]

[1]: (Gabriel 2002, 220) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Laminar Armor:
unknown

Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.


Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet. [2]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Chainmail:
present

Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [1] Gupta period soldiers who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail. [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a coat of mail. [3]

[1]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[2]: (Rowell 2015 89) Rebecca Rowell. 2015. Ancient India. Abdo Publishing. Minneapolis.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Breastplate:
present

Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used. [1] Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets." [2] Kautilya’s Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breast plate. [3]

[1]: (Singh 1997) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.

[2]: (Majumdar and Altekar 1986, 277) Anant Sadashiv Altekar. The Administrative Organisation. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. Anant Sadashiv Altekar. 1986. Vakataka - Gupta Age Circa 200-550 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. Delhi.

[3]: (Olivelle 2016, 142-143) Patrick Olivelle trans. 2016. King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya’s Arthasastra. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

’Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces." [1] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force although some of them may have had a smaller navy. The Vakataka territory appears to have been landlocked so very likely to be one of the kingdoms that did not have a navy.

[1]: (Eraly 2011, 163) Abraham Eraly. 2011. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.