Home Region:  Mongolia (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Late Mongols

EQ 2020  mn_mongol_late / MnMongL

After the Yuan dynasty collapsed in 1368, Toghon Temur, its last emperor retired with his army to Mongolia, where he established a new state, with Karakorum as its capital, that extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal. [1] The new Mongolian polity was actually a loose alliance of six tribal confederations or tümens united under a common Khan, and the Khalkhas were one of these confederations. The Khalkhas were themselves divided into the Northern and Southern Khalkhas, and the Northern Khalkhas were divided into left-flank and right-flank Khalkhas For much of their history, the Khalkhas fought against the neighbouring Oirat confederation, with only a few decades’ truce in the first half of the seventeenth century. In 1662, conflict flared up between the left-flank and right-flank Khalkhas, but it was the Oirats’ invasion under Zungharian leadership that led to the fall of the Khalkha confederacy, as it pushed the Khalkhas to request Beijing’s protection, which the Chinese emperor granted in 1691, in exchange for political submission. [2]
Population and political organization
Like other Mongol confederacies, the Khalkhas were organised in a confederacy ruled by its own ruler, who however deferred to the overarching khan. [3]
In the 1630s, the Khalkhas, along with the Chahars, comprised 19,580 families; [4] estimating 3-8 people per family results in a figure of between 58,740 and 156,640 people, which, halved to exclude the Chahars, falls to between 30,000 and 80,000.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 210-211)

[2]: (Atwood 2004, 299-300)

[3]: (Ishjamts 2003, 213)

[4]: (Perdue 2005, 125)

General Variables
Identity and Location
Original Name:
Late Mongols  
Capital:
Karakorum  
Alternative Name:
Khalkhas  
Northern Yuan  
Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,368 CE ➜ 1,690 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Supracultural Entity:
Mongols  
Succeeding Entity:
Zungharian Empire  
Relationship to Preceding Entity:
continuity  
Preceding Entity:
Great Yuan  
Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity  
nominal  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Mongolic  
Altaic  
Language:
Khalkha  
Religion
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[2,500,000 to 3,000,000] km2  
Polity Population:
[30,000 to 80,000] people 1600 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]  
Religious Level:
1 1368 CE 1576 CE
[3 to 4] 1576 CE 1690 CE
Military Level:
[4 to 6]  
Administrative Level:
3  
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present  
Professional Priesthood:
present  
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present  
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
inferred absent  
Merit Promotion:
inferred absent  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred absent  
Examination System:
absent  
Law
Formal Legal Code:
present 1590 CE 1690 CE
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
inferred present  
Irrigation System:
inferred present  
Transport Infrastructure
Port:
inferred absent  
Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
inferred present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
inferred present  
Religious Literature:
inferred present  
Practical Literature:
present  
History:
inferred present  
Calendar:
inferred present  
Information / Money
Token:
present  
Precious Metal:
absent  
Paper Currency:
absent  
Indigenous Coin:
absent  
Foreign Coin:
inferred present  
Article:
present  
Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
inferred present  
General Postal Service:
unknown  
Courier:
inferred present  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
unknown  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
unknown  
  Modern Fortification:
unknown  
  Moat:
unknown  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
unknown  
  Ditch:
unknown  
  Complex Fortification:
unknown  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
unknown  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
inferred present 1400 CE
inferred present 1500 CE
unknown 1600 CE
  Handheld Firearm:
absent 1368 CE 1599 CE
inferred present 1600 CE 1690 CE
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown  
  Crossbow:
inferred present  
  Composite Bow:
inferred present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
inferred present  
  Spear:
inferred present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
present  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
unknown  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
unknown  
  Camel:
unknown  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
inferred present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
unknown  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
inferred present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
unknown  
  Breastplate:
inferred present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
unknown  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
unknown  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
unknown  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Late Mongols (mn_mongol_late) was in:
 (1368 CE 1689 CE)   Orkhon Valley
Home NGA: Orkhon Valley

General Variables
Identity and Location

Capital:
Karakorum

“Following the collapse of the Yüan dynasty in 1368, its last emperor, the Mongol ejen qaghan (emperor, hereafter spelled kaghan) Toghon Temür, retired from Beijing and returned to Mongolia with his army. Karakorum once again became the capital of a Mongol state, one which now ruled essentially within its own ethnic boundaries. This country, which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal, was a relatively large entity, and its ambitions to regain sovereignty over China still caused considerable anxiety to the Ming dynasty, which had supplanted the Yüan in China. » [1] Karakorum was then destroyed by the Ming in 1380. [2]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 210-211)

[2]: (Sanders 1996, 175)


Alternative Name:
Khalkhas

"The Eastern or Khalkha Mongols continued the imperial dynasty as the Northern Yuan from 1368 A.D. until the defeat of Ligdan by the Manchus in 1634 A.D." [1]

[1]: (Moses, Larry William. 1977. The Political Role of Mongolian Buddhism. Bloomington: Indiana University. P. 83)

Alternative Name:
Northern Yuan

"The Eastern or Khalkha Mongols continued the imperial dynasty as the Northern Yuan from 1368 A.D. until the defeat of Ligdan by the Manchus in 1634 A.D." [1]

[1]: (Moses, Larry William. 1977. The Political Role of Mongolian Buddhism. Bloomington: Indiana University. P. 83)


Temporal Bounds
Duration:
[1,368 CE ➜ 1,690 CE]

Political and Cultural Relations




Degree of Centralization:
quasi-polity

"Toghon Temür, the last Yüan emperor of China and a Genghisid of the Toluy-Qubilay line, fled in 1368 to Mongolia after the dynasty’s defeat and replacement by the national Ming Dynasty. From then on, his descendants and those of other Genghisid lineages would claim the right to rule the Mongols, but without achieving the re-establishment of even a unified Mongolia, to say nothing of a resurrection of the Genghisid empire." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 167)

Degree of Centralization:
nominal

"Toghon Temür, the last Yüan emperor of China and a Genghisid of the Toluy-Qubilay line, fled in 1368 to Mongolia after the dynasty’s defeat and replacement by the national Ming Dynasty. From then on, his descendants and those of other Genghisid lineages would claim the right to rule the Mongols, but without achieving the re-establishment of even a unified Mongolia, to say nothing of a resurrection of the Genghisid empire." [1]

[1]: (Soucek 2000, 167)


Language

Language:
Khalkha

"Khalkha dialect is the standard language of Mongolia." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 299)


Religion

Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[2,500,000 to 3,000,000] km2

in squared kilometers. After 1604 CE: “The Mongol state was at that time divided into three independent khanates: the Southern Mongol Chahar khanate, the Northern Mongol Khalkha khanate and the Western Mongol Oirat confederation." [1]
Area calculated using Google area calculator: 2,789,498.67 sq km. Based on the following quote and Perdue’s map [2]  :“Following the collapse of the Yüan dynasty in 1368, its last emperor, the Mongol ejen qaghan (emperor, hereafter spelled kaghan) Toghon Temür, retired from Beijing and returned to Mongolia with his army. Karakorum once again became the capital of a Mongol state, one which now ruled essentially within its own ethnic boundaries. This country, which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal, was a relatively large entity, and its ambitions to regain sovereignty over China still caused considerable anxiety to the Ming dynasty, which had supplanted the Yüan in China. » [3]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 216)

[2]: (Perdue 2005, 95)

[3]: (Ishjamts 2003, 210-211)


Polity Population:
[30,000 to 80,000] people
1600 CE

People.
"Despite the growing intimacy of Manchu-Mongol ties, one major Mon- gol leader, Ligdan (Linden) Khan of the Chahars, resolutely opposed the growing Manchu power. As the last descendant of Chinggis Khan, he held an official Yuan seal and viewed himself as the legitimate representative of the Mongolian imperial tradition. But after his losses in battle to the Man- chus in 1628 and 1632, the Manchus took over the Yuan seal and enrolled the Eastern Mongols as a whole in the banner system. Ligdan Khan’s son married a Manchu princess after Ligdan died of smallpox in Qinghai. The Chahar and Khalkha Mongols comprised 384 niru with 19,580 families, the Khorcin 448 niru with 22,308 families." [1]
So the total population of the Chahar and Khalkhas in the 1630s was comprised between 58,740 and 156,640 people using an estimate of 3-8 people per family. Halving this figure to exclude the Chahar, we get a rough population estimate of 30,000-80,000 people for the Khalkhas.

[1]: (Perdue 2005, 125)


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 3]

levels.
"Permanent settlements in Mongolia had begun with the conversion of the Mongols to Tibetan Buddhism in the sixteenth century. The first towns grew up around the monastic establishment. These included Hohhot (Ch. Huhehaote), whose major construction began in 1555, and Urga (modern Ulaan Baatar), the headquarters of the leading Buddhist cleric of Mongolia since the early seventeenth century." [1]
1. Towns
2. Villages(3. Hamlets/ Isolated farms)

[1]: (Perdue 2005, 232)


Religious Level:
1
1368 CE 1576 CE

levels. “In 1576 Tümen Jasaghtu Khan invited the head of the Red Hat sect, the Karma-pa Lama (bLama), to his headquarters and agreed with him that Tibetan Buddhism should be adopted as the state religion of Mongolia. In implementation of this decision, Altan Khan and Khutughtai Sechen Khongtaiji received the head of the Yellow Hat sect, the third Dalai Lama, with great pomp in 1577. The Tümed and Ordos Mongols con- verted simultaneously to Buddhism. On meeting the Dalai Lama at Altan Khan’s head- quarters, Abtai Khan also declared his desire to convert the whole of northern Mongolia to the Buddhist faith. » [1]
Before 1576 CE, shamanism:"While ruling China as the Yüan Dynasty, Qubilay and his successors began to abandon their people’s ancestral shamanism, which was marked by religious indifference or tolerance, and to display a growing interest in Buddhism." [2]
1. Shaman
"In all three cases the form adopted was the Tibetan denomination of the Yellow Hat, better known as Lamaism - and more correctly, in scholarly terminology, given its Tibetan name Gelugpa. It was famous for its extreme monasticism, theocracy eventually symbolized by the person of the Dalai Lama reigning from Lhassa, and a complex system of reincarnations. This also meant a lasting and mutually supportive relationship between the Mongol and Tibetan churches, which began in 1578 when Sonam-Gyatso (or bSod-nams rgya-mts’o, if we follow the generally accepted scholarly transliteration), chief of the Tibetan church, came to Mongolia to organize the new junior branch. It was at that point that the title Dalai Lama appeared for the first time - a Mongolian-Tibetan hybrid with the connotation of “Universal Lama” - apparently bestowed upon the Tibetan prelate by Altan Khan and from then on assumed by the spiritual and temporal chief of the Tibetan church. Sonam-Gyatso then returned to Tibet, but not without leaving in Mongolia a substitute of sorts, a “Living Buddha” who then resided at the aforementioend Köke-khoto or Huehot, a city in Inner Mongolia near the northeastern bend of the Yellow River and now the capital of China’s Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region." [3]
1. Dalai Lama - head of the Tibetan church
2. Living Buddha in Mongolia - a local substitute for the Dalai Lama3. Lama(4. Novice?)

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 215)

[2]: (Soucek 2000, 167)

[3]: (Soucek 2000, 168)

Religious Level:
[3 to 4]
1576 CE 1690 CE

levels. “In 1576 Tümen Jasaghtu Khan invited the head of the Red Hat sect, the Karma-pa Lama (bLama), to his headquarters and agreed with him that Tibetan Buddhism should be adopted as the state religion of Mongolia. In implementation of this decision, Altan Khan and Khutughtai Sechen Khongtaiji received the head of the Yellow Hat sect, the third Dalai Lama, with great pomp in 1577. The Tümed and Ordos Mongols con- verted simultaneously to Buddhism. On meeting the Dalai Lama at Altan Khan’s head- quarters, Abtai Khan also declared his desire to convert the whole of northern Mongolia to the Buddhist faith. » [1]
Before 1576 CE, shamanism:"While ruling China as the Yüan Dynasty, Qubilay and his successors began to abandon their people’s ancestral shamanism, which was marked by religious indifference or tolerance, and to display a growing interest in Buddhism." [2]
1. Shaman
"In all three cases the form adopted was the Tibetan denomination of the Yellow Hat, better known as Lamaism - and more correctly, in scholarly terminology, given its Tibetan name Gelugpa. It was famous for its extreme monasticism, theocracy eventually symbolized by the person of the Dalai Lama reigning from Lhassa, and a complex system of reincarnations. This also meant a lasting and mutually supportive relationship between the Mongol and Tibetan churches, which began in 1578 when Sonam-Gyatso (or bSod-nams rgya-mts’o, if we follow the generally accepted scholarly transliteration), chief of the Tibetan church, came to Mongolia to organize the new junior branch. It was at that point that the title Dalai Lama appeared for the first time - a Mongolian-Tibetan hybrid with the connotation of “Universal Lama” - apparently bestowed upon the Tibetan prelate by Altan Khan and from then on assumed by the spiritual and temporal chief of the Tibetan church. Sonam-Gyatso then returned to Tibet, but not without leaving in Mongolia a substitute of sorts, a “Living Buddha” who then resided at the aforementioend Köke-khoto or Huehot, a city in Inner Mongolia near the northeastern bend of the Yellow River and now the capital of China’s Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region." [3]
1. Dalai Lama - head of the Tibetan church
2. Living Buddha in Mongolia - a local substitute for the Dalai Lama3. Lama(4. Novice?)

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 215)

[2]: (Soucek 2000, 167)

[3]: (Soucek 2000, 168)


Military Level:
[4 to 6]

levels. The decimal system might still have been in use.
1. Khan
2. General of 10,000 soldiers
3. (General of 1,000 soldiers?)
4. 100
5. 10
6. Individual soldier


Administrative Level:
3

levels.Late 15th century: “These 6 tümens were major administrative units, often called ulu ̄s tümens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tümens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yüan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops, and the 4 Oirat tribal tümens. For this reason, the Mongol state was sometimes known as the ‘Forty Mongol Tümens and the Four Oirat Tümens’, or simply the ‘Forty and Four’" [1]
1. Khan or Khagan
2. Ulus tümens (princedoms) : 6
3. Tümens (administrative units consisting of 10,000 cavalry troops) : 40 (Mongol) and 4 (Oirat)
"In the early seventeenth century, in the remaining part of Mongolia, the Khalkha khanatewas headed by the grandson of Abtai Khan, the Tüsheet khan Ghombodorji. It consisted of three large aymaqs (princedoms). The largest and most important of these was the aymaq of the Tüsheet khan himself. The other two aymaqs of the right and left flanks were under the direct control of their own khans, who were subordinate to the Tüsheet khan. The leader of the left-flank aymaq was the Sechen khan, and of the right-flank aymaq, the Jasaghtu khan. As previously, the aymaqs continued to be divided into qoshuns, which were headed by jasaq noyans. The Tüsheet khan’s aymaq had two large qoshuns, the Sechen khan’s a single qoshun and the Jasaghtu khan’s four small qoshuns. The three aymaqs of the Khalkha khanate contained a total of seven qoshuns." [2]
1. Khan, leader of the largest Aymaq (princedom)
2. Left and right Aymaqs -princedoms
3. Qoshuns headed by jasaq noyans (7 in total)

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 213)

[2]: (Ishjamts 2003, 218)


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present

Khan’s special guard. inferred continuity from the Mongol Empire.


Professional Priesthood:
present

"In revenge, Galdan led the Junghars deep into Mongolia, where they smashed the Khalkha forces. They also captured and plundered Erdeni Zuu (located at Karakorum), the greatest monastic establishment in Mongolia, ostensibly because its abbot, the Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu—the younger brother of Tüsiyetü—had claimed to be of equal rank with the Dalai Lama (the former superior of Galdan, who had long lived as a monk in Tibet)." [1] A monastery implies priests and monks. We can infer that the abbot had a full-time role. “Mongolia had so far been shamanist in faith, but in the second half of the sixteenth century it turned definitively towards the Tibetan form of northern (Maha ̄ya ̄na) Buddhism. Although the Yüan emperors had adopted Buddhism as the official religion of the empire, it had never gained much currency in Mongolia and, for that reason, the country had long remained almost completely shamanist." [2] perhaps specialised priests inferred absent before 1550 and present afterwards.

[1]: (Beckwith 2009, 234)

[2]: (Ishjamts 2003, 214)


Professional Military Officer:
present

Khan’s special guard. inferred continuity from the Mongol Empire.


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
absent

present in Mongol Empire and Yuan but that is because they conquered territories where they would have been present. Difficult to infer that the Khalkhas also had specialised government buildings.


Merit Promotion:
absent

present in Yuan but diffiuclt to infer that the Khalkhas also had a merit promotion system.


Full Time Bureaucrat:
absent

present in Mongol Empire and Yuan but that is because they conquered territories where they would have been present. Difficult to infer that the Khalkhas also had full-time bureaucrats.


Examination System:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Cartier 1979)


Law
Formal Legal Code:
present
1590 CE 1690 CE

The Monggol Oirad-Chaaji [1] also used much later in following polities. (not coded) Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [2]

[1]: (Sneath 2007, 181)

[2]: (Ishjamts 2003, 214)


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

continuity with Mongol Empire and the Yuan?


Irrigation System:
present

"In northwestern Mongolia irrigation systems existed with channels and even simple aqueducts made of hollow logs (onggocha/ongots). Many of these irrigation systems were ancient, dating back to the military farms created under the Mongol Empire (see CHINQAI; QARA-QORUM; SIBERIA AND THE MON- GOL EMPIRE)." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 175)


Transport Infrastructure

Landlocked quasi-polity.


Special-purpose Sites
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present

Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [1]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 214)


Script:
present

Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [1]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 214)



Nonwritten Record:
present

oral histories?



Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Sacred Text:
present

importance of Buddhist monasteries.


Religious Literature:
present

“Ligdan Khan built a new capital in Chahar known as Chaghan Baishin (White House) and he encouraged the building of monasteries and the translation of Tibetan canonical literature into Mongolian.» [1] although Ligdan Khan was in practice not controlling the Khalkhas, we can infer similar behaviour in what was officially still part of the Mongol state ?

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 216)


Practical Literature:
present

Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [1]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 214)


History:
present

Continuity with the Mongol Empire and the Yuan.


Calendar:
present

Present in Yuan and imperial Mongol times. Chinese astronomers "used Middle Eastern astronomical tables to revise Chinese calendars and produce a new calendar for the Mongol rulership." [1]

[1]: Beatrice Forbes Manz, ‘The Rule of the Infidels: The Mongols and the Islamic World’, in David O. Morgan and Anthony Reid (eds), The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 3. The Eastern Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 155.


Information / Money

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Precious Metal:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Paper Currency:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Indigenous Coin:
absent

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Foreign Coin:
present

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Article:
present

[1]

[1]: (Kradin 2015, personal communication)


Information / Postal System
Postal Station:
present

"Qing generals also planned to build walled fortresses in the steppe at Khobdo, Ulan Gumu, and other places in Khalkha territory. Here, too, exiled criminals were set to work clearing land. Postal relay stations linked these military settlements to the interior." [1] Considering that postal stations were established by the previous Mongol Empire and are still attested by the time of the Qing conquest, we can infer that they were maintained during the Khalkha period.

[1]: (Perdue 2005, 232)



Courier:
present

present in Mongol Empire and Yuan Dynasty.


Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Military use of Metals

Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Copper:
present

long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Bronze:
present

long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region. [1] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [2]

[1]: (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.

[2]: (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for tension siege engines.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Sling Siege Engine:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for sling siege engines. "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [2]

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.

[2]: (Turnbull 2012, 33) Stephen Turnbull. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.




Javelin:
present
1400 CE

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for javelins so we are here suggesting some of the Late Mongol cavalry probably carried throwing spears to use in addition to their bow.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.

Javelin:
present
1500 CE

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for javelins so we are here suggesting some of the Late Mongol cavalry probably carried throwing spears to use in addition to their bow.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.

Javelin:
unknown
1600 CE

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for javelins so we are here suggesting some of the Late Mongol cavalry probably carried throwing spears to use in addition to their bow.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Handheld Firearm:
absent
1368 CE 1599 CE

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1] Firearms were known to the Khalkhas in the early 17th century: "Hearing about Sholoi from the Kyrgyz as the Altyn czar (Golden Emperor), Russian Cossacks made contact with him in 1616. Hoping for firearms and Russian assistance against the Oirats, Sholoi provisioned and guided the Russian envoys to China." [2]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)

[2]: (Atwood 2004, 310)

Handheld Firearm:
present
1600 CE 1690 CE

"Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [1] Firearms were known to the Khalkhas in the early 17th century: "Hearing about Sholoi from the Kyrgyz as the Altyn czar (Golden Emperor), Russian Cossacks made contact with him in 1616. Hoping for firearms and Russian assistance against the Oirats, Sholoi provisioned and guided the Russian envoys to China." [2]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 229)

[2]: (Atwood 2004, 310)


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
unknown

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for gunpowder siege artillery. Likely to be present but will code this as suspected unknown since the army referenced refers to cavalry and cannons are not highly mobile.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Crossbow:
present

Used the Mongolian Empire, and referenced in the 1709 Khalkhan law code: "The seven original articles cover supply of provisions for the “Gegeen” (the Jibzundamba Khutugtu), government messengers and nobility; premedi- tated murder; theft; marriage engagements, bridewealth, and dowries; fugitives and intruders; the prerogatives of the Gegeen; limitations on killing animals; death, bodily harm, or loss caused by noblemen’s “jokes”; lies; assaults; lost cattle or other things; injuries from mad dogs, mad people, or trip-wired crossbows; public drunkenness; desecrating graves; wolves; disputes over wells and camp- sites; Chinese and Russian merchants; military prepared- ness; hospitality; witnesses in criminal cases; and relations of parents and children." [1]

[1]: (Atwood 2004, 301)


Composite Bow:
present

"The first composite bow with bone reinforced ’ears’, a major development, may have been used around Lake Baikal, c.500 BC. Despite many individual external differences, across the steppe, and across time, the composite bow would remain essentially uniform in construction method." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 19)


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for war clubs. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use it as a secondary weapon.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Sword:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for swords. Presumably the Late Mongols when engaged in infantry combat used swords.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Spear:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for spears. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use the spear or lance as a weapon.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.



Dagger:
present

"Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [1]

[1]: (Karasulas 2004, 28)


Battle Axe:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for battle axe. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use it as a secondary weapon.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Shield:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.




Limb Protection:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.


Leather Cloth:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.



Helmet:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.



Breastplate:
present

The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn’t a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three ’left-flank’ tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had ’right-flank’ tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..." [1] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.

[1]: (Ishjamts 2003, 208-211) N Ishjamts. 2003. The Mongols. Chahryar Adle. Irfan Habib. Karl M Baipakov. eds. History Of Civilizations Of Central Asia. Volume V. Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO Publishing. Paris.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.