Home Region:  North China (East Asia)

Early Wei Dynasty

D G SC WF HS CC EQ 2020  cn_wei_dyn_warring_states / CnWeiWS

Preceding:
1115 CE 1234 CE Jin Dynasty (cn_later_great_jin)    [elite migration]
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The span of time between the mid-5th and mid-3rd centuries BCE in China is known as the Warring States period because it was dominated by conflicts between the seven independent states of Qin, Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, and Wei. [1] The period was marked by the development of authoritarian leadership, the creation of standing armies, and the mass conscription of peasants into military service. [2] New weapons included the crossbow, an improved iron sword, and armour. [2] The first appearance of military specialists such as Sunzi, author of The Art of War, dates to the Warring States period. [2]
The Warring States period was also a time of economic growth. The development of trade, occupational complexity, and markets created a class of merchants and private landlords. [3] Iron tools were used for agriculture and the use of irrigation and fertilizer became more widespread. [2] Intellectualism flourished, with the rise of Confucian philosophers Mengzi and Xunzi. [1]
In the 5th century BCE, the state of Jin was divided into three states: Wei, Han and Zhao. Wei was one of the largest states of the period, ruling parts of modern Shanxi and later expanding to cover western Shandong and northern and western Henan. [4] During the Warring States period, Wei mounted a number of successful military campaigns against neighbouring states, but fell into decline after a loss to Qi in 341 BCE. [5]
The Warring States period ended with the rise of the Qin state and its defeat of the imperial Zhou court. [6] Qin conquered the state of Wei in 225 BCE. [5]
Population and political organization
Several of China’s major political institutions were created during the Warring States Period. [7] Zhou rulers were replaced by strong authoritarian rulers who governed independent territorial states. [7] These territorial rulers commanded dependent officials, who were responsible for registering and mobilizing peasant households for military service. [7]
It is difficult to find substantiated estimates for the population of the Wei state.

[1]: (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Warring States.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Warring-States. Accessed June 6, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/UFB8K653.

[2]: (Roberts 1999, 14) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.

[3]: (Roberts 1999, 14-15) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.

[4]: (Theobald 2010) Theobald, Ulrich. 2017. “The Feudal State of Wei 魏 (www.chinaknowledge.de).” Accessed June 6. http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Zhou/rulers-wei.html. Seshat URL: http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Zhou/rulers-wei.html.

[5]: (Encyclopedia Britannica n.d.) “Wei.” Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Wei-ancient-kingdom-China. Accessed June 6, 2017. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/DTXFRJWS.

[6]: (Roberts 1999, 22) Roberts, John A.G. 1999. A History of China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/H9D8H5E9.

[7]: (Lewis 1999, 587) Lewis, M.E. 1999b. “Warring States Political History,” in M. Loewe and E. L. Shaughnessy, eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 587-650. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MMECH3VW.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
50 S  
Original Name:
Early Wei Dynasty  
Capital:
Daliang  
Alternative Name:
Zhanguo  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
353 BCE  
Duration:
[445 BCE ➜ 225 BCE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]  
Supracultural Entity:
Chinese  
Succeeding Entity:
Imperial Qin  
Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration  
Preceding Entity:
Preceding:   Jin Dynasty (cn_later_great_jin)    [elite migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Sino-Tibetan  
Language:
Chinese  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
90,000 km2  
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]  
Military Level:
[4 to 5]  
Administrative Level:
5  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
present  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Judge:
inferred present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Food Storage Site:
inferred present  
Drinking Water Supply System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Canal:
inferred present  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
present  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
absent  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
present  
Paper Currency:
inferred absent  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
absent  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred present  
General Postal Service:
inferred absent  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
inferred present  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
absent  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
present  
  Earth Rampart:
present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
absent  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
present  
  Bronze:
present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
present  
absent  
  Sling:
inferred present  
  Self Bow:
inferred present  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
inferred absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Donkey:
present  
  Dog:
absent  
  Camel:
inferred absent  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
inferred present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
inferred present  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Early Wei Dynasty (cn_wei_dyn_warring_states) was in:
 (488 BCE 223 BCE)   Middle Yellow River Valley
Home NGA: Middle Yellow River Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Early Wei Dynasty

Capital:
Daliang

However: "Qin, Han, Zhao, and Wei moved their capital closer to their targets to facilitate expansionist campaigns." [1]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n100 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Alternative Name:
Zhanguo

Zhanguo translates as ‘Warring States’; attested in Guanzi (Writings of Master Guan), compiled list of political-philosophical theories associated with Guanzi, Minister of Qi from the 7th c bce, probably compiled sometime in the first c bce
multi-polar system where territory of MYRV, and all of China, was split between numerous quasi-polities, though each of which with similar internal structure. MYRV was split between the Chu, Qi, and Wei, with Zhao and Han being right outside the Wei and Yellow Rivers confluence.


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
353 BCE

"In 353 BC, Qi defeated Wei, the then-hegemonic power. In 341 BC, Qi further annihilated Wei’s core forces and seized the hegemonic status." [1]
reforms of Chancellor Li Kui under Marquis Wen [2]
"Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms by systematizing preexisting practices and introducing innovative institutions." [1]
"... the expansionist Wei lost hegemony in 341 BC and then great-power status in 293 BC." [3]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005)

[3]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Duration:
[445 BCE ➜ 225 BCE]

445 - reign of Marquis Wen, first independent ruler in the state of Wei; 225 - defeat by Qin


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
nominal allegiance to [---]

many alliances were formed between Warring States kingdoms, usually military alliances against another kingdom, but were fleeting and quickly abandoned in favor of other alliances throughout this period (cf. Tin-bor Hui 2005)


Supracultural Entity:
Chinese

shared linguistic and material culture between all states in the mainland area (Huaxia)


Succeeding Entity:
Imperial Qin

Scale of Supracultural Interaction:
[3,000,000 to 4,000,000] km2

km^2


Relationship to Preceding Entity:
elite migration

former Zhou noble lineages became independent rulers of Wei territory


Preceding Entity:
Jin Dynasty [cn_later_great_jin] ---> Early Wei Dynasty [cn_wei_dyn_warring_states]

former Zhou noble lineages became independent rulers of Wei territory


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

all warring states kingdoms centralized control, but still relied to some degree on the hereditary noble lineages for support and resources


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
90,000 km2

km^2 Reference?


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[4 to 5]

pre-reforms (fifth c bce):
1. Capital city
2. town3. feudal estates (?)4. village
post-reforms (fifth c bce):
1. Capital city
2. Commandery capital3. County4. town5. village


Military Level:
[4 to 5]

1. ruler2. chief officials (e.g. commandant)/Councilors; also in many states were elite troops under direct command of ruler [1] 3. [Commandery Protector]
3. generals (jiang or jiang jun)4.“specialized officer corps” [2]
5. Individual soldier

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 621)

[2]: (Lewis 1999b, 631)


Administrative Level:
5

1. Ruler

_Central government_
2. Prime Minister"The most important codification of Chinese law is the Fa jing (Canon of Law), compiled during the Warring States period by the prime minister of the Wei state Li Kui (455-395 B.C.)" [1]
3. Chancellor, Secretaries, etcCourt officials (Chancellor, Secretaries, etc) [2]
4. Assistants / Secretaries / scribes
4. Manager of state-run iron/bronze foundry inferred level5. Worker in state-run iron/bronze foundry inferred level
_Provincial government_
2. jun (commanderies)Provincial / commandery governors; military generals [2]
"At the onset of the Warring States period, Wei reorganized the whole guo - core as well as conquered territories - into a two-tier structure of jun (commanderies) and xian (which evolved from dependent districts to counties). As the jun and xian became standard administrative units in the Warring States period, strategists could evaluate the relative capabilities of various states in terms of their numbers of jun and xian." [3]
3. xian (counties)
4. town heads
5. village-level chiefs

[1]: (Fu 1993, 108) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Li 2013, 194)

[3]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 98) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"Although most soldiers were drafted peasants, it became common to select and train elite corps of crack troops." [1]

[1]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


Professional Military Officer:
present

"Wu Qi, a military general who arrived [in Chu] from Wei in 390 BC...." [1]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n90 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Wei had state workshops supervised by officials (artisans were often convict labourers). These state workshops included coin mints, bronze foundries, and lacquer or pottery workshops. [1]

[1]: (von Glahn 2016, 70-71) Glahn, Richard von. 2016. The Economic History of China: From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T48IRKXI.


Merit Promotion:
present

"Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms ... In conventional accounts, Wu Qi, a military general who arrived [in Chu] from Wei in 390 BC, introduced a self-strengthening program to eradicate the entrenched nobility and establish meritocracy. The reforms were so comprehensive that Wu Qi was much hated by the aristocrats. When the king died in 381 BC, Wu Qi was killed and the reforms were abandoned." [1]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n90 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present

"Around 445 BC, Wei started the new wave of self-strengthening reforms by systematizing preexisting practices and introducing innovative institutions." [1]
"In short, during Qin’s early ascendance, all other great powers introduced various elements of self-strengthening reforms such as the mass army, national taxation, household registration, and hierarchical administration." [2]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 85) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 86) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Examination System:
absent

"Before the Northern Sung, the principal means of entry into the social and political elite was by official recommendation or kinship relations." [1]

[1]: (Elmam 2000, 5) Elman, B. 2000. A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Law
Judge:
present

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction." [1]

[1]: (Fu 1993, 107) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Formal Legal Code:
present

"The most important codification of Chinese law is the Fa jing (Canon of Law), compiled during the Warring States period by the prime minister of the Wei state Li Kui (455-395 B.C.), who may be called the real founder of the Legalist school ... The compilation of Fa jing was based on the then current laws of the various states and became the prototype of later Chinese imperial codes ... All the legal codes of imperial dynasties, from the Qin code to the Qing code, can be traced to Fa jing. ... There were always minor changes but the basic legal structure remained intact. Even the laws proclaimed during periods of alien rule, like the Mongolian Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty, were no exception." [1]
"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction." [2]

[1]: (Fu 1993, 108) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Fu 1993, 107) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Court:
present

"The Legalists were the chief proponents of the use of a penal code to control the people. During the Warring States period, the sovereigns of the various states had little use for morals and rites. They were more concerned with building strong states, strengthening their armies, and enlarging their territories. This can only be realized by being able to keep a submissive people. The Legalists proved more useful for their political aspirations, as they exerted a major influence on Chinese traditional law and legal institutions, which were set up under their direction." [1]

[1]: (Fu 1993, 107) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"Bamboo slips excavated in a tomb in Linyi, Shangdong province, in 1972 contain sections of a document known as Shi fa (Rules about markets). According to Shi fa, markets were administered by officials, specific products were sold in prescribed locations, and misconduct in the marketplace was punished." [1] "Although markets are a stipulation of the ideal Chinese city since Zhou times, Han is the first period from which one can confirm their presence." [2] "The marketplace became a key site in Warring States and early imperial cities, a site marked both by a tower and a grid. It provided the interface between politics and commerce. Walled, laid out in a grid, it was a scene of state authority. This included not only regulation of prices and the quality of goods, but also the proclamation of decrees, the carrying out of punishments, and the display of corpses. Despite these attempts at control, the market was also a site for activities outside the state sphere. ..." [3]

[1]: (Steinhardt 2013, 113) Steinhardt, N in Clark, Peter ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press.

[2]: (Steinhardt 2013, 114) Steinhardt, N in Clark, Peter ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press.

[3]: (Lewis 2012, 186-187) Lewis, Mark Edward. 2012. The Construction of Space in Early China. SUNY Press.


Irrigation System:
present

Irrigation known in this period: "The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn Period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects." [1] "Around 430 B.C., the first known large-scale irrigation project was built on the North China Plain (near present-day Hebei Province) to channel water from the Yellow River to nearby fields." [2]

[1]: (Henkel 2015, 87) Henkel, Marlon. 2015. 21st Century Homestead: Sustainable Agriculture III: Agricultural Practices. Lulu.com.

[2]: (Karplus and Deng 2007, 10) Karplus, Valerie J. Deng, Xing Wang. 2007. Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects. Springer Science & Business Media.


Food Storage Site:
present

Present in Spring and Autumn Period [1] .

[1]: (Brooks and Brooks) Brooks, E, Bruce. Brooks, A, Taeko. 2015. The Emergence of China: From Confucius to the Empire. Warring States Project.


Drinking Water Supply System:
present

"Besides the more well-known extensive irrigation works and man-made transport canals linking up the major rivers, the provision of water supplies to its cities formed the third important element of China’s ancient water civilization." [1] "The entire underground water supply pipeline system of Yangcheng [Warring States Period?] was discovered in archaeological excavations (Figure 8.2), providing important physical evidence of early water supply of cities in ancient China." [2]

[1]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 169) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.

[2]: (Du and Koenig 2012, 171) Du, P and Koenig, A. in Angelakis, Andreas Niklaos. Mays, Larry W. Koutsoyiannis, Demetris. 2012. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia. IWA Publishing.


Transport Infrastructure

reference to road building in Jin state. [1]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n100 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Canal:
present

reference to canal building in Wu state. [1]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n100 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

contracts (quan) written between state and officials as a way of budget accounting. [1] Historical records and documents refer to the Fa jing. [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 609)

[2]: (Fu 1993, 108) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Script:
present

contracts (quan) written between state and officials as a way of budget accounting. [1] Historical records and documents refer to the Fa jing. [2] Ancient Chinese language.

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 609)

[2]: (Fu 1993, 108) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
absent

Ancient Chinese language.


Nonwritten Record:
present

contracts (quan) written between state and officials as a way of budget accounting. [1] Historical records and documents refer to the Fa jing. [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 609)

[2]: (Fu 1993, 108) Fu, Zhengyuan. 1993. Autocratic Tradition and Chinese Politics. Cambridge University Press.


Non Phonetic Writing:
present

Ancient Chinese language.


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
absent

ritual and religious thought in ancient China apparently not associated with sacred texts sensu stricto (i.e. texts containing "the word of god"), though works of sayings of religious figures (e.g. Confucius) were certainly deemed as important and canonized as ‘five classics’ [1]

[1]: (Puett 2014)


Religious Literature:
present

Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.


Philosophy:
present

Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.


History:
present

Zhou dynasty had the Zuo Zhuan which was a late 4th BCE history of the Spring and Autumn period.


Calendar:
present

Clear that each Warring State kingdom kept records and produced a great deal of political, philosophical, and religious work; most literature from this period was destroyed in various wars however, and ultimately systematically destroyed by Qin and later Han Empires, though parts of the works produced in this period were adapted or transmitted to later authors.


Information / Money

cowrie shells, tortoise shells, jade used as currency; also some coins shaped like cowrie shells, clearly imitating a previous form of currency [1]

[1]: (Bodde 1986, 60)


Precious Metal:
present

some silver, tin especially, likely gold as well [1]

[1]: (Bodde 1986, 60)



Indigenous Coin:
present

"The earliest minted form of currency was the bu, a coin cast of bronze in the form of a miniature double-pronged digging stick or hoe, complete with hollow socket. They are particularly densely concentrated in the vicinity of the Eastern Zhou capital of Luoyang and in the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei." [1] Different states had different types/shapes of metal objects used as a store of wealth; unclear if used as medium of exchange. Han, Wei, Zhao used ‘coin’ shaped like spade; knife-shaped coin used in Qi, Yen, and Zhao; cowrie-shaped coin used Chu; circular coin with hole in Qin, Zhao, and Zhou [2] Unclear if coinage was always monopoly of state, or produced by large merchant groups/families Wei: spade-shaped token. true coins not introduced until state of Qin in late third c bce (right after this period)

[1]: (Higham 2009, 83) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.

[2]: (Gernet 1982, 73)



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

From the Shang period roads considered important enough to be "controlled by a special official" [1] but references to post usually begin with the Qin’s First Emperor who "constructed post roads across his empire". [2] However, Confucius (551-479 BCE) said: "News of good deeds travels faster than the mail" [3] which strongly implies a postal system was present at his time. One may infer from the importance of roads a basic postal system existed earlier.

[1]: (Lindqvist 2009) Lindqvist, Cecilia. 2009. China: Empire of Living Symbols. Da Capo Press.

[2]: ( ? 2003, 391) ? in Mokyr, Joel ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, Volume 2. Oxford University Press

[3]: (Postal Museum Chunghwa Post Co. 2010, [1])


General Postal Service:
absent

unlikely literacy widespread enough for a general postal service to be necessary.


Courier:
present

specialist messengers likely used by the government


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
present

Defensive fortifications were common feature of all Warring States kingdoms, known from Qi, Wei, Zhao, and Yan in 4th c bce; likely Chu as well. Some stone, but most were built of stamped earth. [1] Stone walls present in the Neolithic period [2]

[1]: (Loewe 1999a, 1021)

[2]: (Feinman, Gary and Liye, Xie. North China Workshop 2016)


Stone Walls Mortared:
absent

no evidence of mortar used as construction technique during this period


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Wei built a fortified town on the Qin-Wei border before launching campaigns against Qin." [1] increasing urbanization and large city-walls in this period linked with need for strategic defensive areas [2]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n100 88) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Hung 1999, 653)



"The Ta Ming Wu Chieh chapters of the I Chou Shu ... mention several methods of attacking a city: mounding in the moat (yin) ... but the text probably dates from Warring States times." [1]

[1]: (Needham and Yates 1994, 241) Joseph Needham. Robin D A Yates. 1994. Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Part VI. Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Fortified Camp:
present

[1]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 629)


Earth Rampart:
present

[1] Defensive fortifications were common feature of all Warring States kingdoms, known from Qi, Wei, Zhao, and Yan in 4th c bce; likely Chu as well. Some stone, but most were built of stamped earth. [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 630)

[2]: (Loewe 1999a, 1021)


Was in use at the time, for example it was used against Wei in Kuei-ling Campaign by the Chao state [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 37)


Complex Fortification:
present

during different stages of building, old walls of a city were often incorporated as ‘inner walls’ of new city, e.g. in ‘double cities’ like Xue. Not clear if this was always for defensive purposes, though [1] . It does seem clear that the multiple-wall system served to ‘protect’ the elite residences and palace structures from external invasion, whether military threat or social removal from non-ruling classes

[1]: (Hung 1999, 660)



Military use of Metals

First steel adapted by Chu in 5th century BCE [1] , likely spread quickly to other states "As the smiths in time learned the possibilities of their material, and began producing quench-hardened steel swords ... bronze swords could not longer compete and went out of use completely. This seems likely to have occurred all over China by the late third century B.C. at the latest." [2] Wootz steel was "being exported from India to China at least as early as the +5th century. … good steel was manufactured in China by remarkably modern methods at least from that time onwards also." [3] First high-quality steel 450 CE.

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 96)

[2]: (Wagner 1996, 197) Donald B Wagner. 1996. Iron and Steel in Ancient China. 2nd Edition. E J BRILL. Leiden.

[3]: (Needham 1962, 282) Joseph Needham. 1962. Science and Civilization in China. Volume IV. Physics and Physical Technology. Part 1: Physics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Iron introduced from Central Asia in roughly 500 bce. Mainly used in agricultural tools, but adapted to swords and other military pieces in Chu and then the other kingdoms by the later 4th c bce; unclear if was present in the period being coded here, or only became prevalent in the proceeding period (imperial Qin) [1] [2] Helmets "sometimes made of iron". [3]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, 96)

[2]: (Lewis 1999b, 624)

[3]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.



"short bronze blades of the Warring States period" [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 47)


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

siege-warfare in this period seems to have not involved specialized equipment / technology, more brute force and trickery by besieging armies (cf. Tin-bor Hui 2005). However, "The Chinese traction trebuchet is at least as old as the siege crossbow and is also described in the Mo Zi writings." [1]

[1]: (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

Mohist catapults used during the Warring States period, they were "based on the lever principle, which was already a known concept and in wide use as in the counterbalanced bucket." [1] Note: use of gravity makes it sling? "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Liang)

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.

Sling Siege Engine:
absent

Mohist catapults used during the Warring States period, they were "based on the lever principle, which was already a known concept and in wide use as in the counterbalanced bucket." [1] Note: use of gravity makes it sling? "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Liang)

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.


Inferred from the Zhou period, when: "The conscripted foot soldiers wore sheepskin jackets and used slings and bows with bronze-tipped arrows." [1]

[1]: (Meyer 1994, 132) Milton Walter Meyer. 1994. China: A Concise History. Second Edition, Revised. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Lanham.


Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Middle Yellow River Valley.


"The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ..." [1] - I would infer thrown spear because it was short enough and light enough to be carried on the back, and because the soldier carried a sword for close-quarter combat.

[1]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.



Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"Crossbows first appeared in Chu in the early fifth century BC and were in general use in the fourth century BC." [1] "By 340 B.C., they had adopted the crossbow..." [2]

[1]: (Tin-bor Hui 2005, n139 95) Tin-bor Hui, Victoria. 2005. War and State Formation in Ancient China and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press.

[2]: (Meyer 1994, 132) Milton Walter Meyer. 1994. China: A Concise History. Second Edition, Revised. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Lanham.


Composite Bow:
present

However, seen as outdated technology: "It was to be the sword and crossbow, rather than the composite bow and dagger-axe, that decided the battles of the Warring States" [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 31)


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons

Inferred from the presence of war clubs in previous and subsequent polities in the Middle Yellow River Valley.


[1] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ... " [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 621)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


[1] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to ... strap a spear to their backs and a sword by their waists ... " [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 621)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


Inferred from the presence of polearms in previous and subsequent polities in the Middle Yellow River Valley.


[1]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 622)


Battle Axe:
present

However, seen as outdated technology: "It was to be the sword and crossbow, rather than the composite bow and dagger-axe, that decided the battles of the Warring States" [1]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 31)


Animals used in warfare

[1]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 624)


Used as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Never used in warfare. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


No report of camels introduced into the region during this period. Never used in warfare, besides as pack animals. [1]

[1]: (North China Workshop 2016)


Armor

[1] "Traditional shields" first seen in the Warring States period. [2]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 31)

[2]: (Hong 1992: 220) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XU9E2WR8.



Plate Armor:
present

[1] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets" [2]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 31)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


Limb Protection:
present

Inferred from the presence of limb protection in previous and subsequent polities in Middle Yellow River Valley. Armor and helmets were an important defence against crossbows. [1] NB: It is unclear which "Wei" polity the next quote references--it might be a much later one. "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets" [1]

[1]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


Leather Cloth:
present

[1] Helmets "sometimes made of iron" but mostly "leather strips tied with cords." [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 621)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


Laminar Armor:
present

[1] "The elite troops in the state of Wei had to wear heavy armor and helmets" [2]

[1]: (Peers 2013, 31)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.


[1] Armor and helmets were an important defence against crossbows. [2]

[1]: (Lewis 1999b, 621)

[2]: (Ebrey and Walthall 2013, 23) Ebrey, Patricia. Walthall, Anne. 2013. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning.



Breastplate:
present

[1]

[1]: (Lewis 1999, 624)


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown

Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown

Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown


Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions
- Nothing coded yet.