Home Region:  Northeast Asia (East Asia)

Japan - Middle Jomon

G SC WF
EQ 2020  jp_jomon_4 / JpJomo4

No General Descriptions provided.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
53 S  
Original Name:
Japan - Middle Jomon  
Capital:
absent  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,500 BCE ➜ 2,500 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Japan - Late Jomon  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Japan - Early Jomon  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
Language
Linguistic Family:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 500] people  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent  
Professional Priesthood:
absent  
Professional Military Officer:
absent  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent  
Merit Promotion:
absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
absent  
Judge:
absent  
Formal Legal Code:
absent  
Court:
absent  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
unknown  
Irrigation System:
inferred absent  
Food Storage Site:
inferred absent  
Drinking Water Supply System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent  
Script:
absent  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
inferred present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent  
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
absent  
Practical Literature:
absent  
Philosophy:
absent  
Lists Tables and Classification:
absent  
History:
absent  
Fiction:
absent  
Calendar:
absent  
Information / Money
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
absent  
General Postal Service:
absent  
Courier:
inferred absent  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
absent  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
absent  
  Fortified Camp:
absent  
  Earth Rampart:
absent  
  Ditch:
absent  
  Complex Fortification:
absent  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
absent  
  Copper:
absent  
  Bronze:
absent  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling Siege Engine:
absent  
  Sling:
absent  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
absent  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
absent  
  Composite Bow:
absent  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
absent  
  Sword:
absent  
  Spear:
absent  
  Polearm:
absent  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
absent  
  Elephant:
absent  
  Donkey:
absent  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
absent  
  Shield:
absent  
  Scaled Armor:
absent  
  Plate Armor:
absent  
  Limb Protection:
absent  
  Leather Cloth:
absent  
  Laminar Armor:
absent  
  Helmet:
absent  
  Chainmail:
absent  
  Breastplate:
absent  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Japan - Middle Jomon (jp_jomon_4) was in:
 (3500 BCE 2501 BCE)   Kansai
Home NGA: Kansai

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Japan - Middle Jomon

"The Japanese word Jomon literally means cord-marked, a term given to decoration applied to pottery with the impressions of twisted cords. The term was first used in the report of what is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeological excavation in Japan, at the Omori shell mounds near present-day Tokyo, written by Edward Sylvester Morse, in 1879. This term was subsequently used to refer to the archaeological period during which this pottery was used." [1]

[1]: (Kaner & Nakamura 2004, i)


Capital:
absent

Kidder, Jr. [1] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom." This suggests that there was no capital.

[1]: (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[3,500 BCE ➜ 2,500 BCE]

[1]

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)


Political and Cultural Relations
Succeeding Entity:
Japan - Late Jomon

[1]

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)



Preceding Entity:
Japan - Early Jomon

[1]

[1]: (Kobayashi 2004, 5)


Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

Kidder, Jr. [1] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom."

[1]: (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)


Language

Language:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI

It seems most likely that the Jomon people spoke a language similar to Ainu [1] .

[1]: (Hudson 1999, 83-102)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Population of the Largest Settlement:
[400 to 500] people

Inhabitants. Some villages could get as large as 400 to 500 people in early and middle, and later Jomon periods, and could have up to 40 or 50 houses in a settlement. [1]

[1]: (Barnes 2015: 131) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T5SRVKXV.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
2

levels. [1]
1. Relatively permanent large-scale settlements.These were the main residential sites. It is unclear whether they were occupied year-round or whether the main settlement was moved seasonally.
2. Smaller, shorter-lived settlements.
Also:
Extremely small sites, made up of one or two buildings.
Extremely small sites, where there is evidence for use/occupation, but not of buildings.

[1]: Matsui, A. 2001. Jomon. In Peregrine, P. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania 119-126. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Priesthood:
absent

Full-time specialists


Professional Military Officer:
absent

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Merit Promotion:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Examination System:
absent

The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Steenstrup 2011, 11)


Law


Formal Legal Code:
absent

Inferred from the fact that writing was only introduced in Japan in the fifth century CE [1] .

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)



Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
absent

"It is clear that cultivation did appear in the Jomon period, but it is equally clear that it remained a minor activity that did not contribute significantly to the growth of social complexity (Rowley-Conwy 2002:62). In fact, Hudson (1997) has that the of full-scale rejection agriculture was one characteristic shared by argued Jomon societies." [1] .

[1]: (Pearson 2007, 363)


Food Storage Site:
absent

Generally speaking, the Jomon stored food in pits that were part of residential sites, not at different sites altogether [1] .

[1]: (Habu 2004, 64-70)



Transport Infrastructure

Inferred from the fact that roads are nor mentioned by a number of sources providing comprehensive overviews of Jomon life (e.g. [1] [2] )--even in chapters dedicated to trade and exchange, only water transport is discussed [3] .

[1]: (Habu 2004)

[2]: (Kobayashi 2004)

[3]: (Habu 2004, 236)


Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
present

Obsidian mines. "In contrast, large-sized mining sites in which underground obsidian nodules were dug out by means of numerous pits emerged in the Central Highlands during the Jomon Period. The systematic digging technology is characteristic of Jomon procurement activities. Although the earliest mining pit dates back to the late phase of the Incipient Jomon, the historical process with regard to the emergence of the digging technology for the mining is still ambiguous." [1]

[1]: (Shimada 2012, 240)


Information / Writing System
Written Record:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Mnemonic Device:
present

"Otahara (2000:108) has proposed that the Middle Jomon (c. 2,500 b.c.) six-post structure at Sannai Maruyama, Aomori Prefecture, is a monument for calendrical reckoning. The long side of the structure lines up with the sunrise on the summer solstice and the sunset on the winter solstice. He proposes that the six post structure at the Chikamori Site, Kanazawa Prefecture,had the same function.Such places were designed to map out the yearly cycle and to permit local people to participate in the ceremonies of the cycle either by living at the site or coming to participate (Mizoguchi 2002:104)." [1]

[1]: (Pearson 2007, 364)


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Sacred Text:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Religious Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Practical Literature:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Philosophy:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Lists Tables and Classification:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


History:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Fiction:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Calendar:
absent

“To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [1]

[1]: (Frellesvig 2010, 11)


Information / Money
Paper Currency:
absent

Paper currency first introduced in the 1600s [1] .

[1]: (Snodgrass 2003, 254)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

“Japan retained a barter system until the AD 600s [...]. Inspired by circulation of Chinese cash coppers, the island nation first produced extensive coinage after AD 708, when the Empress Genmyo turned new strikes of copper ore into coins.” [1]

[1]: (Snodgrass 2003, 253)


Information / Postal System



Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
Wooden Palisade:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Stone Walls Non Mortared:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Modern Fortification:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Fortified Camp:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Earth Rampart:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Complex Fortification:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.



Military use of Metals

Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [1] .

[1]: (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Sling Siege Engine:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Self Bow:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Javelin:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [1] .

[1]: (Maruyama 2000, 22)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [1] .

[1]: (Maruyama 2000, 22)


Crossbow:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Composite Bow:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Polearm:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Dagger:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1]

[1]: J. Edward Kidder, Jr., ‘The earliest societies in Japan’, in Delmer M. Brown The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambrudge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 71


Battle Axe:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1]

[1]: J. Edward Kidder, Jr., ‘The earliest societies in Japan’, in Delmer M. Brown The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambrudge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 73-74


Animals used in warfare

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Elephant:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And elephants are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And camels are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Scaled Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Plate Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Limb Protection:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Leather Cloth:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Laminar Armor:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Chainmail:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Breastplate:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [1] [2]

[1]: Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan’s Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 41

[2]: Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 360


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.