Home Region:  Iran (Southwest Asia)

Ak Koyunlu

D G SC WF HS PT EQ 2020  ir_ak_koynlu / IrAkKoy

Preceding:
[population migration; Kara Koyunlu] [population migration]   Update here
Add one more here.

Succeeding:
No Polity found. Add one here.

The Ak Koyunlu were a loose confederation of nomadic Turkman tribes that ruled in Iran between 1339-1501 CE. [1] They formed an alliance with the Timurid Emirate (1370-1526 CE) until Uzun Hasan (r. c1453-1478 CE) declared himself an independent sultan. [2] Their rule was ended by the Safavids in 1501 CE. [1]
The initial Ak Koyunlu government system was not complex; the sultan, a member of the Bayandor clan, was the head of a confederation [3] and obliged to attend and abide by the decisions of a powerful council of Amirs (kengac) and tribal chiefs (boy kanlari). This collective "determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate". [1] However, by Qara Otman (c1398 CE) the Ak Koyunlu had gained "at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1] in addition to support from more tribes, and better relations with Christian sedentary people.
In the second half of the fifthteenth century, the complexity of state institutions increased another step with the conquest of eastern Iran. [1] Uzun Hasan maintained the existing administrative system as well as their officials. [1] Woods (1998) notes that there is evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize administrative and financial procedures. [4]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) R Quiring-Zoche. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[3]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) QR Quiring-Zoche. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[4]: (Woods 1998, 108) J E Woods. 1999. The Aqquyunlu. Clan, Confederation, Empire. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Ak Koyunlu  
Capital:
Amed  
Tabriz  
Alternative Name:
Aq Qoyunlu  
White Sheep  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,453 CE ➜ 1,478 CE]  
Duration:
[1,339 CE ➜ 1,501 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]  
Succeeding Entity:
Safavid Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
population migration  
Preceding Entity:
UNCLEAR:    [population migration]  
Degree of Centralization:
confederated state  
loose  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-Iranian  
Language Genus:
Indo-European  
Language:
Persian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
1,800,000 km2 1500 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]  
Religious Level:
[1 to 3]  
Military Level:
6  
Administrative Level:
3 1339 CE 1398 CE
4 1339 CE 1470 CE
5 1471 CE 1501 CE
Professions
Professional Soldier:
present  
Professional Priesthood:
unknown  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent 1339 CE 1397 CE
inferred present 1398 CE 1501 CE
Examination System:
inferred absent  
Law
Judge:
unknown  
Formal Legal Code:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
inferred present  
Port:
unknown  
Canal:
inferred present  
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
unknown  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Mnemonic Device:
unknown  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
inferred present  
Philosophy:
inferred present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
inferred present  
History:
inferred present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Token:
unknown  
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred present  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
unknown  
  Bronze:
unknown  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
inferred absent  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent 1339 CE 1472 CE
present 1473 CE 1501 CE
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent 1400 CE
present 1500 CE
  Crossbow:
inferred absent  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
inferred present  
  Dagger:
inferred present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred absent  
  Donkey:
inferred present  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
unknown  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
unknown  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred present  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred present  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Ak Koyunlu (ir_ak_koynlu) was in:
 (1471 CE 1504 CE)   Susiana
Home NGA: Susiana

General Variables
Identity and Location

Timur gave the city of Amed to the Ak Koyunlu "which was to be their capital for almost seventy years." [1] "At Aleppo, the Aqquyunlu so distinguished themselves in battle that Timur allegedly rewarded Ibrahim, Qara ’Usman’s eldest son, with the city of Amid, held by Timur since its capture from al-Zahir ’Isa~Artuqi in 1394/796. This is the first reference to Aqquyunlu control of that city, which remained capital of the Principality until Uzun Hasan’s conquests of 1467-69/872-74, when it was replaced by Tabriz." [2] "summer pastures (yeylāq) in Armenia around Sinir, east of Bayburt, and winter pastures (qešlāq) around Kiḡi, Palu, and Ergani in Dīār Bakr." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Woods 1998, 41)

Capital:
Tabriz

Timur gave the city of Amed to the Ak Koyunlu "which was to be their capital for almost seventy years." [1] "At Aleppo, the Aqquyunlu so distinguished themselves in battle that Timur allegedly rewarded Ibrahim, Qara ’Usman’s eldest son, with the city of Amid, held by Timur since its capture from al-Zahir ’Isa~Artuqi in 1394/796. This is the first reference to Aqquyunlu control of that city, which remained capital of the Principality until Uzun Hasan’s conquests of 1467-69/872-74, when it was replaced by Tabriz." [2] "summer pastures (yeylāq) in Armenia around Sinir, east of Bayburt, and winter pastures (qešlāq) around Kiḡi, Palu, and Ergani in Dīār Bakr." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Woods 1998, 41)


Alternative Name:
Aq Qoyunlu

Aq Qoyunlu; White Sheep. [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlū. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

Alternative Name:
White Sheep

Aq Qoyunlu; White Sheep. [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlū. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
[1,453 CE ➜ 1,478 CE]

Under Qara Otman 1398 CE the Ak Koyunlu gained more territory, support from more tribes, better relations with Christian sedentary peoples, and he "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]
"The Āq Qoyunlu empire reached its zenith under Uzun Ḥasan. He was the first of their rulers to declare himself an independent sultan". [1] r. c1453-1478 CE.

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Duration:
[1,339 CE ➜ 1,501 CE]

Start 1339 CE.
First Ak Koyunlu leader mentioned in "mutually independent sources" Tur-Ali b. Pahlavan. [1]
End 1501 CE
The Ak Koyunlu "ruled in eastern Anatolia and western Iran until the Safavid conquest in 1501." [2]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlū. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
alliance with [---]

Allied with Timur [1] and the Venetians. [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Succeeding Entity:
Safavid Empire

Relationship to Preceding Entity:
population migration

"Amplifying the earlier view of Minorsky, Sümer notes the eastward reflux from Anatolia of the Mongol Oirot, Jalayir, and Süldüz after 1335/736 in addition to the three Turkmen "waves" composed of the Qaraquyunlu, the Aqquyunlu, and the Safavid Qizilbash that swept out of Anatolia over Iran in the fifteenth/ninth and sixteenth/ tenth centuries. In any case, these later demographic changes differed from the earlier Turkic and Mongol invasions of the Islamic lands from Central Asia in that they essentially involved the relocation or reshuffling of existing elements into new political configurations as distinct from the overlaying of an indigenous population by entirely new peoples." [1]

[1]: (Woods 1998, 3)


Preceding Entity:
Kara Koyunlu

"Amplifying the earlier view of Minorsky, Sümer notes the eastward reflux from Anatolia of the Mongol Oirot, Jalayir, and Süldüz after 1335/736 in addition to the three Turkmen "waves" composed of the Qaraquyunlu, the Aqquyunlu, and the Safavid Qizilbash that swept out of Anatolia over Iran in the fifteenth/ninth and sixteenth/ tenth centuries. In any case, these later demographic changes differed from the earlier Turkic and Mongol invasions of the Islamic lands from Central Asia in that they essentially involved the relocation or reshuffling of existing elements into new political configurations as distinct from the overlaying of an indigenous population by entirely new peoples." [1]

[1]: (Woods 1998, 3)


Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

The Ak Koyunlu were "a confederation of Turkman tribes". [1] "Their political organization was loose." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

Degree of Centralization:
loose

The Ak Koyunlu were "a confederation of Turkman tribes". [1] "Their political organization was loose." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-Iranian

Language Genus:
Indo-European

Language:
Persian

"The Qaraquyunlu and Aqquyunlu tribal entities which succeeded the Timurids on the region’s political scene pursued a similarly inclusive ’project’: Islam was their religion, their tribal military levies were Turks, their administrators were Tajiks and their cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Religion


Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI


Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
1,800,000 km2
1500 CE

in squared kilometers
1770270.90 estimate calculated using Google Maps area calculator with the following result, based on Wells 1998’s map. [1]

[1]: (Wells 1998, 135)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[3 to 5]

levels.
Towns and villages. [1]
Provincial capitals: "The structure of the central administrative council was probably mirrored on a smaller scale in the provincial council of the princely appanages(huku­ mat, iyalat, ulka, saltanat) and the military governorships (darughagi, hukumat, iyalat). Though ulka is not, strictly speaking, a technical term for princely appanage during the Turkmen period as previously discussed, the word frequently occurs in conjunction with the term khurish, a fixed share of provincial revenues allotted to a royal prince for his upkeep. The appanage-holding prince theoretically may have been immune from interference by the central authorities, but the inhabitants could nevertheless refer their grievances against the actions of a royal prince to the sultan.65 Minor princes were usually accompanied to their appanages by their guardians, representing either the confederates or the warband, who then became chiefs of staff of the provincial councils and garrison commanders of the provincial capitals." [2]
1. Capital. Amid until 1467-1469 when it was replaced by Tabriz.
2. Provincial capitals3. Villages4. Hamlets
"At Aleppo, the Aqquyunlu so distinguished themselves in battle that Timur allegedly rewarded Ibrahim, Qara ’Usman’s eldest son, with the city of Amid, held by Timur since its capture from al-Zahir ’Isa~Artuqi in 1394/796. This is the first reference to Aqquyunlu control of that city, which remained capital of the Principality until Uzun Hasan’s conquests of 1467-69/872-74, when it was replaced by Tabriz." [3]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Woods 1998, 19)

[3]: (Woods 1998, 41)


Religious Level:
[1 to 3]

levels. AD: coded as a range to reflect various possibilities in the following (tentative) hierarchy:
1. Head of Safawiya Shi’ite order at Ardabil
2. ?3. Local imam
"The Qaraquyunlu and Aqquyunlu tribal entities which succeeded the Timurids on the region’s political scene pursued a similarly inclusive ’project’: Islam was their religion, their tribal military levies were Turks, their administrators were Tajiks and their cultural discourse was Persian." [1]
Uzun Hasan r. c1453-1478 CE funded religious activities. [2]
Uzun Hasan married a daughter to the head of the Safawiya Shi’ite order at Ardabīl. "The argument that there was a clear-cut contrast between the Sunnism of the Āq Qoyunlu and the Shiʿism of the Qara Qoyunlu and the Ṣafawiya rests mainly on later Safavid sources and must be considered doubtful." [2]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Military Level:
6

levels.
"On parade, the Aq Qoyunlu Turkman troops were drawn up in the Turco-Mongol fashion of right wing, left wing, and center (sag wa sol wa manqalay)." [1] Does this suggest, also like the Mongols, they used the decimal chain-of-command?
1. Sultan

2. Chief of Personal Guard (kawass) inferred"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawāṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups." [2]
3. Soldier in Personal Guard
2. amīr-e noʾīn (commander) 10,000s?The top commanders were called amīr-e noʾīn (Mongolian noyan “master, lord”),
3. 1,000s?"one group of the rank-and-file was called nowkars (Mongolian nökär “companion”)" [1]
4. 100s?"the term for smaller, component units of the army (in the Timurid army, for a mere company of 50 to 100 men) was qošūn (Mongolian k/qošiḡun)" [1]
5. 10s?
6. Soldier

[1]: (Bosworth 2011) Bosworth, C E. 2011. ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-ii

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Administrative Level:
3
1339 CE 1398 CE

levels.
_1339-1398 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]
_1398-1471 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Head of bureaucracyQara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy inferred4. Scribe inferred
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

_1471-1501 CE (conquest of Iran)_
Conquest of Iran shifted Ak Koyunlu core to the east and "Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture." [1]
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Vizier of the divan [1] "In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy
3. Sadr head of "religious dignitaries" [1] 4.5."In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
2. GovernorThere was a governor of Shiraz. [1]
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

Administrative Level:
4
1339 CE 1470 CE

levels.
_1339-1398 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]
_1398-1471 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Head of bureaucracyQara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy inferred4. Scribe inferred
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

_1471-1501 CE (conquest of Iran)_
Conquest of Iran shifted Ak Koyunlu core to the east and "Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture." [1]
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Vizier of the divan [1] "In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy
3. Sadr head of "religious dignitaries" [1] 4.5."In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
2. GovernorThere was a governor of Shiraz. [1]
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

Administrative Level:
5
1471 CE 1501 CE

levels.
_1339-1398 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]
_1398-1471 CE_
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Head of bureaucracyQara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy inferred4. Scribe inferred
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

_1471-1501 CE (conquest of Iran)_
Conquest of Iran shifted Ak Koyunlu core to the east and "Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture." [1]
1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)
"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan". [1]
_Central government_
1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.
"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan." [1]
2. Vizier of the divan [1] "In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
3. Department within bureaucracy
3. Sadr head of "religious dignitaries" [1] 4.5."In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations" [1]
_Provincial government_
2. Amir / Tribal chief
2. GovernorThere was a governor of Shiraz. [1]
3. Military officer in villages and towns"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army". [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawaṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups." [1]
"land grant system practiced since Saljuq times" (Iqta system) used to pay soldiers. [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Professional Priesthood:
unknown

Professional Military Officer:
present

"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawāṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups." [1] This includes the chief of personal guard (kawass).
"land grant system practiced since Saljuq times" (Iqta system) used to pay soldiers. [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

Indigenous coins are present, which implies the presence of mints.


Merit Promotion:
absent

"Simultaneously with and probably in response to this development, the central bureaucratic apparatus staffed by Iranian urban notables, many of whom had served the Qaraquyunlu Turkmens and the Timurids before the Aqquyunlu conquests, also underwent tremendous expansion and elaboration. Representatives of such important local Iranian families as the Kujuji of Azarbayjan, the Savaji of Persian Iraq, the Sa’idi of Persian Iraq and Fars, the Daylami of Persian Iraq and Gilan, and the Bayhaqi of Khurasan were appointed to supervise the administrative, fiscal, and religious affairs of the government. There is also evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize the administrative and financial procedures in this period." [1] Implies that administrative positions were given to members of elite families.

[1]: (Woods 1998, 108)


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent
1339 CE 1397 CE

Qara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

Full Time Bureaucrat:
present
1398 CE 1501 CE

Qara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Examination System:
absent

"Simultaneously with and probably in response to this development, the central bureaucratic apparatus staffed by Iranian urban notables, many of whom had served the Qaraquyunlu Turkmens and the Timurids before the Aqquyunlu conquests, also underwent tremendous expansion and elaboration. Representatives of such important local Iranian families as the Kujuji of Azarbayjan, the Savaji of Persian Iraq, the Sa’idi of Persian Iraq and Fars, the Daylami of Persian Iraq and Gilan, and the Bayhaqi of Khurasan were appointed to supervise the administrative, fiscal, and religious affairs of the government. There is also evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize the administrative and financial procedures in this period." [1] Implies that administrative positions were given to members of elite families.

[1]: (Woods 1998, 108)


Law

Formal Legal Code:
present

Qazi Isa "pleaded the desirability of replacing Mongol law (yasa) with Islamic law (šarīʿa) when he abolished the tamḡā (excise on merchandise)". [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"The revenue of the Aq Qoyunlu came from taxes and dues levied on the sedentary population of Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs, as well as tolls collected along the main trade routes through eastern Anatolia." [1] General reference for Seljuk? - Safavid? time period: "The bāzār was usually, though not always, divided into a number of sūqs (markets) in which different crafts and occupations had separate quarters. At night, after members of the crafts and shopkeepers had shut their premises and retired to their homes, the gates of the bāzārs were locked and barred." [2] Grand Bazaar of Isfahan first built in the Seljuk period. "There are abundant material remains and other nonwritten sources for the Aq-quyunlu period. Metin Sözen has catalogued nearly one hundred Aqquyunlu architectural structures in almost thirty locales in Anatolia alone. These buildings include mosques, madrasas, tombs, hospices, markets, caravanserais, baths, bridges, fountains, palaces, and fortifications. Unfortunately, no similar work exists for these monuments constructed in Iran during the imperial period, many of which have now disappeared." [3]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Lambton 2011) Lambton, Ann K S. 2011. CITIES iii. Administration and Social Organization. Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cities-iii

[3]: (Woods 1998, 218)



Transport Infrastructure

"The revenue of the Aq Qoyunlu came from taxes and dues levied on the sedentary population of Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs, as well as tolls collected along the main trade routes through eastern Anatolia." [1]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation



Canal:
present

"Public works such as seminaries, hostels, markets, warehouses, baths, and canals are also mentioned in the narrative sources, all of which attest to the flourishing condition of the Aqquyunlu capital." [1] Not necessarily transport canal, could be irrigation canal.

[1]: (Woods 1998, 137)


Bridge:
present

"There are abundant material remains and other nonwritten sources for the Aq-quyunlu period. Metin Sozen has catalogued nearly one hundred Aqquyunlu architectural structures in almost thirty locales in Anatolia alone. These buildings include mosques, madrasas, tombs, hospices, markets, caravanserais, baths, bridges, fountains, palaces, and fortifications. Unfortunately, no similar work exists for these monuments constructed in Iran during the imperial period, many of which have now disappeared." [1]

[1]: (Woods 1998, 218)


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Script:
present

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Nonwritten Record:
unknown

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Non Phonetic Writing:
absent


Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

"Uzun Hasan patronised religious structures, encouraged religious endowments and students, including Tajik sayyids, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (d. 632), and patronised the arts and sciences". [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.



Religious Literature:
present

"Uzun Hasan patronised religious structures, encouraged religious endowments and students, including Tajik sayyids, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (d. 632), and patronised the arts and sciences". [1] "theologian and philosopher Jalal al-Din Davani (d. 1503)". [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Practical Literature:
present

In the 11th century and after "the genre of writing treatises on statecraft in Persian develops, such treatises usually containing advice on the organizing of armies and on the art of war." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2011) Bosworth, C E. 2011. ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-ii


Philosophy:
present

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1] "theologian and philosopher Jalal al-Din Davani (d. 1503)". [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Lists Tables and Classification:
present

inferred continuity with earlier periods


History:
present

"cultural discourse was Persian." [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Fiction:
present

Uzun Hasan "patronised the arts and sciences". [1] "The great Persian Sunni Naqshbandi Sufi poet Jami (d. 1492)". [1]

[1]: (Newman 2009) Newman, Andrew J. 2009. Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B. Tauris. New York.


Calendar:
present

Islamic calendar.


Information / Money



Indigenous Coin:
present

"However, this ancestral title is well established by the time of Qara ’Usman whose coins bear traditional Bayandur arms or tamgha (see figures 5 and 13)." [1]

[1]: (Woods 1998, 56)


Foreign Coin:
present

" Despite the appearance in Cairo in August 1434/Muharram 838 of an Aqquyunlu envoy with a few token coins minted in al-Ashraf Barsbay’s name, the news of the resumption of Aqquyunlu raids on the Euphrates salient in conjunction with another Timurid thrust into Azarbayjan bespoke the complete failure of al-Ashraf Barsbay’s vendetta against Qara ’Usman." [1]

[1]: (Woods 1998, 53)



Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

possibly inherited from the Timurids.


General Postal Service:
unknown

Courier:
present

"Members of the warband regularly filled important posts in the sultan’s : "outer service" (birun) or ministry of court (darbar), such as the positions of chamberlain (qapuchi, eshik-aqasi),37 keeper of the seal (muhrdar), and equerry (amirakhur). They were also frequently appointed guardians (lala) to the royal princes38 and commanders (darugha) of royal garrisons in urban centers). In addition, a host of nonmilitary, non administrative service personnel including falconers, cooks, librarians, musicians, armorers, couriers, messengers, post riders, and heralds were attached to the court and thus technically considered part of the royal bodyguard." [1]

[1]: (Wells 1998, 14)


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications

Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown

Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had stone walls: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry." [1]

[1]: Francis Russell. 2017. 123 Places In Turkey. A Private Grand Tour. Wilmington Square Books. London.


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had stone walls: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry." [1]

[1]: Francis Russell. 2017. 123 Places In Turkey. A Private Grand Tour. Wilmington Square Books. London.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India." [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1990, 37) Nicolle, David. 1990. The Age of Tamerlane. Osprey Publishing.



Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had a moat and was held by the Ak Koyunlu: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry." [1]

[1]: Francis Russell. 2017. 123 Places In Turkey. A Private Grand Tour. Wilmington Square Books. London.






Military use of Metals

"This type of shield was characteristic of the cavalry of the Ak Koyunlu. It had a high steel boss and, in battle, was generally strapped to the wearer’s left arm." [1]

[1]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


[1]

[1]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.




Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.



"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.



"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Handheld Firearm:
absent
1339 CE 1472 CE

The Ottomans "drove their rivals - the Ak Koyunlu and the Safavids in Persia, and the Mamluks in Egypt" to import firearms from Europe. [1] Venetians allies shipped firearms in 1473 CE [2] but do not know if they were used in battle. The Ak Koyunlu military’s "weakness was its lack of firearms" [2] but that does not mean they had no fire arms at all, as the shipment of firearms from the Venetians demonstrates. Bosworth, referring to a battle near Terǰān 1473 CE against the Ottomans, says "One significant aspect of Āq Qoyunlu military organization is their use of firearms." [3] "The sultan’s personal guard (nowkarān-e ḵāṣṣa, bōy-e nūkarān, īnāqān) had handguns" later 15th century. [3]

[1]: (Chew 2012, 32-33) Emrys Chew. 2012. Arming the Periphery: The Arms Trade in the Indian Ocean During the Age of Global Empire. PalgraveMacmillan. Houndmill.

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[3]: (Bosworth 2011) Bosworth, C E. 2011. ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-ii

Handheld Firearm:
present
1473 CE 1501 CE

The Ottomans "drove their rivals - the Ak Koyunlu and the Safavids in Persia, and the Mamluks in Egypt" to import firearms from Europe. [1] Venetians allies shipped firearms in 1473 CE [2] but do not know if they were used in battle. The Ak Koyunlu military’s "weakness was its lack of firearms" [2] but that does not mean they had no fire arms at all, as the shipment of firearms from the Venetians demonstrates. Bosworth, referring to a battle near Terǰān 1473 CE against the Ottomans, says "One significant aspect of Āq Qoyunlu military organization is their use of firearms." [3] "The sultan’s personal guard (nowkarān-e ḵāṣṣa, bōy-e nūkarān, īnāqān) had handguns" later 15th century. [3]

[1]: (Chew 2012, 32-33) Emrys Chew. 2012. Arming the Periphery: The Arms Trade in the Indian Ocean During the Age of Global Empire. PalgraveMacmillan. Houndmill.

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[3]: (Bosworth 2011) Bosworth, C E. 2011. ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period. www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-ii


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent
1400 CE

"Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Aq Qoyunlu used captured Ottoman cannons, as well as having some locally cast ones for sieges." [1]

[1]: (? 2010, ?) Author?. 2010. Title?. David O. Morgan. Anthony Reid. ed. The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3, The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. nb: I think it’s Reuven Amitai. Armies and their economic basis in Iran and the surrounding lands, c. 1000-1500.

Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
present
1500 CE

"Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Aq Qoyunlu used captured Ottoman cannons, as well as having some locally cast ones for sieges." [1]

[1]: (? 2010, ?) Author?. 2010. Title?. David O. Morgan. Anthony Reid. ed. The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3, The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. nb: I think it’s Reuven Amitai. Armies and their economic basis in Iran and the surrounding lands, c. 1000-1500.


"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Composite Bow:
present

Archers. [1] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword. [2]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


New World weapons.


Handheld weapons

"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1] Ak Koyunlu armies had infantry and auxiliaries. [2] Islamic infantry of the period used maces and pole-arm weapons. [3]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.

[2]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[3]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


"Islamic swords usually straight until 11th century when Turkish cavalry sabres started to be used." [1] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword. [1]

[1]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword. [1]

[1]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


Ak Koyunlu armies had infantry and auxiliaries. [1] Islamic infantry of the period used maces and pole-arm weapons. [2]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Battle Axe:
present

"The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade." [1]

[1]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Animals used in warfare

Cavalry was the most important force in the Ak Koyunlu army. [1] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword. [2] "Many of these ’Turcomans’ were probably Islamised and Turkified Mongols. These tribesmen appear almost completely to have continued the military tradition sof the Mongols, that is, the army was composed primarily of masses of disciplined light cavalry. ... The Turcoman armies, however, were smaller than their Mongol predecessers." [3]

[1]: (Quiring-Zoche 2011) Quiring-Zoche, R. 2011. Aq Qoyunlu. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aq-qoyunlu-confederation

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.

[3]: (? 2010, ?) Author?. 2010. Title?. David O. Morgan. Anthony Reid. ed. The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3, The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. nb: I think it’s Reuven Amitai. Armies and their economic basis in Iran and the surrounding lands, c. 1000-1500.


Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all." [1]

[1]: (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Available in the region and could have been used as a pack animal.



Available in the region and could have been used as a pack animal.


Armor

"The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul." [1] "This type of shield was characteristic of the cavalry of the Ak Koyunlu. It had a high steel boss and, in battle, was generally strapped to the wearer’s left arm." [2]

[1]: 1991. Islamic and Indian Art, Oriental Manuscripts and Miniatures. Sotheby’s. page 56.

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.



Plate Armor:
present

"The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul." [1] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman". [2]

[1]: 1991. Islamic and Indian Art, Oriental Manuscripts and Miniatures. Sotheby’s. page 56.

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.





"Between the 11th and 16th centuries, the weapons and armour of the Islamic world ... mail coat (a dir or zirh) ... Islamic helmets were most often conical, egg- or turban-shaped, and of metal or organic material." [1]

[1]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


Chainmail:
present

"The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul." [1] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman". [2]

[1]: 1991. Islamic and Indian Art, Oriental Manuscripts and Miniatures. Sotheby’s. page 56.

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


Breastplate:
present

"The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul." [1] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman". [2]

[1]: 1991. Islamic and Indian Art, Oriental Manuscripts and Miniatures. Sotheby’s. page 56.

[2]: (Jones ed. 2012, 92-93) Gareth Jones. ed. The Military History Book: The Ultimate Visual Guide to the Weapons that Shaped the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. London.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
present

"A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown." [1] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1990, 37) Nicolle, David. 1990. The Age of Tamerlane. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
present

"A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown." [1] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1990, 37) Nicolle, David. 1990. The Age of Tamerlane. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown

"A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown." [1] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces." [2]

[1]: (Nicolle 1990, 37) Nicolle, David. 1990. The Age of Tamerlane. Osprey Publishing.

[2]: (1994, 365) Ibrahim Kafesoglu. Ahmet Edip Uysal. Erdogan Mercil. Hidayet Yavuz Nuhoglu. 1994. A short history of Turkish-Islamic states (excluding the Ottoman state). Turkish Historical Society Printing House.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
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Power Transitions