Home Region:  Northeast Asia (East Asia)

Japan - Early Jomon

EQ 2020  jp_jomon_3 / JpJomo3

"Consistent warming and a rising sea level pushed the coastal population farther inland during the Early Jomon period, with the temperature peaking several degrees higher than today toward the end of this stage. Water flooded low valleys, and some Kanto sites are as much as fifty kilometers from the present shore. [...].
"The shell mounds of this stage contain chiefly freshwater clams (Yamato shijimi or Corbicula japonica, and marine haigai or Anada granosa) and oysters (magaki or Crossostrea gigas). Animal bones - not numerous - are chiefly those of deer, boars, flying squirrels, and Siberian mountain lions. Investigations indicate that mainly older deer were hunted, that the fast-breeding wild boars were killed indiscriminately, and that mountain lions were dying out. In the more isolated areas of western Japan, animal life was reduced, leaving fewer resources for human survival. The higher temperature encouraged the growth of the evergreen oak forests (Quercus) that covered much of west Japan.
"The warmer temperature was also conducive to the growth of warm-water Anadara granosa as far north as the Daigi shell mound near Matsushima Bay, although its habitat is now south of Tokyo. On the other hand, the coldwater mollusk (Pecten yesoensis), now thriving in northeast Honshu, could not stand the warmth and is therefore missing from the Early Jomon shell mounds of that area.
"Around the middle of the Early Jomon, reliable food sources and somewhat longer stays near the coast produced a dramatic increase in population. According to Koyama’s calculations, the Early Jomon population numbered around 106,000, or five times that of the Earliest Jomon, an increase unmatched at any other stage of the Jomon period.
"Small Early Jomon villages, developed on bluffs, had pit houses grouped in the form of a horseshoe. The presence of pottery of several successive types at a single site indicates continuous habitation. As this occurred, family demands fostered advances in house construction. The older, poorer shelters or huts were now transformed by the introduction of substantial inner posts strong enough to hold a roof over a rectanguloid floor. Rainwater shed by the pitched roof was drained off through surrounding ditches. Kaya (a miscanthus) was probably the roofing grass, fifteen centimeters of which would have been enough to keep the interior dry. Toward the end of the Early Jomon, the inner space took the form of a square with rounded corners. Some fireplaces were moved inside, though rarely were placed in the middle of the floor. Indoor living now offered more attractions.
"Houses were occasionally extended to accommodate growing families, but archaeological evidence reveals few repairs and almost no overlapped houses so often found at Middle Jomon sites. The forty-eight houses of the Minabori shell mound, located on a rather level plateau in Yokohama and distributed to form a rough arc, had doors facing an open space to the north. Because successive rebuilding did not alter this fundamental plan, it is thought that use of the common area had become well established. An improving economy is suggested by storage pits found both inside and outside houses. Such pits were lined by alternating layers of leaves and nuts in order to keep most of the pit’s contents dry, allowing cupboard raids to expose only a little at a time.
"Most of the house pits of Minabori contained Kurohama-type pottery belonging to the middle years of the Early Jomon. These flat-bottomed pots were designed for cooking, and their new shapes made them more practical for indoor living on intensely used floors that were tamped hard. A short-lived spell of tempering the clay with small fibers - a practice that perhaps started in the Tohoku and moved south - may have been connected with attempts to strengthen the walls of the pots when increasing their size and experimenting with flat bottoms. Heavy cord marking is typical, and before the Early Jomon phase was over, Moroiso-type pottery appeared, bearing imprinted and incised decorative arcs and parallel lines made with the end of a small split bamboo stick.
"Recent excavations at the Torihama shell mound in Mikata-cho of Fukui Prefecture point up hitherto unknown advances in the Early Jomon. One of the rather few kitchen middens found on the west side of Japan, it lies beside the Hasu River in a laurel (laurilignosa) forest area dominated by oak. These excavations show that boars, deer, monkeys, raccoon-dogs, bear, serows, otters, martens, and badgers were hunted; several kinds of fish were caught; and a variety of freshwater shellfish, saltwater mollusks, clams, oysters, and ark shells were collected. Walnuts, hazelnuts, and acorns were also gathered. But of special interest are the bottle gourds {Lagenaria siceraria) and "green beans" (Phaseolus sp.) that were pea shaped and found in long narrow pods averaging eleven centimeters in length and thirteen beans to a pod. Many Japanese archaeologists regard both as cultivated plants, indeed suggesting that pollen changes indicate environmental alterations caused by clearing and that trees of foothill forests were cut and used for building materials, wooden tools, and firewood.
"Preserved remarkably well are ropes, reed baskets, and many wooden objects, including oars, boards, adzes, bows, and carved bowls and a comb which are the oldest pieces of lacquer ever found in Japan. Other innovations were polished stone axes, bone needles, and thimblelike bone rings. Vertically angled blades were changed to adze-shaped tools by the use of right-angled tree forks, probably for better hacking and digging of new forms of vegetation.
"Torihama is no longer an isolated case. Gourd seeds have also been found in the Early and Latest Jomon sites of Gifu and Saitama. The Middle Jomon Idojiri "bread," which has long defied analysis, is now thought to have contained some eight skins of beans. The Middle Jomon Tsurune settlement site in Takayama City, Gifu Prefecture, yielded two carbonized beans (Leguminosae) that are reportedly similar to a cultivated continental Asian bean for which there was nothing comparable in Japan." [1]

[1]: (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 62-65)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
53 S  
Original Name:
Japan - Early Jomon  
Capital:
absent  
Alternative Name:
Nakanoya  
Matsubara  
Ondashi  
Torihama  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[5,300 BCE ➜ 3,500 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Japan - Middle Jomon  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Japan - Initial Jomon  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 500] people  
Polity Population:
[400 to 1,000] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
absent  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Japan - Early Jomon (jp_jomon_3) was in:
 (5300 BCE 3501 BCE)   Kansai
Home NGA: Kansai

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Japan - Early Jomon

"The Japanese word Jomon literally means cord-marked, a term given to decoration applied to pottery with the impressions of twisted cords. The term was first used in the report of what is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeological excavation in Japan, at the Omori shell mounds near present-day Tokyo, written by Edward Sylvester Morse, in 1879. This term was subsequently used to refer to the archaeological period during which this pottery was used." [1]

[1]: (Kaner & Nakamura 2004, i)


Capital:
absent

Kidder, Jr. [1] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom." This suggests that there was no capital.

[1]: (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)


Alternative Name:
Nakanoya

These are all names for regional sub-phases of the Early Jomon [1] .

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)

Alternative Name:
Matsubara

These are all names for regional sub-phases of the Early Jomon [1] .

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)

Alternative Name:
Ondashi

These are all names for regional sub-phases of the Early Jomon [1] .

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)

Alternative Name:
Torihama

These are all names for regional sub-phases of the Early Jomon [1] .

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[5,300 BCE ➜ 3,500 BCE]

[1]

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)


Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Japan - Middle Jomon


Preceding Entity:
Japan - Initial Jomon

[1]

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)


Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

Kidder, Jr. [1] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom."

[1]: (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)


Language

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

It seems most likely that the Jomon people spoke a language similar to Ainu [1] .

[1]: (Hudson 1999, 83-102)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 500] people

Inhabitants. Some villages could get as large as 400 to 500 people in early and middle, and later Jomon periods, and could have up to 40 or 50 houses in a settlement. [1]

[1]: (Barnes 2015: 131) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T5SRVKXV.


Polity Population:
[400 to 1,000] people

People. Minimum is the population of a large village; maximum assuming that half of the polity population was in the central village.
105,500 [1] estimate for entire region

[1]: (Habu 2004, 46-50)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[1 to 2]

levels. "Because a great number of sites and features such as large villages, pit houses, burials, and shell middens of the Jomon period have been found, many archaeologists believe the inhabitants lived there all year round. However, even with strong evidence of a stable society, there is no doubt that there was a radial development pattern of hunting camps, plant gathering camps, and fishing camps with a residential base at the center." [1]
1. Central residential base
2. Hunting campsSmall, temporary, peripheral.
2. Gathering campsSmall, temporary, peripheral.
2. Fishing campsSmall, temporary, peripheral.

[1]: (Matsui 2001, 120)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Merit Promotion:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Examination System:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Inferred from the fact that writing was only introduced in Japan in the fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
absent

"It is clear that cultivation did appear in the Jomon period, but it is equally clear that it remained a minor activity that did not contribute significantly to the growth of social complexity (Rowley-Conwy 2002:62). In fact, Hudson (1997) has that the of full-scale rejection agriculture was one characteristic shared by argued Jomon societies." [1] .

[1]: (Pearson 2007, 363)


Food Storage Site:
absent

Generally speaking, the Jomon stored food in pits that were part of residential sites, not at different sites altogether [1] .

[1]: (Habu 2004, 64-70)



Transport Infrastructure

Inferred from the fact that roads are nor mentioned by a number of sources providing comprehensive overviews of Jomon life (e.g. [1] [2] )--even in chapters dedicated to trade and exchange, only water transport is discussed [3] .

[1]: (Habu 2004)

[2]: (Kobayashi 2004)

[3]: (Habu 2004, 236)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Obsidian mines. "In contrast, large-sized mining sites in which underground obsidian nodules were dug out by means of numerous pits emerged in the Central Highlands during the Jomon Period. The systematic digging technology is characteristic of Jomon procurement activities. Although the earliest mining pit dates back to the late phase of the Incipient Jomon, the historical process with regard to the emergence of the digging technology for the mining is still ambiguous." [1]

[1]: (Shimada 2012, 240)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Sacred Text:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Religious Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Practical Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Philosophy:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


History:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Fiction:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Calendar:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent

Paper currency first introduced in the 1600s [1] .

[1]: (Snodgrass 2003, 254)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

“Japan retained a barter system until the AD 600s [...]. Inspired by circulation of Chinese cash coppers, the island nation first produced extensive coinage after AD 708, when the Empress Genmyo turned new strikes of copper ore into coins.” [1]

[1]: (Snodgrass 2003, 253)


Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Modern Fortification:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Fortified Camp:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Earth Rampart:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Complex Fortification:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.



Military use of Metals

Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Self Bow:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1] [2]

[1]: Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 362

[2]: Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 364


Javelin:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [1] .

[1]: (Maruyama 2000, 22)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [1] .

[1]: (Maruyama 2000, 22)


Crossbow:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Composite Bow:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Polearm:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Battle Axe:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1]

[1]: J. Edward Kidder, Jr., ‘The earliest societies in Japan’, in Delmer M. Brown The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambrudge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 65


Animals used in warfare

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Elephant:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And elephants are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And camels are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Scaled Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Plate Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Limb Protection:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Leather Cloth:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Laminar Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Chainmail:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Breastplate:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1] [2]

[1]: Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan’s Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 41

[2]: Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 360


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.