Home Region:  Afghanistan (Central and Northern Eurasia)

Ghur Principality

EQ 2020  af_ghur_principality / AfGhurd

The Ghurids were an Islamic Turkish dynasty that ruled the Persian Principality of Ghur between 1025-1215 CE. The peak of their power occurred with their defeat of the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 CE. For the majority of its existence the Ghurid rulers were in a state of vassalage of the Ghaznavids and the sultans of the Seljuk Turks, to whom they sent tribute. [1]
While "the early history of the Sansabani family had been full of feuds and disputes" the successful rebellion against the Ghaznavids resulted in a legacy of at least a degree of cooperation. [2] Bosworth (2012) talks of a polity with two power-bases: one at the newly-acquired Firuzkuh, at Gazna; the other at Bamian. [2]
When Mo’ezz-al-Din, conquered Gazna he took the title of sultan. [2] Government was based on the Persian model with a professional vizier who oversaw civil affairs. We also know of a treasurer (khazin), an overseer of public morality and inspector of the markets (muhtasib), and qadis who enforced the Shari’a law. [3]
Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids were Persian in style and literature was sponsored by Ghurid sultans. [1] One of the major cultural achievements of the Ghurid period was the building of the double-helical Minaret of Jam c1190 CE.

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[2]: (Bosworth 2012) Edmund C Bosworth. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[3]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.

General Variables
Identity and Location
Utm Zone:
43 S  
Original Name:
Principality of Ghur  
Capital:
Firuzkuh  
Alternative Name:
Ghurid Empire  
Sansabanis  
Gur  
Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,200 CE  
Duration:
[1,025 CE ➜ 1,215 CE]  
Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]  
none  
Degree of Centralization:
loose  
confederated state  
Language
Linguistic Family:
Indo-European  
Language:
Persian  
Religion
Religion Genus:
Islam  
Religion Family:
Sunni  
Religion:
Karrami  
Hanafi  
Shafii  
Alternate Religion:
NO_VALUE_ON_WIKI  
Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[60,000 to 80,000] km2 1150 CE
[900,000 to 1,100,000] km2 1175 CE
[1,600,000 to 1,700,000] km2 1200 CE
Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 4] 1200 CE
Religious Level:
1  
Military Level:
[3 to 5] 1200 CE
Administrative Level:
5 1200 CE
Professions
Professional Soldier:
inferred present 1200 CE
Professional Priesthood:
inferred present 1200 CE
Professional Military Officer:
inferred present 1200 CE
Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present  
Full Time Bureaucrat:
inferred present 1200 CE
Law
Professional Lawyer:
inferred present  
Judge:
present  
Formal Legal Code:
present  
Court:
inferred present  
Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present  
Irrigation System:
unknown  
Food Storage Site:
present  
Transport Infrastructure
Road:
unknown  
Port:
absent 1025 CE 1191 CE
present 1192 CE 1215 CE
Bridge:
present  
Special-purpose Sites
Mines or Quarry:
unknown  
Information / Writing System
Written Record:
present  
Script:
present  
Phonetic Alphabetic Writing:
present  
Nonwritten Record:
present  
Non Phonetic Writing:
absent  
Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
inferred present  
Sacred Text:
present  
Religious Literature:
present  
Practical Literature:
present  
Philosophy:
present  
Lists Tables and Classification:
present  
History:
present  
Fiction:
present  
Calendar:
present  
Information / Money
Precious Metal:
unknown  
Paper Currency:
unknown  
Indigenous Coin:
present  
Article:
unknown  
Information / Postal System
Courier:
unknown  
Information / Measurement System
Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications
  Wooden Palisade:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Non Mortared:
unknown  
  Stone Walls Mortared:
inferred present  
  Settlements in a Defensive Position:
inferred present  
  Modern Fortification:
absent  
  Moat:
inferred present  
  Fortified Camp:
unknown  
  Earth Rampart:
inferred present  
  Ditch:
inferred present  
  Complex Fortification:
inferred present  
  Long Wall:
absent  
Military use of Metals
  Steel:
present  
  Iron:
present  
  Copper:
inferred present  
  Bronze:
inferred present  
Projectiles
  Tension Siege Engine:
inferred present  
  Sling Siege Engine:
unknown  
  Sling:
unknown  
  Self Bow:
unknown  
  Javelin:
present  
  Handheld Firearm:
absent  
  Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent  
  Crossbow:
present  
  Composite Bow:
present  
  Atlatl:
absent  
Handheld weapons
  War Club:
inferred present  
  Sword:
present  
  Spear:
present  
  Polearm:
unknown  
  Dagger:
unknown  
  Battle Axe:
inferred present  
Animals used in warfare
  Horse:
present  
  Elephant:
inferred present  
  Donkey:
unknown  
  Dog:
inferred present  
  Camel:
inferred present  
Armor
  Wood Bark Etc:
inferred present  
  Shield:
present  
  Scaled Armor:
unknown  
  Plate Armor:
present  
  Limb Protection:
inferred present  
  Leather Cloth:
present  
  Laminar Armor:
unknown  
  Helmet:
inferred present  
  Chainmail:
present  
  Breastplate:
present  
Naval technology
  Specialized Military Vessel:
inferred absent  
  Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
inferred absent  
  Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
inferred absent  
Religion Tolerance Nothing coded yet.
Human Sacrifice Nothing coded yet.
Crisis Consequences Nothing coded yet.
Power Transitions Nothing coded yet.

NGA Settlements:

Year Range Ghur Principality (af_ghur_principality) was in:
 (1193 CE 1206 CE)   Kachi Plain
Home NGA: Kachi Plain

General Variables
Identity and Location

Original Name:
Principality of Ghur

"The principality of Ghur was a rugged mountainous country between Ghazni and Herat, dominated by the castle of Ferozkab or ’Hill of Victory’." [1]

[1]: (Nayak ????) Nayak, Ganeswar. ????. Political and Administrative History of Medieval India (1526-1707). SKCG College Paralakhemundi.


Capital:
Firuzkuh

"Firuzkuh was originally founded by Qotb-al-Din Mohammad as the seat of his appendage of Warsada, continued as the capital of ʿAlaʾ-al-Din Hosayn." [1] Firuzkuh described as "summer capital". Single period of occupation of 75 years. Destroyed by Mongols 1223 CE, so origin c1148 CE. [2]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[2]: Thomas, David. Firuzkuh: the summer capital of the Ghurids http://www.academia.edu/188837/Firuzkuh_the_summer_capital_of_the_Ghurids


Alternative Name:
Ghurid Empire

Sansabanis. [1] Gur. [1] Ghurid empire. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

Alternative Name:
Sansabanis

Sansabanis. [1] Gur. [1] Ghurid empire. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

Alternative Name:
Gur

Sansabanis. [1] Gur. [1] Ghurid empire. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Temporal Bounds
Peak Years:
1,200 CE

Under two brothers, one based in Firuzukh, the other in Gazna (c1163-1203 CE) "the Ghurid empire reached its greatest territorial extent and apogee of power". [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Duration:
[1,025 CE ➜ 1,215 CE]

Start: Early 11th CE
"The chiefs of Ḡūr only achieve firm historical mention in the early 5th/11th century with the Ghaznavid raids into their land, when Ḡūr was still a pagan enclave" [1]
End: 1215 CE
Shihab-ud-din Mahammad Ghori or Muhammad of Ghu was assassinated in 1206 CE "by some Shia rebels and the Hindu Khothars." [2]
"In Ḡazna, power was seized by the Turkish commander Taj-al-Din Yildiz (Ilduz), legitimized by Giat-al-Din’s grant to him of its governorship (602-11/1206-15). The last Ghurids were puppets of the Karazmsahs, until in 612/1215 ʿAlaʾ-al-Din Mohammad deposed the last sultan in Firuzkuh; the Bamian line was likewise suppressed; and Yildiz was driven out of Gazna." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[2]: (Nayak ????) Nayak, Ganeswar. ????. Political and Administrative History of Medieval India (1526-1707). SKCG College Paralakhemundi.


Political and Cultural Relations
Suprapolity Relations:
vassalage to [---]

"In the early 11th CE Ghaznavids introduced Islam and brought Gur into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans." [1]
Then in 1118 CE Seljuks chose their own ruler for Gazna. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

Suprapolity Relations:
none

"In the early 11th CE Ghaznavids introduced Islam and brought Gur into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans." [1]
Then in 1118 CE Seljuks chose their own ruler for Gazna. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Degree of Centralization:
loose

Late 12th CE Bosworth talks of branches: one based at Firuzkuh, at Gazna (after it was taken from the Turks) which was a base for attacking India, and Bamian which was a base for attacks into Central Asia. [1]
"Although the earlier history of the Sansabani family had been full of feuds and disputes, the brothers maintained a partnership, with mutual amity and a division of spheres of activity and influence." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

Degree of Centralization:
confederated state

Late 12th CE Bosworth talks of branches: one based at Firuzkuh, at Gazna (after it was taken from the Turks) which was a base for attacking India, and Bamian which was a base for attacks into Central Asia. [1]
"Although the earlier history of the Sansabani family had been full of feuds and disputes, the brothers maintained a partnership, with mutual amity and a division of spheres of activity and influence." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Language

Language:
Persian

Persian literature. [1] Claims of Ghurid poetry in Pashto unsubstantiated. [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids



Social Complexity Variables
Social Scale
Polity Territory:
[60,000 to 80,000] km2
1150 CE

in squared kilometers
[60,000-80,000]: 1150 CE; [900,000-1,100,000]: 1175 CE; [1,600,000-1,700,000]: 1200 CE.

Polity Territory:
[900,000 to 1,100,000] km2
1175 CE

in squared kilometers
[60,000-80,000]: 1150 CE; [900,000-1,100,000]: 1175 CE; [1,600,000-1,700,000]: 1200 CE.

Polity Territory:
[1,600,000 to 1,700,000] km2
1200 CE

in squared kilometers
[60,000-80,000]: 1150 CE; [900,000-1,100,000]: 1175 CE; [1,600,000-1,700,000]: 1200 CE.


Hierarchical Complexity
Settlement Hierarchy:
[2 to 4]
1200 CE

levels.
1. Capital
Firuzkuh described as "summer capital". Single period of occupation of 75 years. Destroyed by Mongols 1223 CE, so origin c1148 CE. [1] 2. City3. towns4. villages

[1]: Thomas, David. Firuzkuh: the summer capital of the Ghurids http://www.academia.edu/188837/Firuzkuh_the_summer_capital_of_the_Ghurids


Religious Level:
1

levels.
Islam has no true hierarchy.


Military Level:
[3 to 5]
1200 CE

levels.
1. Sultan

1. The rank that Qutab-ud-din Albak had -- same rank?
When Muhammad Ghori was fighting the Turks in Central Asia c1200 CE, the expansion in India was continued by Qutab-ud-din Albak. [1]
2. CommanderThere was a commander under Qutab-ud-din Albak who attacked Bihar in 1197 CE. [1]
3. Officer?4. Officer5. Individual soldier

[1]: (Nayak ????) Nayak, Ganeswar. ????. Political and Administrative History of Medieval India (1526-1707). SKCG College Paralakhemundi.


Administrative Level:
5
1200 CE

levels.
c1050 CE
"The Sansabanis were only one amongst several chieftains at this time, and topographical gleanings from Bayhaqi (pp. 114-20), plus various details from Juzjani, show that they were petty rulers of the district of Mandes on the upper Harirud near modern Ahangaran." [1]
"a family of petty chiefs from a backward region" [1]
c1100 CE
Firuzkuh described as "summer capital". Single period of occupation of 75 years. Destroyed by Mongols 1223 CE, so origin c1148 CE. [2]
"Moḥammad’s son, Hasan, was the first Sansabani known to have an honorific title, namely Qotb-al-Din, but the history of the Ghurid dynasty, as it may now be fittingly styled, only becomes reasonably well known with the accession of ʿEzz-al-Din Hosayn b. Ḥasan (493-540/1100-46)." [1]
Ruler of 1146 CE "shared out his lands with his brothers on the basis of Guri tribal and patrimonial practice" [1]
c1149-1161 CE ʿAlaʾ-al-Din Hosayn: "Not content with being a mere malek or amir, according to Ebn al-Atir (Beirut, XI, p. 166), he now styled himself, after the Saljuqs and Ghaznavids, al-soltan al-moʿazzam and adopted the catr (q.v.) or ceremonial parasol as one of the insignia of royalty" [1]
c1150 CE produced coins and determined their designation [1] so must have had mints and control over currency.
c1200 CE
Late 12th CE Bosworth talks of branches: one based at Firuzkuh which raided west into Khorasan, at Gazna (after it was taken from the Turks) which was a base for attacking India, and Bamian which was a base for attacks into Central Asia. [1]
"Although the earlier history of the Sansabani family had been full of feuds and disputes, the brothers maintained a partnership, with mutual amity and a division of spheres of activity and influence." [1]
1. Sultan at Gazna
Moʿezz-al-Dīn, installed at Gazna since 569/1173-74 with the title also of sultan" [1]
1. Sultan? at Firuzukh

1. ? at Bamian

_Court governments_
Sophisticated enough at Firuzukh to build Minaret of Jam c1190 CE. Perhaps based on Persian/Central Asian models at this time.
"As far as we can tell from the exiguous material in our sources, the hierarchy of Ghurid officials at Firuzkuh and Ghazna did not differ appreciably in its outlines from those maintained by other eastern Islamic dynasties. The wazir (’minister’), as elsewhere, headed the civil administration at Ghazna; we also read of the treasurer (khazin) and the overseer of public morality/inspector of the markets (muhtasib). The appointment of judges (quddat, sing. qadi) who enforced the religious law, the Shari’a, was also in the Sultan’s hands." [3]
2. Vizar
3. Divans (departments)4. Mint5. Mint worker
_Provincial government_

2. Vassals"In the west, Giat-al-Din, often in concert with his brother, extended his suzerainty over the maleks of Nimruz or Sistan and even over the Kerman branch of the Saljuqs." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[2]: Thomas, David. Firuzkuh: the summer capital of the Ghurids http://www.academia.edu/188837/Firuzkuh_the_summer_capital_of_the_Ghurids

[3]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Jackson, Peter. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.


Professions
Professional Soldier:
present
1200 CE

Full-time specialists


Professional Priesthood:
present
1200 CE

Full-time specialists


Professional Military Officer:
present
1200 CE

Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy Characteristics
Specialized Government Building:
present

c1150 CE produced coins and determined their designation [1] so must have had mints and control over currency.

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Full Time Bureaucrat:
present
1200 CE

Law
Professional Lawyer:
present

not entire period. need to timestamp


not entire period. need to timestamp
"The appointment of judges (quddat, sing. qadi) who enforced the religious law, the Shari’a, was also in the Sultan’s hands." [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Jackson, Peter. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.


Formal Legal Code:
present

not entire period. need to timestamp
"The appointment of judges (quddat, sing. qadi) who enforced the religious law, the Shari’a, was also in the Sultan’s hands." [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Jackson, Peter. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.


Court:
present

not entire period. need to timestamp
"The appointment of judges (quddat, sing. qadi) who enforced the religious law, the Shari’a, was also in the Sultan’s hands." [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Jackson, Peter. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.


Specialized Buildings: polity owned
Market:
present

"the overseer of public morality/inspector of the markets (muhtasib)." [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 25) Jackson, Peter. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press.



Food Storage Site:
present

"Moʿezz-al-Dīn required forced sales and confiscated for his army grain which had been stored in the shrine of the Imam ʿAli al-Reza at Mashad-e Tus." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Transport Infrastructure

Port:
absent
1025 CE 1191 CE
Port:
present
1192 CE 1215 CE

Bridge:
present

Baked-brick bridge. [1]

[1]: Thomas, David. Firuzkuh: the summer capital of the Ghurids http://www.academia.edu/188837/Firuzkuh_the_summer_capital_of_the_Ghurids


Special-purpose Sites

Information / Writing System





Information / Kinds of Written Documents
Scientific Literature:
present

Minaret of Jam contains mathematics of double helix.



Religious Literature:
present

"Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids likewise followed on from those of the Ghaznavids. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan" [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Practical Literature:
present

"Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids likewise followed on from those of the Ghaznavids. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan" [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Philosophy:
present

"Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids likewise followed on from those of the Ghaznavids. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan" [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids



History:
present

"Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids likewise followed on from those of the Ghaznavids. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan" [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Fiction:
present

"Literary and artistic activities under the Ghurids likewise followed on from those of the Ghaznavids. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan, and latterly fulfilled a valuable role as transmitters of this heritage to the newly conquered lands of northern India, laying the foundations for the essentially Persian culture which was to prevail in Muslim India until the 19th century." [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids



Information / Money


Indigenous Coin:
present

[1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids



Information / Postal System

Information / Measurement System

Warfare Variables (Military Technologies)
Fortifications


Stone Walls Mortared:
present

"Malik ’Abbas built numerous fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress and city of Firuzkuh. Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view. A castle constructed at Wadawajzd by Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was so impregnable that it survived the onslaught of the Mongols." [1]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Settlements in a Defensive Position:
present

"Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view." [1]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.



"Malik ’Abbas built numerous fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress and city of Firuzkuh. Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view. A castle constructed at Wadawajzd by Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was so impregnable that it survived the onslaught of the Mongols." [1] Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE. [2]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.

[2]: (Singh 2008, 394) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.



Earth Rampart:
present

"Malik ’Abbas built numerous fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress and city of Firuzkuh. Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view. A castle constructed at Wadawajzd by Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was so impregnable that it survived the onslaught of the Mongols." [1] Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India. [2]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.

[2]: (Singh 2008, 336) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.


Ditch:
present

"Malik ’Abbas built numerous fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress and city of Firuzkuh. Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view. A castle constructed at Wadawajzd by Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was so impregnable that it survived the onslaught of the Mongols." [1]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Complex Fortification:
present

"Malik ’Abbas built numerous fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress-like villages in Ghur. Qutb al-Din Muhammad founded the fortress and city of Firuzkuh. Basha al-Din Sam erected strong fortresses in Ghur, the Garmsir, Gharchistan and Herat, keeping strategic needs in view. A castle constructed at Wadawajzd by Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was so impregnable that it survived the onslaught of the Mongols." [1]

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 189) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.



Military use of Metals

"Ghur had long been renowned for its metal deposits and its manufacture of weapons and coats of mail". [1] "According to Togan, the entire mountain region from Ghur and Kabul to the land of the Karluk was metal-working. It exported armour, weapons and war equipment to neighbouring areas." [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 15-16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


"Ghur had long been renowned for its metal deposits and its manufacture of weapons and coats of mail". [1] "According to Togan, the entire mountain region from Ghur and Kabul to the land of the Karluk was metal-working. It exported armour, weapons and war equipment to neighbouring areas." [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 15-16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Copper:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Bronze:
present

Inferred from the presence of higher metals.


Projectiles
Tension Siege Engine:
present

"The use of the catapult after the Arab conquest of Sindh became very popular." [1]

[1]: (1975, 23) 1975. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Volume 12. Research Society of Pakistan.


Sling Siege Engine:
unknown

Likely. Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: "an array of missiles, ’fire-eyed rockets’, slinging and stoning machines which were used in siege operations." [1]

[1]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.




Javelin:
present

At least early on the Ghurid dynasty used javelin-armed infantry. [1]

[1]: (Nicolle 1999, 267) David Nicolle. 1999. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350: Islam, Eastern Europe and Asia. Greenhill Books.


Handheld Firearm:
absent

"But it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Gunpowder Siege Artillery:
absent

"But it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army." [1]

[1]: (Eraly 2015) Abraham Eraly. 2015. The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin.


Crossbow:
present

"Hasan-i Nizami, in describing the campaigns of Mu’izz al-Din and Aybeg, refers with remarkable frequency to the Muslims’ use of the crossbow (nawak) and makes great play of the armour-piecing properties of the crossbow bolt." [1]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Composite Bow:
present

"in Juzjani’s Tabaqat-i Nasiri and obtained from an eye-witness ... light-armed cavalry (sawar-i baraha wa-jarida)... These are clearly shown a few lines later to have been mounted archers". [1] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: infantry "carried bows, maces, short swords and spears". [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


New World weapon.


Handheld weapons
War Club:
present

"in Juzjani’s Tabaqat-i Nasiri and obtained from an eye-witness ... light-armed cavalry (sawar-i baraha wa-jarida)... These are clearly shown a few lines later to have been mounted archers". [1] Could also be armed with war clubs? Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: "scattered but substantial evidence ... cavalry wielded, in addition to bows and arrows, weapons such as battle-axes, maces, lances, spears, sabres, and long, curved swords (qalachurs), while whatever (non-Turkish) infantry there was carried bows, maces, short swords and spears". [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


"in Juzjani’s Tabaqat-i Nasiri and obtained from an eye-witness ... light-armed cavalry (sawar-i baraha wa-jarida)... These are clearly shown a few lines later to have been mounted archers". [1] Could also be armed with swords? Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: "scattered but substantial evidence ... cavalry wielded, in addition to bows and arrows, weapons such as battle-axes, maces, lances, spears, sabres, and long, curved swords (qalachurs), while whatever (non-Turkish) infantry there was carried bows, maces, short swords and spears". [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


"it seems plain that the Ghurid forces at Tara’in were in large measure made up of heavy cavalry ... immortalized on the early Muslim coinage of Bengal as the very symbol of Muslim domination." [1] "bar-gustuwan horsemen". [2] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: "scattered but substantial evidence ... cavalry wielded, in addition to bows and arrows, weapons such as battle-axes, maces, lances, spears, sabres, and long, curved swords (qalachurs), while whatever (non-Turkish) infantry there was carried bows, maces, short swords and spears". [3]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Jackson 2003, 17 n52) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.




Battle Axe:
present

Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: "scattered but substantial evidence ... cavalry wielded, in addition to bows and arrows, weapons such as battle-axes, maces, lances, spears, sabres, and long, curved swords (qalachurs), while whatever (non-Turkish) infantry there was carried bows, maces, short swords and spears". [1]

[1]: (Wink 1997, 90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Animals used in warfare

"The damage inflicted by the mounted archers of the Ghurid light cavalry was considerable, whereas Indian armies had few men accomplished enough to wield a bow while riding, according to the recent work of Andre Wink." [1]

[1]: (Asher and Talbot 2006, 28) Catherine B Asher. Cynthia Talbot. 2006. India Before Europe. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.


Elephant:
present

According to Andre Wink, Indian armies used frontal attacks lead by war elephants. The Ghurids used the attack-retreat tactics of Central Asian nomadic cavalry archers. [1] However, did the Ghurids also use war elephants, such as once established? Inferred that they did. The Ghaznavids, another Turkish-Islamic dynasty in Central Asia 977-1186 CE, used elephants and camels. [2]

[1]: (Asher and Talbot 2006, 28) Catherine B Asher. Cynthia Talbot. 2006. India Before Europe. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Bloom and Blair eds. 2009, 108) Johnathan M Bloom. Sheila S Blair. eds. 2009. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Volume I. Abarquh To Dawlat Qatar. Oxford University Press. Oxford.



Sent a breed of fierce dogs as part of their tribute to the Seljuks [1]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids


Camel:
present

Ghaznavids, another Turkish-Islamic dynasty in Central Asia 977-1186 CE, used elephants and camels. [1]

[1]: (Bloom and Blair eds. 2009, 108) Johnathan M Bloom. Sheila S Blair. eds. 2009. Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Volume I. Abarquh To Dawlat Qatar. Oxford University Press. Oxford.


Armor
Wood Bark Etc:
present

Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: leather-covered or metal shields. [1] Did the leather-covered shield have a wooden frame?

[1]: (Wink 1997, 89-90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Shield:
present

"Ghur had long been renowned for its metal deposits and its manufacture of weapons and coats of mail". [1] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: leather-covered or metal shields. [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 15-16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 89-90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.



Plate Armor:
present

Horse armour (bar-gustuwan). [1] Exported cuirasses. [2] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: heavy armour. [3]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 89-90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Limb Protection:
present

"According to Togan, the entire mountain region from Ghur and Kabul to the land of the Karluk was metal-working. It exported armour, weapons and war equipment to neighbouring areas." [1] The armour of the heavy cavalry presumably included limb protection.

[1]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Leather Cloth:
present

Horse armour (bar-gustuwan). [1] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: leather-covered or metal shields. [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 17) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Wink 1997, 89-90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.



Helmet:
present

"Ghur had long been renowned for its metal deposits and its manufacture of weapons and coats of mail". [1] "According to Togan, the entire mountain region from Ghur and Kabul to the land of the Karluk was metal-working. It exported armour, weapons and war equipment to neighbouring areas." [2] The armour of the heavy cavalry presumably included the helmet.

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 15-16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Chainmail:
present

Sent mailcoats as part of their tribute to the Seljuks. [1] "Ghur had long been renowned for its metal deposits and its manufacture of weapons and coats of mail". [2] Ghaznavid and Ghurid armies: coats of mail. [3]

[1]: (Bosworth 2012) Bosworth, Edmund C. 2012. GHURIDS. Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghurids

[2]: (Jackson 2003, 15-16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[3]: (Wink 1997, 89-90) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind the Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.


Breastplate:
present

"Hasan-i Nizami, in describing the campaigns of Mu’izz al-Din and Aybeg, refers with remarkable frequency to the Muslims’ use of the crossbow (nawak) and makes great play of the armour-piecing properties of the crossbow bolt." [1] Exported cuirasses. [2]

[1]: (Jackson 2003, 16) Peter Jackson. 2003. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

[2]: (Nizami 1999, 178) K A Nizami. The Ghurids. M S Asimov. C E Bosworth. eds. 1999. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV. Part One. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.


Naval technology
Specialized Military Vessel:
absent

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


Small Vessels Canoes Etc:
absent

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.


Merchant Ships Pressed Into Service:
absent

"The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy." [1]

[1]: (Roy 2015, 9) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.



Human Sacrifice Data
Human Sacrifice is the deliberate and ritualized killing of a person to please or placate supernatural entities (including gods, spirits, and ancestors) or gain other supernatural benefits.
- Nothing coded yet.
- Nothing coded yet.