Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Jin Dynasty

EQ 2020  cn_later_great_jin / CnLrJin

The Jin Dynasty (also known as the Great Jin or Jurchen Dynasty) ruled north China from 1115 to 1234 CE. [1] The dynasty was founded by a confederation of Jurchen tribes from around Manchuria that defeated the Liao in 1115 CE and then ousted the Northern Song. [2]
Jin forces captured the Northern Song capital of Kaifeng and forced the Song south in 1127 CE. [1] The Jin territory included part of Korea in northeast Asia, and Uighur and Tibetan land in western China. In 1153 CE, the Jurchen government moved its capital from Manchuria to modern-day Beijing.
This period was marked by conflict with the Southern Song and the Mongols. The Jurchen government also struggled with economic inflation and flooding. [1] In 1233 CE, the dynasty was conquered by Mongol forces, who then ruled as the Yuan dynasty. [1]
Population and political organization
The traditional Jurchen system of hereditary military chieftains was maintained by the first Jin ruler, Emperor Taizu. [3] After conquering the Liao and Northern Song, later rulers adopted a Chinese-style imperial central government, which was accepted as legitimate by Chinese Confucian scholars. [4] The Jin imperial government copied a number of Song institutions, including the nine-rank system for officials and recruitment by civil service examinations. [3]
The Jin Dynasty was the first period in Chinese history in which large populations of ethnic Han citizens were ruled by an outsider government. [1] While many Jurchen people moved from Manchuria into China during Jin rule, [4] they still only made up about 10 percent of the population of Jin Dynasty China. [4] The population of the Jin dynasty was between 45 million and 54 million people in 1200 CE. [5] [6]

[1]: (Perkins 1999, 246) Dorothy Perkins. 1999. Encyclopedia of China. New York: Routledge.

[2]: (Ebrey 1996, 167) Patricia Buckley Ebrey. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]: (Theobald 2000) Theobald Ulrich. 2000. ’Jin Empire Government, Administration and Law’. Chinaknowledge.de. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Song/jinn-admin.html. Accessed 15 March 2017.

[4]: (Holcombe 2011, 135) Charles Holcombe. 2011. A History of East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5]: 中國文明史‧宋遼金時期‧金代》〈第十一章 民俗文化與社會精神風貌〉: 第2001頁-第2022頁

[6]: 中国人口发展史》.葛剑雄.福建人民出版社.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
52 S  
Original Name:
Jin Dynasty  
Capital:
Kaifeng  
Caizhou  
Huining  
Zhongdu  
Alternative Name:
Great Jin  
Jurchen dynasty  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,207 CE  
Duration:
[1,115 CE ➜ 1,234 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
China  
Succeeding Entity:
Great Yuan  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
3,600,000 km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Khitan Empire  
Degree of Centralization:
unitary state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Sino-Tibetan  
Tungusic  
Altaic  
Language:
Middle Chinese  
Jurchen  
Khitan  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Chinese State Religion  
Religion Family:
Imperial Confucian Traditions  
Alternate Religion Genus:
Buddhism  
Alternate Religion Family:
Chinese Buddhist Traditions  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
3,600,000 km2  
Polity Population:
[45,000,000 to 54,000,000] people 1200 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Religious Level:
3  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
present  
Law
Professional Lawyer:
present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
present  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
present  
Port:
present  
Canal:
present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Mnemonic Device:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
inferred present  
Paper Currency:
inferred present  
Indigenous Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
inferred present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
[1,700 to 5,000] km  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
absent  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
present  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
present  
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
unknown  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
present  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Jin Dynasty (cn_later_great_jin) was in:
 (1127 CE 1234 CE)   Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location


Capital:
Kaifeng

Huining: 1122-1153CE; Zhongdu: 1153-1214 CE; Kaifeng: 1214-1233; Caizhou: 1233-1234

Capital:
Caizhou

Huining: 1122-1153CE; Zhongdu: 1153-1214 CE; Kaifeng: 1214-1233; Caizhou: 1233-1234

Capital:
Huining

Huining: 1122-1153CE; Zhongdu: 1153-1214 CE; Kaifeng: 1214-1233; Caizhou: 1233-1234

Capital:
Zhongdu

Huining: 1122-1153CE; Zhongdu: 1153-1214 CE; Kaifeng: 1214-1233; Caizhou: 1233-1234



Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,207 CE

The largest population in 1207 CE according to History of Jin (金史/Jin Shi)


Duration:
[1,115 CE ➜ 1,234 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]



Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
3,600,000 km2

in squared kilometers





Religion
Religion Genus:
Chinese State Religion

Religion Family:
Imperial Confucian Traditions


Alternate Religion Family:
Chinese Buddhist Traditions


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
3,600,000 km2

in squared kilometers


Polity Population:
[45,000,000 to 54,000,000] people
1200 CE

People. 32,700,000: 1142 CE; {44,705,086; 39,663,400; 36,989,014}: 1187 CE; 45,447,900: 1190 CE; 48,490,400: 1195 CE; {45,816,079; 53,532,151}: 1207 CE; 53,720,000: 1210 CE. [1] [2]
A Chinese source believes 53 million is too high, because similar dynasties had populations between 30 million and 40 million. "金朝人口数量(一)人口总置金朝人口发展,在其统治的北方地区,达到了比历史上几个盛大朝代更高的水平。其他各朝均只 3000 多万或 4000 多万,金朝则达到了5300 多万。对此或有不可理解,或对统计数字有怀疑." [3]

[1]: (《中国人口发展史》.葛剑雄.福建人民出版社.)

[2]: (《中國文明史‧宋遼金時期‧金代》〈第十一章 民俗文化與社會精神風貌〉: 第2001頁-第2022頁.)

[3]: (《中国人口通史》2000. 路遇, 滕泽之. 山东人民出版社)


Hierarchical Complexity
Religious Level:
3

levels. Inferred from previous polities.
1. Emperor
2. Ministry of Rites
3. Ritual specialists


Administrative Level:
5

levels.
1. Polity: Emperor2. Central Secretariat3. Lu/Fu governor4. Zhou (country subdivision) governor5. County governor


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"By the tenth century, soldiers, to the intense consternation of statesmen, were wholly divorced from any productive activities and earned their livings by skill at arms. Despite many attempts to replace this "mercenary" system, it remained in place until the end of imperial times." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Professional Priesthood:
present

"... begun during the Tang dynasty... The rise of religious professionals and soldiers as clearly separate groups was contrary to the previous normative view of society divided into knights (shi, the term that would later be applied to the literati or gentry), farmers, artisans and merchants." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Professional Military Officer:
present

"By the tenth century, soldiers, to the intense consternation of statesmen, were wholly divorced from any productive activities and earned their livings by skill at arms. Despite many attempts to replace this "mercenary" system, it remained in place until the end of imperial times." [1]

[1]: (Lorge 2005, 7)


Bureaucracy Characteristics



Examination System:
present

[1] [2] [3]

[1]: 孙孝伟. (2007). 金朝科举制度探析. 长春师范学院学报, 26(2), 42-45.

[2]: 韩育臻. (2007). 金朝文化政策成因探析 [J]. 青岛大学师范学院学报, 4, 78-84.

[3]: 刘达科. (2007). 金朝科举与文学. 社会科学辑刊, (3), 245-250.


Law


Formal Legal Code:
present

《皇统制》, 《泰和律》 [1]

[1]: 叶潜昭. (1972). 金律之研究. 台湾商务印书馆 1977 年版.



Specialized Buildings: polity owned

Irrigation System:
present

[1]

[1]: 关树东《金代的水利与社会经济》



Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System





Mnemonic Device:
present

The earliest known written documentation of the Chinese abacus dates to the 2nd century BC [1]

[1]: Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471396710.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

e.g. 《測圓海鏡》,《益古演段》




Practical Literature:
present

e.g. 《務本新書》、《士農必用》were the major agriculture literature






Calendar:
present

e.g. 《紀元曆》, 《重修大明曆》


Information / Money
Precious Metal:
present

As Northern Song.


Paper Currency:
present

As Northern Song.


Indigenous Coin:
present

As Northern Song.


Article:
present

As Northern Song.


Information / Postal System

Courier:
present

China had record of relay station as early as Zhou (700-1000 BCE)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"Trebuchets played an important role in the fighting between the Southern Song and the Jin." [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

"early versions of siege crossbows and traction trebuchets may be noted in the accounts of the wars of the Qin and Han dynasties, and appear in the early military writings associated with the name of Mo Zi." [1] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

"early versions of siege crossbows and traction trebuchets may be noted in the accounts of the wars of the Qin and Han dynasties, and appear in the early military writings associated with the name of Mo Zi." [1] "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.





Handheld Firearm:
present

Fire-spear as a primitive firearm: "By the early thirteenth century, shrapnel of various kinds was regularly added to the gunpowder of a fire-spear." However, "... the weapon was not conceived of as a missile arm." [1] Fire-tube as a primitive firearm. "The Bandit-striking Penetrating Tube: Use iron to make a barrel three feet long with a handle two feet long. Infantry use this. In one discharge the pellet is able to strike a bandit at a distance of three hundred paces (five hundred yards)." "Needham dates this particular section of the text, the Fire Dragon Classic (Huolong Jing), to the first half of the fourteenth century, but believed that the quoted passage is "probably as old as 1200."" Needham also believes the stated range is an exaggeration and that the tube fired multiple pellets rather than one. [2] "The earliest known specimen of a gun was excavated in July of 1970 in Acheng county, Heilongjiang province. Made of bronze, it is 34 centimeters long, weighs 3.5 kilograms and has three distinct parts to its length: a barrel, powder chamber, and socket for a handle at the rear end. It has been dated no later than 1290." [3] Are these references referring to a Later Jin or Southern Song practices; neither, or both? ET

[1]: (Lorge 2011, 37)

[2]: (Lorge 2011, 37-38)

[3]: (Lorge 2011, 69)

Handheld Firearm:
absent

Fire-spear as a primitive firearm: "By the early thirteenth century, shrapnel of various kinds was regularly added to the gunpowder of a fire-spear." However, "... the weapon was not conceived of as a missile arm." [1] Fire-tube as a primitive firearm. "The Bandit-striking Penetrating Tube: Use iron to make a barrel three feet long with a handle two feet long. Infantry use this. In one discharge the pellet is able to strike a bandit at a distance of three hundred paces (five hundred yards)." "Needham dates this particular section of the text, the Fire Dragon Classic (Huolong Jing), to the first half of the fourteenth century, but believed that the quoted passage is "probably as old as 1200."" Needham also believes the stated range is an exaggeration and that the tube fired multiple pellets rather than one. [2] "The earliest known specimen of a gun was excavated in July of 1970 in Acheng county, Heilongjiang province. Made of bronze, it is 34 centimeters long, weighs 3.5 kilograms and has three distinct parts to its length: a barrel, powder chamber, and socket for a handle at the rear end. It has been dated no later than 1290." [3] Are these references referring to a Later Jin or Southern Song practices; neither, or both? ET

[1]: (Lorge 2011, 37)

[2]: (Lorge 2011, 37-38)

[3]: (Lorge 2011, 69)



Crossbow:
present

Jin relied on Chinese infantry who fought with swords and crossbow [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 217)




Handheld weapons

Jin relied on Chinese infantry who fought with swords and crossbow [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 217)






Animals used in warfare

Calvary. [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 217)


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

Jin were never able to build an effective navy. "The Song army with its large oceangoing warships, wreaked havoc on the small Jin vessels [1] [2]

[1]: (Lorge, 2012, 87)

[2]: 《中國通史 宋遼金元史》〈第四章 南宋與金-中國南北的再分裂〉 第63頁-第79頁.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"The Song army with its large oceangoing warships, wreaked havoc on the small Jin vessels [1] [2]

[1]: (Lorge, 2012, 87)

[2]: 《中國通史 宋遼金元史》〈第四章 南宋與金-中國南北的再分裂〉 第63頁-第79頁.




Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.